U.S. Army Medical Department, Office of Medical History
Skip Navigation, go to content

ACCESS TO CARE External Link, Opens in New Window

HISTORY OF THE OFFICE OF MEDICAL HISTORYPDF document

ANC HISTORY

AMEDD BIOGRAPHIES

AMEDD CORPS HISTORY

BOOKS AND DOCUMENTS

HISTORICAL ART WORK & IMAGES

MEDICAL MEMOIRS

AMEDD MEDAL OF HONOR RECIPIENTS

ORGANIZATIONAL HISTORIES

THE SURGEONS GENERAL

ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE SURGEON GENERAL

AMEDD UNIT PATCHES AND LINEAGE

THE AMEDD HISTORIAN NEWSLETTER

Contents

Books and Documents

THE ARMY MEDICAL DEPARTMENT
1775-1818

Mary C. Gillett

ARMY HISTORICAL SERIES
Maurice Matloff, General Editor

ADVISORY COMMITTEE
(as of February 1979)

Otis A. Singletary (Chairman)
University of Kentucky

Maj. Gen. Robert C. Hixon
Training and Doctrine Command

Brig. Gen. Robert Arter 
Command and General Staff College

Sara D. Jackson
National Historical Publications and Records Commission

Harry L. Coles
Ohio State University

Maj. Gen. Enrique Mendez, Jr.
Office of The Surgeon General

Robert H. Ferrell
Indiana University

James E. O'Neill
Deputy Archivist of the United States

Cyrus H. Fraker
Office of The Adjutant General

Benjamin Quarles
Morgan State College

William H. Goetzmann
University of Texas

Brig. Gen. Alfred L. Sanderson
Army War College

Col. Thomas E. Griess
U.S. Military Academy

Russell F. Weigley
Temple University

 U.S. ARMY CENTER OF MILITARY HISTORY
Brig. Gen. James L. Collins, Jr., Chief of Military History

Maurice Matloff
Chief Historian

Col. William F. Strobridge
Chief, Historical Services Division

Col. James W. Dunn
Chief, Histories Division

Col. Earl L. Ziebell
Chief, Editorial/Cartographic Division

James E. McSherry
Editor in Chief

    Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

    Gillett, M. C.
         The Army Medical Department, 1775-1818.

         (United States Army historical series)
         Bibliography: p.
         Includes index.
         1. United States. Army Medical Dept.-History. 2. Medicine,
    Military-United States-History. 3. United States-History-
    Revolution-1775-1783-Medical and sanitary affairs. 4. United States-
    History-War of 1812-Medical and sanitary affairs. I. Title.
    II. Series. [DNLM: 1. Military medicine-History-United States.
    UH223 G479a]
    UH223.G54          355.3'45'0973          80-12502

First printing 1981
For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402


Contents

Foreword

Preface

1  The State the Art

    Medicine
    Surgery
    Medical Education and Experience

2  Evolution of the Continental Army Medical Department

    Creation of the Hospital Department: Church as Director General
    Morgan as Director General, 1775 to 1777
    New Arrangements for the Hospital Department
    Shippen's Controversial Administration
    The Hospital Department Under Cochran

3  From Siege to Retreat, 1775 to May 1777

    The Boston Area, 1775 to 1776
    The Northern Department
    New York and New Jersey, 1776 to 1777
    Hospitals in New York State and New England After the Evacuation of New York City

4  Year of Despair and Hope, June 1777 to June 1778

    The Middle Department
    The Northern Department
    The Eastern Department

5  From Defeat to Victory, June 1778 to 1783

    North of the Potomac: Before the Victory at Yorktown
    South of the Potomac: Before the Victory at Yorktown
    After the Victory at Yorktown

6  Between Wars, 1783 to June 1812

    Continental Army Patients Remaining in Hospitals
    Campaigns Against the Indians
    Forts and Their Garrisons
    Wilkinson in the Louisiana Territory, 1809
    Management of Supplies

7  Administration of Medical Support, June 1812 to January 1815

    Opening Months of the War of 1812
    Work of the Medical Department

8  Early Campaigns in the North, 1812 to1813

    Season of 1812
    Season of 1813

9  Defeat and Final Victory, 1814 to 1815

    Campaign in the North
    Campaign in the South

10  The Lessons of War, 1815 to 1818

    Indecision and Decision, March 1815 to April 1818
    The State of the Art

Appendixes

A - Some Influential Doctors in the Continental Hospital Department, 1775 to 1783
B - Law of 27 July 1775
C - Law of 17 July 1776
D - Law of 7-8 April 1777
E - Law of 6 February 1778
F - Law of 30 September 1780
G - Hospitals Serving Washington's Army
H - An Act to Regulate the Medical Establishment, 2 March 1799
I - Legislation Concerning the U.S. Army Medical Department
J - Duties of Members of the Medical Department, 1814
K - Legislation Affecting the Army Medical Department, March 1815 to April 1818

Notes

Bibliography

    Maps

1    Boston Area, 1775-1776
2    The Northern Department, 1775-1777
3    Continental Army Hospital Locations, 1776-1777
4    Continental Army Hospital Locations, June 1777-June 1778
5    Northern and Eastern Departments, 1777-1778
6    Hospital Locations, 1778-1783
7    Sullivan Expedition, 1779
8    The Southern Theater, 1778-1783
9    Northwest Territory, 1783-1811
10  War in the North, 1812-1814
11  Niagara Frontier, 1812-1814
12  The Southern Frontier, 1812-1814

Illustrations

Hermann Boerhaave
William Cullen
Sir John Pringle
Richard Brocklesby
Gerhard van Swieten
John Hunter
Hales's Sketches of Plans for Ventilators
John Jones
Act Creating Hospital Department
Benjamin Church
Surgeon's Field Case
William Shippen, Jr.
John Cochran
John Warren
Charles McKnight
Return Signed by Charles McKnight
Return of the Sick of the Hospital at Fort George
James McHenry
Brethren's House at Bethlehem
William Eustis
Brothers' House at Ephrata
James Thacher
Hospital Hut Designed by Dr. James Tilton
Robinson's House
David Oliphant
Thomas Tudor Tucker
William Read
James McClurg
College of William and Mary: Wren Building
Richard Allison
Fort Defiance
"Estimate of Medicine, Hospital Stores, etc. for Eighty Men [for] One Year"
James Tilton
Benjamin Waterhouse
William Beaumont
Joseph Lovell
Fort Niagara
"Soldiers Who Died at the Genl. Hospital Greenbush Together With Their Effects"
New Orleans in 1815
Statement on Hospital Supplies Sent From New York

Tables

1   Authority Within the Continental Army's Medical Services, 1775-83
2   Hospital Department Units in the Boston Area With the Status of Patients During Week Preceding 2 December 1775
3   Hospital Department Units in the Boston Area With the Status of Patients During Week Preceding 16 December 1775
4   Mortality, 16 December 1775-30 March 1776
5   Patients in Hospital Department Units, New York City Area, April-June 1776
6   Middle Department Hospital Patients, 24 November 1777
7   Organization of Medical Support of the Regular Army, 1784-1813
8   Pay and Allowances for the Staff of the Medical Department, May 1813
9   Admissions and Deaths at the Burlington General Hospital, January 1814-April 1815