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References

Table of Contents

REFERENCES

1. Dunham, George C.: Military Preventive Medicine. 3d edition. Medical Field Service School, Carlisle Barracks, Pa., 1938, pp. 9-118.

2. (1) Garrison, Fielding H.: Notes on the History of Military Medicine. Washington, D.C.: Association of Military Surgeons, 1922. Reprinted from Mil. Surgeon, 1921-1922; vols. 49-51; in a series of installments.
    (2) Since Garrison's book was published 45 years ago, no similar comprehensive work on military medicine has appeared. During this period, however, a large number of articles and books dealing with military medicine, including military hygiene, in various wars, have been published.

3. Winslow, C.-E. A.: The Colonial Era and the First Years of the Republic (1607-1799) - The Pestilence That Walketh in Darkness. In The History of American Epidemiology, by C.-E. A. Winslow, Wilson G. Smillie, James A. Doull, and John E. Gordon, edited by Franklin H. Top. St. Louis: C. V. Mosby Co., 1952, pp. 11-51.

4. Bush, Vannevar: Endless Horizons. Washington: Public Affairs Press, 1946, p. 1.

5. Blake, John B.: Public Health in the Town of Boston, 1630-1822. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1959, preface, p. ix.

6. Hoff, J. van R.: Rèsumè of the History of the Medical Department of the United States Army, From 1775 to the Beginning of the Spanish-American War. J. Assoc. Mil. Surgeons of the U.S. [Mil. Surgeon] 10: 347-398, 1901-1902.

7. A partial list of the names of these colonial wars with the corresponding European wars designated in parentheses follows: King William's War, 1689-1697, (War of the Grand Alliance); Queen Anne's War, 1701-1714, (War of the Spanish Succession); King George's War, 1740-1748, (War of the Austrian Succession); French and Indian War, 1754-1763, (American Phase of the Seven Years' War).

8. Duncan, L. C.: Medical Men in the American Revolution, 1775-1783. Army M. Bull. No. 25. Medical Field Service School, Carlisle Barracks, Pa., 1931, p. 29.

9. Hindle, Brooke: The Pursuit of Science in Revolutionary America, 1735-1789. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1956, p. 110.


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10. McDaniel, W. B. II: A Brief Sketch of the Rise of American Medical Societies. In History of American Medicine-A Symposium. MD International Symposia No. 5, edited by Felix MartíIbáñez, M.D. New York: M.D. Publications, Inc., 1959, p. 135. The Symposium on the History of Medicine, in three parts, is also published in Internat. Rec. Med. 171 (6, 7, and 8): 317-532, June, July, and August 1958. W. B. McDaniel's article is published in the August issue, pp. 483-491.

11. Bayne-Jones, Stanhope: Enemy Prisoners of War. In Medical Department, United States Army. Preventive Medicine in World War II. Volume IX. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, Chap. VI. [In preparation.]

12. (1) Pringle, Sir John, Bart.: Observations on the Diseases of the Army, in Camp and Garrison. In three parts, with an appendix, containing some papers of experiments, read at several meetings of the Royal Society. London: A. Millar, D. Wilson, and T. Payne, 1752.
     (2) The first part deals with diseases and sanitation in camps, on marches, and in campaigns. The second part, entitled "Observations on the Malignant Fever of the Hospital," was first printed separately 2 years previously as "Observations Upon the Nature and Cure of Hospital and Jayl-Fevers. In a letter to Dr. Mead." London: A. Millar, and D. Wilson, 1750. The appendix contains an account of "Experiments and Observations Upon Septic and Antiseptic Substances." Read at several meetings of the Royal Society.
    (3) This book was very popular. It went through several editions rapidly; the 7th edition appeared in 1774. An American edition was issued by Benjamin Rush in 1810. For further information, see reference 53.

13. (1) Comrie, John D.: History of Scottish Medicine. 2d edition, 2 vols. London: Baillière, Tindall & Cox, 1932, Vol. I, p. 317.
     (2) Quotation reprinted in Parker, H. S.: Supervised Drinking. Army, December 1960, p. 26.
     (3) Later, in 1755, Home suggested and tested a method for the prevention of measles by inoculation. The results were equivocal, but the idea was advanced. Credit has been given to him by Dr. John F. Enders, in Vaccination Against Measles: Francis Home Redivivus. Yale J. Biol. & Med. 34: 239-242, 1961-62, Nos. 3-4, Dec.-Feb.

14. (1) Lind, James: A Treatise of the Scurvy: In Three Parts. Containing an Inquiry Into the Nature, Causes, and Cure, of That Disease; Together With a Critical and Chronological View of What Has Been Published on the Subject. Edinburgh: Sands, Murray, and Cochran, 1753.
     (2) Stewart, C. P., and Guthrie, Douglas (editors): Lind's Treatise on Scurvy; a Bicentenary Volume Containing a Reprint


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of the First Edition of the Scurvy by James Lind, M.D., With Additional Notes. Edinburgh: University Press, 1953.

15. Pringle, John: An Account of Several Persons Seized With Gaol Fever, Working in Newgate; and the Manner in Which the Infection Was Communicated to One Entire Family. The Pennsylvania Gazette, No. 1398, 4 Sept. 1755.

16. (1) Letter, Benjamin Franklin, to Benjamin Rush, 14 June 1773.
      (2) Franklin, Benjamin: An Account of the New Invented Pennsylvanian Fire-Places. Philadelphia: B. Franklin, 1744. Quoted by Diller, reference 16 (3): 56-57.
      (3) Diller, Theodore: Franklin's Contribution to Medicine. Brooklyn: Albert T. Huntington, 1912, see pp. 15, 20, 26, 49, and 57.

17. See reference 12 (1), preface, p. ix, in the cited volume.

18. (1) [Swieten, Gerhard, freiherr van]: Kurze Beschreibung und Heilungsart der Krankheiten welche am öftesten in dem Feldlager beobachtet werden. Vienna: J. T. Trattnern, 1758.
     (2) ---: A Short Account of the Most Common Diseases Incident to Armies. With the Method of Cure. English translation of the (German edition of 1758 listed above) original of Baron van Swieten. London: T. Becket and P. A. De Hondt, 1762; and 2d edition, 1767.

19. Brocklesby, Richard (1722-1797): Oeconomical and Medical Observations, in Two Parts, From the Year 1758 to theYear 1763, Inclusive. Tending to the Improvement of Military Hospitals, and to the Cure of Camp Diseases, Incident to Soldiers; to Which is Subjoined, an Appendix, Containing a Curious Account of the Climate and Diseases in Africa, Upon the Great River Senegal, and Farther Up Than the Island of Senegal. In a letter from Mr. Boone, Practitioner in Physic to That Garrison for 3 Years, to Dr. Brocklesby. London: T. Becket, and P. A. De Hondt, 1764.

20. Monro, Donald (1727-1802): An Account of the Diseases Which Were Most Frequent in the British Military Hospitals in Germany, From January 1761 to the Return of the Troops to England in March 1763. To which is added, An Essay on the Means of Preserving the Health of Soldiers, and Conducting Military Hospitals. London: A. Millar, D. Wilson, T. Durham, and T. Payne, 1764, pp. xv, 349.

21. Fitz, Reginald H.: Zabdiel Boylston, Inoculator, and the Epidemic of Smallpox in Boston in 1721. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 22: 315-327, 1911.

22. See reference 5, chap. IV, pp. 52-75, "The Inoculation Controversy, 1721-1722," in the cited volume.

23. Beall, Otho T., Jr., and Shryock, Richard H.: Cotton Mather: First Significant Figure in American Medicine. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1954. See esp. chap. VII, pp. 93-123, "The


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Advent of Preventive Medicine: Boston, 1721," and chap. VIII, pp. 123-126, "Conclusions: Mather's Place in Medicine."

24. (1) Mather, Cotton: The Angel of Bethesda. An Essay Upon the Common Maladies of Mankind. Manuscript written in the period 1720-1724. The original manuscript is in the possession of the American Antiquarian Society, at Worcester, Mass. A transcription of it, typed, made by Worthington C. Ford about 1911, is also in the library of that Society. In addition to numerous distributed quotations, a considerable portion of the text, taken from this transcription, is reproduced in chap. VIII, pp. 127-234, "Selected Sections From 'The Angel,'" in Cotton Mather, by Beall and Shryock. See reference 23. A lively and interesting account of Mather and this work will be found in the following reference.
    (2) Thayer, W. S.: Cotton Mather's Rules of Health. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 16 (174): 293-300, September 1905.

25. Marten, Benjamin: A New Theory of Consumptions: More Especially of a PHTHISIS, or Consumption of the Lungs. London: R. Knaplock, 1720, esp. p. 51.

26. Mather, Cotton: An Account of the Method and Success of Inoculating the Small-Pox, in Boston in New-England. London: J. Peele, 1722. This pamphlet, "a letter from a gentleman there, to his friend in London," though unsigned has proved to be Mather's. It is dated at the end "Boston, in New England, Sept. 7, 1721."

27. (1) See reference 23, esp. pp. 107-108 in the cited volume.
      (2) Shryock, Richard Harrison: The Development of Modern Medicine: An Interpretation of the Social and Scientific Factors Involved. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, Inc., 1947, pp. 136-137.
      (3) Kittredge, George Lyman: Cotton Mather's Scientific Communications to the Royal Society. Reprinted from the Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, for April 1916, Worcester, Mass., n.s. 26: 18-57, 1916.

28. Kagan, Solomon R.: Life and Letters of Fielding H. Garrison. Boston: The Medico-Historical Press, 1938, p. 93.

29. Duffy, John: Epidemics in Colonial America. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1953.

30. Smillie, Wilson G.: Public Health: Its Promise for the Future: A Chronicle of the Development of Public Health in the United States, 1607-1914. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1955.

31. Caulfield, Ernest: A True History of the Terrible Epidemic Vulgarly Called the Throat Distemper Which Occurred in His Majesty's New England Colonies Between the Years 1735 and 1740. Yale J. Biol. & Med. 11: 219-272; 277-335, 1939. Published also in a separate volume for the Beaumont Medical Club by the Yale Journal of Biology & Medicine, New Haven, Conn., 1939.

32. Thatcher, Thomas (1620-1678): A Brief Rule to Guide the Common-People of New-England How to Order Themselves and


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Theirs in the Small Pocks, or Measels. Boston: John Foster, 1677-78. First printed as a broadside in 1677-78, reprinted, pamphlet, in 1702 and 1721-22. Facsimile Reproductions of the Three Known Editions, With an Introductory Note by Henry R. Viets, M.D., in Publications of the Institute of the History of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University, Ser. 4, Bibliotheca Medica Americana, I. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1937. This is the earliest medical document printed in America, north of Mexico.

33. See reference 30, esp. p. 79 in the cited volume.

34. Tandy, E. C.: The Regulation of Nuisances in the American Colonies. Am. J. Pub. Health 13 (10): 810-813, October 1923.

35. Morgan, John (1735-1789): A Discourse Upon the Institution of Medical Schools in America. Philadelphia: William Bradford, 1765. Reprinted facsimile from the first edition - with an introduction by Abraham Flexner. In Publications of the Institute of the History of Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University, Ser. 4, Bibliotheca Medica Americana, II. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1937.

36. (1) Toner, Joseph M. (1825-1896): Contributions to the Annals of Medical Progress and Medical Education in the United States Before and During the War of Independence. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1874, pp. 105-106.
     (2) Letter, Howard Lewis Applegate, to S. Bayne-Jones, June 24, 1961, relative to his doctoral thesis entitled "Medicine and Health in the American Revolutionary Army," manuscript of which is deposited in the Library of Syracuse University where Dr. Applegate is Assistant Archivist. Appendix V of this thesis deals with Revolutionary War Surgeons. After review of previously published lists, elimination of duplications, addition of new names, and making corrections, he compiled a list of "a total of about 1,175 surgeons, about 33% of all colonial doctors." The total of all colonial physicians calculated from this is 3,525, which agrees closely enough with Toner's figure of about 3,500 established medical practitioners in the colonies in 1775.

37. (1) The purpose of this brief note is to mark the beginnings of the Medical Department of the United States Army. It is not in the plan of this volume to present a history of that Department. Only certain episodes of significance in the evolution of preventive medicine in the Army will be outlined and discussed herein. For readers who may wish to consult general, special, and comprehensive histories the following references are cited.
     (2) Brown, Harvey E.: The Medical Department of the United States Army from 1775 to 1873. Washington: Surgeon General's Office, 1873.
     (3) Toner, Joseph M.: Contributions to the Annals of Medical Progress and Medical Education in the United States Before


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and During the War of Independence. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1874.
     (4) Toner, Joseph M.: The Medical Men of the Revolution With a Brief History of the Medical Department of the Continental Army. Philadelphia: Collins, 1876.
     (5) Owen, William O.: The Medical Department of the United States Army. [Legislative and Administrative History.] During the Period of the Revolution [1776-1786.] Compiled From the Journals of the Provincial Congress of Massachusetts Bay, 1775, and From the Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1783. New York: P. B. Hoeber, 1920.
     (6) Pilcher, James Evelyn: The Surgeon Generals of the Army of the United States of America, Carlisle, Pa.: The Association of Military Surgeons, 1905.
     (7) Phalen, James M.: Chiefs of the Medical Department of the United States Army, 1775-1940, Biographical Sketches. Army M. Bull. No. 52. Carlisle Barracks, Pa.: The Medical Field Service School, April, 1940.
     (8) Lynch, Charles: Evolution of the Medical Department. In Medical Department of the United States Army in the World War. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1923, vol. I, pp. 23-91.
     (9) Ashburn, P. M.: A History of the Medical Department of the United States Army. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1929.    (10) Duncan, L. C.: Medical Men in the American Revolution, 1775-1783. Army M. Bull. No. 25, Carlisle Barracks, Pa.: Medical Field Service School, 1931.
   (11) Hume, Edgar Erskine: Victories of Army Medicine: Scientific Accomplishments of the Medical Department of the United States Army. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1943.
   (12) Applegate, Howard Lewis: Series of Five Articles With Extensive Bibliographies in Military Medicine, 126: 1961-
          (a) The American Revolutionary War Hospital Department, pp. 296-306.
          (b) Preventive Medicine in the American Revolutionary Army, pp. 379-382.
          (c) Remedial Medicine in The American Revolutionary Army, pp. 450-453.
          (d) Effect of the American Revolution on American Medicine, pp. 550-553.
          (e) The Need for Further Study in the Medical History of the American Revolutionary Army, pp. 616-618.

38. Billings, John Shaw: Literature and Institutions. In A Century of American Medicine, 1776-1876. Philadelphia: Henry C. Lea, 1876. Article 5, pp. 289-366, esp. p. 293. This paper was published separately in Am. J. M. Sc., n.s. 72: 439-480, 1876, esp. p. 440.


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39. Jones, John (1729-1791): Plain Concise Practical Remarks, on the Treatment of Wounds and Fractures; to which is added a short appendix on Camp and Military Hospitals; Principally Designed for the Use of Young Military Surgeons, in North-America. New-York: John Holt, 1775. Reprinted, Philadelphia: R. Bell, 1776.

40. (1) Swieten, Gerhard, freiherr van: The Diseases Incident to Armies, With the Method of Cure. Translated from the Original of Baron Van Swieten, Physician to Their Imperial Majesties, to Which Are Added; The Nature and Treatment, of Gunshot Wounds, by John Ranby, Esquire, Surgeon General to the British Army. Likewise, Some Brief Directions, to Be Observed by Sea Surgeons in Engagements. Also, Preventatives of the Scurvy at Sea, by William Northcote, Surgeon, Many Years in the Sea-Service. Published for the Use of Military and Naval Surgeons in America. Philadelphia: R. Bell, 1776.
     (2) Same. Reprinted, Boston: E. Draper, 1777.
     (3) These tracts are followed by the 1776 reprint of "Plain Concise Practical Remarks," by John Jones (see reference 39) all being printed on the same grade of blue-gray paper and bound within the same cover.

41. Anspach, Carolyn Kiser (translator): Medical Dissertation on Nostalgia by Johannes Hofer, 1688. Bull. Inst. Hist. Med. 2 (6): 376-391, August 1934.

42. Fitzpatrick, John C. (editor) : The Writings of George Washington From the Original Manuscript Sources, 1745-1799. (39 vols.; 37 text and 2 index.) Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1931-1944.

43. (1) There are known to be extant only two copies of George Washington's broadside "Of Cleanliness." One is in the Library of Harvard University, The Houghton Library, at Cambridge, Mass.; the other is in the Collection of Maps and Prints of the New-York Historical Society. References to writings about this rare document are as follows:
     (2) Friedman, Lee M.: Washington and Mosaic Law. In Notes and Documents. Miscellanea. Publications of the American Jewish Historical Society 39 (pt. 3): 318-320, March 1950.
     (3) Vail, R. W. G.: A Patriotic Pair of Peripatetic Printers. The Up-State Imprints of John Holt and Samuel Loudon, 1776-1783. In Essays Honoring Lawrence G. Worth. Portland, Maine, 1951, pp. 391, 404-405. Vail attributes the printing of this broadside, 42.5 x 27 cm., to Samuel Loudon, 1777.
     (4) Guerra, Francisco: American Medical Bibliography, 1639-1783. New York: Lathrop C. Harper Inc., 1962. See esp. A-615, p. 243 in the cited volume.

44. Wood, Percival: Moses, the Founder of Preventive Medicine. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1920.


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45. (1) Middleton, W. S.: Medicine at Valley Forge. Ann. Med. Hist. 3d ser., 3 (6): 461-486, November 1941.
      (2) Gibson, James E.: Dr. Bodo Otto and the Medical Background of the American Revolution. Springfield, Illinois: Charles C Thomas, 1937.

46. (1) Rush, Benjamin: Directions for Preserving the Health of Soldiers. Recommended to the Consideration of the Officers of the Army of the United States. Dunlap's Pennsylvania Packet or General Advertiser 6: No. 284, 1777 (Tuesday, April 22d).
      (2) ---: Same title. Pamphlet with revisions and additions. Published by order of the Board of War. Lancaster: John Dunlap, 1778.
      (3) Anonymous: Directions for the Health of Soldiers in the Camps. Boston Gazette and Country Journal. Boston: Benjamin Elder, 1778 (Monday, January 19).

47. Armfield, Blanche B.: Medical Department, United States Army. Organization and Administration in World War II. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1963, chap. III, pp. 69-124, "The Medical Department Under the Services of Supply, March-September, 1942," and chap. V, pp. 145-185, "The Wadhams Committee Investigation."

48. Whayne, Tom F., and DeBakey, Michael E.: Medical Department, United States Army. Cold Injury, Ground Type, in World War II. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1958, chap. III, p. 29.

49. De Forest, H. P.: Benjamin Rush's Directions for Preserving the Health of Soldiers, With a Note Upon Surgeon Ebenezer Alden. Mil. Surgeon 22: 182-195, 1908.

50. (1) Butterfield, L. H. (editor): Letters of Benjamin Rush. Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society, vol. 30, pts. 1 and 2. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1951, 2 vols.
      (2) Corner, George W. (editor): The Autobiography of Benjamin Rush; His "Travels Through Life" Together with His Commonplace Book for 1789-1813. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1934.
      (3) Goodman, Nathan G: Benjamin Rush, Physician and Citizen, 1746-1813. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1934.

51. Rush, Benjamin: The Result of Observations Made Upon the Diseases Which Occurred in the Military Hospitals of the United States, During the Late War. In Medical Inquiries and Observations. Philadelphia: Prichard & Hall, 1789, Vol. I, pp. 180-185.

52. Brown, Harvey E.: The Medical Department of the United States Army From 1775 to 1873. Washington: Surgeon General's Office, 1873, pp. 29-30.


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53. Rush, Benjamin (editor): Observations on the Diseases of the Army by Sir John Pringle, Bart. First American Edition With Notes by Benjamin Rush, M.D. With a Dedication to the Students of the University of Pennsylvania, dated October, 1810. Philadelphia: Edward Earle, 1810.

54. Steuben, Friedrich Wilhelm Ludolf Gerhard Augustin, Baron von, U.S. Inspector General's Office: Regulations for the Order and Discipline of the Troops of the United States. Part I. Philadelphia: Styner and Cist, 1779. Evans, American Bibliography, 6, p. 55, No. 16,627. The edition used by the author of this volume was the imprint by Eleazer Oswald, Philadelphia, 1786.

55. Tilton, James: Economical Observations on Military Hospitals; and the Prevention and Cure of Diseases Incident to an Army. In Three Parts: Addressed I. To Ministers of State and Legislatures, II. To Commanding Officers, III. To the Medical Staff. Wilmington, Del.: J. Wilson, 1813. Part I was written in 1781 and presented to Congress. Parts II and III, based on recollections, were written "in the evenings" in January and February 1813, shortly before the author was recalled into the Army of the United States in the War of 1812.

56. See reference 5, esp. p. 131 in the cited volume.

57. Morgan, John (1735-1789): A Recommendation of Inoculation, According to Baron Dimsdale's Method. Boston: J. Gill, 1776.

58. (1) Blake, John B.: Diseases and Medical Practice in Colonial America. In Symposium on the History of American Medicine. Internat. Rec. of Med. 171 (6): 350-363, June 1958.
      (2) Thursfield, H.: Smallpox in the American War of Independence. Ann. Med. Hist., 3d ser. 2: 312-318, 1940.
      (3) Hall, C. R.: The Beginnings of American Military Medicine. Ann. Med. Hist., 3d ser. 4: 122-131, 1942.

59. Rush, Benjamin: The New Method for Inoculating for the Small-Pox. Delivered in a Lecture in the University of Philadelphia, 20 Feb. 1781. Philadelphia: Charles Cist, 1781, esp. p. 4.

60. See reference 37 (12), (e).

61. See reference 8, appendix A, Losses, pp. 369-378 in the cited volume.

62. Thacher, James: A Military Journal During the American Revolutionary War, From 1775 to 1783: Describing Interesting Events and Transactions of This Period; With Numerous Historical Facts and Anecdotes, From the Original Manuscript. 2d edition. Boston: Cottons & Barnard, 1827, p. 344.

63. Heitman, F. B.: Historical Register of Officers of the Continental Army During the War of the Revolution, April 1775, to December 1783. Washington, 1892-93. See last unnumbered page before Index of Contents, at end of the volume: Number of Troops Furnished During the War of the Revolution by the Several States.


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64. See reference 45 (l).

65. Military Medical Manual. 6th edition. Revised October 1944. Prepared by "a considerable number of officers." Harrisburg: The Military Service Publishing Co., 1945, pt. II, chap. I, pp. 305-345, "Medico-Military History. Evolution of the Medical Department, U.S. Army."

66. Young, James Harvey: The Toadstool Millionaires: A Social History of Patent Medicines in America Before Federal Regulation. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1961, p. 21.

67. (1) Pharmacopoeia simpliciorum et efficaciorum in usum nosocomii militaris, ad exercitum Foederatarum Americae Civitatum pertinentis; Hodiernae nostrae inopiae rerumque angustiis, feroci hostium saevitiae, belloque crudeli ex inopinatò patriae nostrae illato debitis, maxime accommodata. Philadelphia: Styner & Cist, 1778. Author's name not given; dated Lititz, Mart. 12, 1778.
     (2) Brown, William: Same title and text. 2d edition. Philadelphia: Charles Cist, 1781. Guiliemo Brown, M.D. Editio altera. Evans, p. 115, No. 17, 108.
     (3) Maisch, John M.: The First Pharmacopoeia Published in the United States of America. Am. J. Pharm., 4th ser., 14: 483-491, September 1884.

68. (1) Anonymous Editorial. Early American Pharmacopoeias and Their Authors. J.A.M.A. 27: 1349-1351, 26 Dec. 1896.       (2) England, Joseph W. (editor) : The First Pharmacopoeia Published in the United States. In the First Century of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 1821-1921. Philadelphia: Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and Science, 1922, chap. III, pp. 84-85. Presents reduced facsimilies of the title page of the 1st edition of 1778, and of each page of the text, pp. 86-94.
     (3) Anonymous. The Lititz Pharmacopoeia. The Badger Pharmacist. Wisconsin Pharm. Assoc., Nos. 22 to 25, pp. 1-69, June to Dec., 1938, Madison, Wis., 1938.
     (4) Lee, C. O., and LeBlanc, F. J.: Who Was the Author of the First Pharmacopoeia Published in the United States? J. Am. Pharm. A. 27 (l): 142-144, January 1938.
     (5) Kremers, Edward: Documents Pertaining to the Medicinal Supplies Within the North American Colonies From 1643 to 1780. Introduction and Supplement by George Urdang. Madison: American Institute of the History of Pharmacy, pp. 6-70, facsimile and translation of Lititz Pharmacopoeia.

69. See reference 37 (2), esp. p. 77 in the cited volume.

70. Rush, Benjamin: The Result of Observations Made Upon the Diseases Which Occurred in the Military Hospitals of the United States, During the Revolutionary War Between Great Britain and the United States. In Medical Inquiries and Observations. 4th edition. Philadelphia: Griggs and Dickinson, 1815, Vol. I, pp. 146-150.


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The observations abstracted above from the 4th edition were drafted at some uncertain date much earlier. The first edition of "Medical Inquiries, etc." was published in Philadelphia in 1789.

71. Cutbush, Edward: Observations on the Means of Preserving the Health of Soldiers and Sailors; and on the Duties of the Medical Departments of the Army and Navy: With Remarks on Hospitals and Their Internal Arrangements. Philadelphia: Fry and Kammerer, 1808.

72. (1) Pleadwell, F. L.: Edward Cutbush, M.D.: The Nestor of the Medical Corps of the Navy. Ann. Med. Hist. ser. 1, 5: 337-386, December 1923.
      (2) Roddis, L. H.: A Short History of Nautical Medicine. Ann. Med. Hist. ser. 3, 3: 1941-a series of articles in nine parts. With reference to preventive medicine, see pt. IV, pp. 231-247, The Rise of Naval Hygiene; pt. V, pp. 326-352, Naval Medicine in the United States Navy; and for biographical note on Cutbush, see esp. pp. 333-335.

73. (1) Guyton-Morveau, L.-B. [Louis Bernard, baron]: Traitè des moyens de désinfecter l'air, de prevenir la contagíon et d'en arrêter les progrès. 2d edition. Paris: Bernard, 1802. The first edition was published in 1801. An English translation by R. Hall: "A Treatise on the Means of Purifying Infected Air, of Preventing Contagion and Arresting Its Progress," was published in London by T. Hurst in 1802.
     (2) Multhauf, Robert P.: A Catalogue of Instruments and Models in the Possession of the American Philosophical Society. Philadelphia: Am. Philosophical Soc., 1961, see pp. 32-33 and fig. 12, p. 71: Apparatus for Disinfection.

74. (1) Jackson, Robert: A Treatise on the Fevers of Jamaica, With Some Observations on the Intermitting Fever of America, and an Appendix Containing Some Hints on the Means of Preserving the Health of Soldiers in Hot Climates. Philadelphia: Robert Campbell, 1795. Reprinted from the London edition of 1791.
     (2) Jackson, Robert: A System of Arrangement and Discipline for the Medical Department of Armies. London: John Murray, 1805.

75. Webster, Noah (1758-1843): A Brief History of Epidemic and Pestilential Diseases; With the Principal Phenomena of the Physical World, Which Precede and Accompany Them, and Observations Deduced From the Facts Stated, 2 vols. Hartford: Hudson & Goodwin, 1799.

76. See reference 3, esp. pp. 36-50 in the cited volume.

77. Smillie, Wilson G.: The Period of Great Epidemics. In Public Health: Its Promise for the Future. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1955, pp. 120-130.

78. Clot-Bey, Le Dr. (Antoine Barthélemy Clot, 1793-1868):


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Coup d'oeil sur la peste et les quarantaines, à l'occasion du Congrès Sanitaire réuni à Paris au mois de juillet 1851. Paris: Victor Masson, 1851.

79. (1) Ffirth, Stubbins [1775 (ca.)-1820]: A Treatise on Malignant Fever; With an Attempt to Prove Its Non-Contagious Nature. Philadelphia: B. Graves, 1804.
      (2) Editorial: Stubbins H. Ffirth (1784-1820). J.A.M.A. 189 (4): 319-320, 27 July 1964.

80. Garrison, Fielding H.: The Medical and Scientific Periodicals of the 17th and 18th Centuries, With a Revised Catalogue and Check-List. Bull. Inst. Hist. Med., The Johns Hopkins University. (Supplement to Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp.) Editor-Henry E. Sigerist. 2: 285-343, July 1934. Bound in Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 55: 1934 (with separate pagination).

81. A Journal of the Practice of Medicine, Surgery, and Pharmacy, in the Military Hospitals of France. Published by Order of the King. Reviewed and digested by M. De Horne, under the inspection of the Royal Society. Translated from the French by Joseph Browne, vol. I. New-York: J. M'Lean and Co., [ca. 1786]. See also Journal de médecine militaire * * * . Paris: L'Imprimerie Royale, 1782-1788, vols. 1-7.

82. Billings, John Shaw: A Century of American Medicine, 1776-1886, Literature and Institutions. Am. J. Med. Sc. 72: 439-480, 1886, see esp. pp. 459, 460.

83. The Medical Repository. New-York: T. & J. Swords, 1798, vol. I, 26 July 1797 - 1 May 1798. This volume contains a preface to the first number, pp. iii-v, dated New-York, 26 July 1797, and a reprint of the Circular Address (prospectus) by the editors, Samuel L. Mitchill, Edward Miller, and Elihu H. Smith, dated New-York, 15 Nov. 1796, pp. vii-xii.

84. Welch, William Henry: Influence of English Medicine Upon American Medicine in Its Formative Period. In Papers and Addresses, edited by Walter C. Burket. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1920, vol. III, pp, 445-449, esp. p. 446.

85. Jenner, Edward: An Inquiry Into the Causes and Effects of the Variolae Vaccinae, a Disease Discovered in Some of the Western Counties of England, Particularly Gloucestershire, and Known By the Name of the Cow Pox. London: Sampson Low, 1798.

86. (1) Waterhouse, Benjamin: A Prospect of Exterminating the Small-Pox; Being the History of the Variolae Vaccinae, or Kine-Pox, Commonly Called the Cow-Pox; As It Has Appeared in England: With an Account of a Series of Inoculations Performed for the Kine-Pox, in Massachusetts. Boston: Cambridge Press, William Hilliard, 1800.
      (2) Leikind, Morris C.: Vaccination in Europe, and the


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Introduction of Vaccination Into the United States. Ciba Symposia 3 (10): 1102-1113, and 1114-1124, January 1942.
     (3) Blake, John B.: Benjamin Waterhouse and the Introduction of Vaccination, a Reappraisal. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1957. Yale University Department of the History of Medicine Monograph Series No. 33.

87. Subject Index, 1809-1860. General Orders. Adjutant General's Department. Subject Index of the General Orders of the War Department From 1 Jan. 1809 to 31 Dec. 1860. Compiled Under the Direction of Brig. Gen. Richard C. Drum by Jeremiah C. Allen. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1886. In addition, in the Library of Congress, there is a typed copy of War Department General Orders, 1809-1818, giving the texts.

88. Mann, James: Medical Sketches of the Campaigns of 1812, 1813, 1814 * * *. Dedham: H. Mann and Co., 1816.

89. See reference 88, esp. pp. 241-247 in the cited volume.

90. See reference 37 (2). The cited report is printed in full in this volume: Brown's "History of the Medical Department * * *," pp 102-107.

91. (1) United States. War Department. Surgeon General's Office: Meteorological Register for the Years 1822-1825, From Observations Made by Surgeons of the Army, at the Military Posts of the United States. Prepared Under the Direction of Joseph Lovell, M.D., Surgeon-General of the U.S. Army. Washington: De Krafft, 1826.
      (2) ---: Meteorological Register for the Years 1826-1830. Prepared Under the Direction of Thomas Lawson, Surgeon-General, U.S. Army, to Which Is Appended the Meteorological Register for the Years 1822-1825. Philadelphia: Haswell, Barrington, Haswell, 1840.
      (3) ---: Meteorological Register for 12 Years From 1831 to 1842, Inclusive. Prepared Under the Direction of Thomas Lawson, Surgeon-General, U.S. Army. Washington: Alexander, 1851.
      (4) Army Meteorological Register for 12 Years From 1843 to 1854, Inclusive. Prepared Under the Direction of Thomas Lawson, Surgeon General, U.S. Army. Washington: Nicholson, 1855.

92. Schullian, Dorothy M., and Rogers, Frank B.: The National Library of Medicine. Library Quarterly 28 (1,2): 1-17: 95-121, January and April 1958.

93. Using short titles, the references are as follows: Statistical Report on the Sickness and Mortality in the Army of the United States. Compiled From the Records of the Surgeon General's and Adjutant General's Offices. Prepared Under the Direction of Thomas Lawson, M.D. (later Brevet Brig. Gen.) Surgeon-General, U.S. Army.


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      (1) [Vol. I] for the Years 1819-1839. Washington: Jacob Gideon, Jr., 1840.
      (2) [Vol. II] for the Years 1839-1855. 34th Congress, Senate, Ex. Doc. No. 96. Washington: A. O. P. Nicholson, 1856.       (3) [Vol. III] for the Years 1855-1860. 36th Congress, Senate, Ex. Doc. No. 52. Washington: George W. Bowman, 1860.

94. (1) For excerpts and comments, see Ashburn, P. M.: One Century Ago. Mil. Surgeon 59: 33-43, July 1926.
      (2) Gordon, John E.: A History of Preventive Medicine in the European Theater of Operations, United States Army, 1941-1945. Manuscript mimeographed, 2 vols. Washington, D.C., 1946, Vol. I and Vol. II, pt. III, epidemiology, passim.

95. Forry, Samuel (1811-1844): The Climate of the United States and Its Endemic Influences. Based Chiefly on the Records of the Medical Department and Adjutant General's Office, United States Army. 2d edition. New-York: J. & H. G. Langley, 1842. Published in the same year also in Philadelphia and Boston.

96. Duncan, Louis C.: A Medical History of General Zachary Taylor's Army of Occupation in Texas and Mexico, 1845-1847. Mil. Surgeon 48: 76-104, 1921. Reprinted in Army M. Bull. No. 50, October 1939, pp. 27-60, esp. p. 30.

97. Duncan, Louis C.: Medical History of General Scott's Campaign to the City of Mexico in 1847. Mil. Surgeon 47: 436-470; 596-609, 1920. Reprinted in Army M. Bull. No. 50, October 1939, pp. 61-117.

98. Porter, John B.: Medical and Surgical Notes of Campaigns in the War With Mexico, During the Years 1845, 1846, 1847, and 1848. Am. J. M. Sc., new ser., 23: 13-37, 1852; 24: 13-30, 1852; 25: 25-42, 1853; 26: 297-333, 1853; 35: 347-352, 1858.

99. See reference 2 (l), esp. p. 170 in the cited volume and Mil. Surgeon 50: 697-718, June 1922, esp. p. 701.

100. For the official report see: Statistics of the War With Mexico. In Senate Ex. Doc. No. 96, 34th Congress, 1st Sess., pp. 603-621. Washington: A. O. P. Nicholson, Printer, 1856. As the records in the Office of The Surgeon General were neither complete nor accurate, it proved impossible to compile from them correct abstracts of sickness and mortality in the Army during the War with Mexico. Therefore, the Office of The Surgeon General included in the above-cited report a detailed table from a report of The Adjutant General to the Secretary of War, dated 3 Dec. 1849, which had been prepared in answer to a resolution of the House of Representatives of 31 July 1848, calling for information relative to the military forces employed in the late war with Mexico.

101. Scott, Winfield: Memoirs of Lieut-General Scott, LL.D., Written by Himself, 2 vols. New York: Sheldon and Co., 1864, see


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esp. vol. II, pp. 540-551, which includes the text of GO No. 287 of 17 Sept. 1847.

102. Callan, John F.: The Military Laws of the United States, Relating to the Army, Marine Corps, Volunteers, Militia, and to Bounty Lands and Pensions, From the Foundation of the Government to the Year 1858. Baltimore: John Murphy & Co., 1958, p. 398, passim.

103. (1) Garrison, Fielding H.: The Statistical Lessons of the Crimean War. Mil. Surgeon 41: 457-473, October 1917.
        (2) ---: The Crimean War. In Notes on the History of Military Medicine. Washington: Association of Military Surgeons,1922; pp. 171-172, and Mil. Surgeon 50: 703, June 1922.

104. (1) Smith, Andrew: Medical and Surgical History of the British Army Which Served in Turkey and the Crimea During the War Against Russia in the Years 1854, 1855, and 1856, in 2 vols. Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty, 1858. London: Harrison and Sons, 1858.
       (2) Chenu, J.-C.: Rapport au Conseil de Santé des Armées sur les résultats du service médico-chirurgical aux Ambulances de Crimée et aux hôpitaux militaires français en Turquie pendant la campagne d'Orient en 1854, 1855, and 1856. Paris: Victor Masson et fils, 1865.
     (3) Longmore, Sir Thomas, Surgeon-General: The Sanitary Contrasts of the British and French Armies During the Crimean War. London: Charles Griffin and Co., 1883.
    (4) Myrdacz, Paul: Sanitäts-Geschichte des Krimkrieges 1854-1856. Vienna: Josef Safár, 1895. In Handbuch für k. und k. Militärärzte. II Band. Vienna: Josef Safár, 1898.

105. See reference 104 (3), esp. pp. 5-6 in the cited volume.

106. (1) Nightingale, Florence: Notes on Nursing: What It Is, and What It Is Not. London: Harrison, 1860.
        (2) ---: Notes on Matters Affecting the Health, Efficiency, and Hospital Administration of the British Army, Founded Chiefly on the Experience of the Late War. London: Harrison, 1858.

107. (1) Bishop, W.J.: Miss Nightingale Today. J. Roy. Army M. Corps 107: 241-242, October 1961.
        (2) ---, and Goldie, Sue: A Bio-Bibliography of Florence Nightingale. London: Dawsons of Pall Mall, 1962, esp. p. 5.

108. Winslow, C.-E.A.: Florence Nightingale and Public Health Nursing. Pub. Health Nursing 38: 330-332, 1946.

109. Lewis, M. M.: The Specialty of Army Health: A Brief Historical Review. Pub. Health, London 72: 107-116, June 1958.

110. Parkes, Edmund A.: A Manual of Practical Hygiene. Prepared Especially for Use in the Medical Service of the Army. London: John Churchill & Sons, 1864.


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111. Winslow, Charles-Edward Amory: The Conquest of Epidemic Diseases: a Chapter in the History of Ideas. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1943.

112. Smillie, Wilson G.: The Awakening of Public Health in Europe: Its Influence Upon America. In Public Health: Its Promise for the Future. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1955, pp. 235-245.

113. Baumgartner, Leona: John Howard and the Public Health Movement. Bull. Inst. Hist. Med. 5 (6): 489-508, June 1937.

114. Kramer, H. D.: The Beginnings of the Public Health Movement in the United States. Bull. Hist. Med. 21: 352-376, 1947.

115. Shattuck, Lemuel: Report of a General Plan for the Promotion of Public and Personal Health, Devised, Prepared and Recommended by the Commissioners Appointed Under a Resolve of the Legislature of Massachusetts Relating to a Sanitary Survey of the State. Boston: Dutton & Wentworth, 1850.

116. (1) Smillie, W. G.: Lemuel Shattuck - Still a Prophet. Lemuel Shattuck - America's Great Public Health Pioneer. Am. J. Pub. Health 39: 135-144, February 1949.
        (2) Smillie, Wilson G.: The Shattuck Report. In Public Health: Its Promise for the Future. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1955, pp. 246-257.

117. Winslow, C. E. A.: Lemuel Shattuck - Still a Prophet. The Message of Lemuel Shattuck for 1948. Am. J. Pub. Health 39: 156-162, 1949.

118. Ashburn, P. M.: A History of the Medical Department of the United States Army. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1929, pp. 68-93, esp. pp. 82 and 88.

119. (1) Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion (1861-65). Prepared Under the Direction of Surgeon General Joseph K. Barnes, United States Army. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1870-1888, 2 vols., published in pts. (each pt. a separate book). Of these huge quarto volumes, the Medical History, pts. I and II, vol. I, were prepared by Joseph Janvier Woodward and published in 1870, 1879; pt. III, vol. I, was prepared by Charles Smart and published in 1888. This part contains additional statistics, analyses, and discussions, accounts of diseases and numerous special reports.
        (2) Livermore, Thomas L.: Numbers & Losses in the Civil War in America: 1861-65. Reissue of the original 1900 edition with corrections and an introduction by Edward E. Barthell, Jr., Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1957.
        (3) Adams, George Worthington: Doctors in Blue: The Medical History of the Union Army in the Civil War. New York: Henry Schuman, 1952.
        (4) Duncan, Louis C.: The Medical Department of the United States Army in the Civil War. [1914/?] This is a volume


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of reprints of articles, by Capt. Louis C. Duncan, originally published in the Military Surgeon, vols. 30-33, 1912-1913. This volume of reprints also includes the Seaman Prize Essay, see reference 120.

120. Duncan, Louis C.: Seaman Prize Essay. The Comparative Mortality of Disease and Battle Casualties in the Historic Wars of the World. J. Mil. Serv. Inst. of the U.S. 54: 140-177, 1914. A reprint of this article is included as the last item in the synthetic volume entitled "Medical Department of the United States Army in the Civil War," cited in reference 119 (4). The reference for "(Fox)" in the above quotation is Fox, William Freeman: Regimental Losses in the American Civil War, 1861-1865. Albany: Albany Publishing Co., 1889.

121. Woodward, Joseph Janvier: The Medical History of the War of the Rebellion (1861-65). Medical History. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1879, pt. II, vol. I. This colossal volume, "Treating of 'the Alvine Fluxes'" is devoted entirely to the subject of diarrhea and dysentery, chiefly in the Union Army.

122. Smart, Charles: The Medical and Surgical History of the War of the Rebellion (1861-65). Medical History. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1888, pt. III, vol. I, pp. 625-648.

123. (1) Van Buren, William H.: Rules for Preserving the Health of the Soldier. U.S. Sanitary Commission Document No. 17, 12 July 1861. Publisher's name not given in this volume. See p. 9, par. 25, for recommendation for the prophylactic use of quinine.
        (2) Van Buren, William H.: Quinine as a Prophylactic Against Malarious Diseases. U.S. Sanitary Commission Document No. 31, Committee Report. New York: Wm. C. Bryant & Co., September 1861.
        (3) Jones, Joseph: Sulphate of Quinia in Small Doses During Health, the Best Means of Preventing Chill and Fever, and Bilious Fever, and Congestive Fever, In Those Exposed to the Unhealthy Climate of the Rich Low Lands and Swamps of the Southern Confederacy. South. Med. & Surg. J. 17 (8): 593-614, August 1861.
        (4) Hammond, William A.: A Treatise on Hygiene With Special Reference to the Military Service. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1863, pp. 192-193.
        (5) See reference 122, esp. pp. 166-176 in the cited volume.

124. See reference 122, pp. 719-818 in the cited volume.

125. See reference 122, esp. p. 649 in the cited volume.

126. See reference 122, esp. p. 675 in the cited volume.

127. See reference 122, esp. pp. 874-875 in the cited volume.

128. See reference 122, esp. pp. 891-896 in the cited volume.

129. Stillè, Charles J.: History of the United States Sanitary Commission, Being the General Report of Its Work During the War of the Rebellion. New York: Hurd and Houghton, 1868.


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130. Hammond, William A. (editor): Military Medical and Surgical Essays Prepared for the United States Sanitary Commission. Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1864.

131. Smillie, Wilson G.: The United States Sanitary Commission and the Civil War. In Public Health: Its Promise for the Future. New York: The Macmillan Co., 1955, pp. 277-283; esp. p. 280.

132. The story of the life and career of Surgeon General Hammond will be told only in part in this volume. For information about his feud with Secretary of War Stanton, his courtmartial, dismissal from the Service, and eventual reinstatement, see: Duncan, Louis C.: The Days Gone By - The Strange Case of Surgeon General Hammond. Mil. Surgeon 64: 98-110; 252-262, 1929.

133. Congress of the United States. An Act to reorganize and increase the efficiency of the Medical Department of the Army. Approved 16 Apr. 1862. The text of this Act was published in General Orders No. 43, War Department, 19 Apr. 1862.

134. Letterman, Jonathan: Medical Recollections of the Army of the Potomac. New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1866, pp. 98-100.

135. Report of The Surgeon General for the Year Ending 30 June 1862, to the Secretary of War, from The Surgeon General's Office, Washington, D.C., 10 Nov. 1862. Signed: William A. Hammond, Surgeon General, U.S. Army.

136. Circular No. 2, Surgeon General's Office, Washington, D.C., 21 May 1862. "As it is proposed to establish in Washington an Army Medical Museum, Medical Officers are directed diligently to collect and to forward to the Office of The Surgeon General, all specimens of morbid anatomy, surgical or medical, which may be regarded as valuable; together with projectiles and foreign bodies removed, and such other matters as may prove of interest in the study of military medicine or surgery."

137. Ordronaux, John: Hints on the Preservation of Health in Armies. For the Use of Volunteer Officers and Soldiers. New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1861.

138. See reference 123 (4).

139. Lynch, Charles: The Evolution of the Medical Department. In Medical Department of the United States Army in the World War. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1923, vol. I, p. 44.

140. (1) Circular No. 4, Surgeon General's Office, 5 Dec. 1870. A Report on Barracks and Hospitals With Descriptions of Military Posts. Prepared by John Shaw Billings, Assistant Surgeon, U.S. Army. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1870.
        (2) Circular No. 8, Surgeon General's Office, 1 May 1875. Report on the Hygiene of the United States Army With Descriptions of Military Posts. Prepared by John Shaw Billings, Assistant Surgeon, U.S. Army. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1875.


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141. Statistics, Medical Anthropological [and Epidemiological] of the [U.S.] Provost-Marshal-General's Bureau, Derived From Records of the Examination for Military Service in the Armies of the United States During the Late War of the Rebellion, of Over a Million Recruits, Drafted Men, Substitutes, and Enrolled Men. Compiled Under the Direction of the Secretary of War by J. H. Baxter, A.M., M.D., Colonel and Chief Medical Purveyor, U.S. Army. Late Chief Medical Officer of the Provost-Marshal-General's Bureau, in 2 vols. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1875.

142. Mitchell, J, K.: On the Cryptogamous Origin of Malarious and Epidemic Fevers. [Based on Lectures Delivered at Jefferson Medical College, 1846-47.] Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard, 1849.

143. (1) The literature of the germ theory of disease, and of the so-called bacteriological era is enormous and epochal. It has been summarized so often in readily available reference books and articles that there is no need to attempt to review it here. Therefore, with only bare mention of European discoveries and work, and with the recognition that the United States lagged far behind France, Germany, and England, attention here will be focused upon some of the less well-known American events, with particular reference to the way in which bacteriological, immunological, and epidemiological knowledge came into the U.S. Army. The following general references will be found to be useful:
        (2) Bulloch, William: History of Bacteriology. In a System of Bacteriology in Relation to Medicine. Prepared Under the Direction of Medical Research Council. London: His Majesty's Stationery Office, 1930, vol. I, pp. 15-103.
        (3) Ackerknecht, E. H.: Anticontagionism Between 1821 and 1867. Bull. Hist. Med. 22: 562-593, 1948.
        (4) Kramer, H. D.: The Germ Theory and the Early Public Health Program in the United States. Bull. Hist. Med. 22: 233-247, 1948.
        (5) Winslow, C.-E. A., Smillie, Wilson G., Doull, James A., and Gordon, John E.: The History of American Epidemiology, edited by Franklin H. Top. St. Louis: C. V. Mosby Co., 1952.

144. Welch, William H.: Report of an Address Delivered Upon the Occasion of the Celebration of the Twenty-Fifth Anniversary of The Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, October 5, 1914. Johns Hopkins Hosp. Bull. 25: 363-366, December 1914. Reprinted in Papers and Addresses by William Henry Welch edited by Walter C. Burket. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1920, vol. III, pp. 21-25.

145. (1) Girard, Alfred G.: [Materials used in Lister's system of wound-treatment and their mode of application.] In Circular Orders No. 3, Surgeon General's Office, War Department, Washington, 20 Aug. 1877.


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        (2) ---: Lister's Antiseptic Treatment of Wounds. The Materials Used and Their Mode of Action. (Being a Report to the Surgeon General of the U.S. Army.) Medical Record 12: 721-726, November 1877.

146. (1) Transactions of the [First] International Medical Congress of Philadelphia, 1876. Edited for the Congress by John Ashhurst, Jr. Philadelphia: Collins, 1877. Section on Surgery, pp. 517-664.
        (2) Article XXVI. Hodgen, John T.: Antiseptic Surgery, pp. 518-534.
        (3) Article XXVII. Lister, Joseph: Antiseptic Surgery. Report of Remarks Made Before the Surgical Section, During the Adjourned Discussion on Dr. Hodgen's Paper, pp. 535-544.

147. (1) Sternberg, Martha L.: George Miller Sternberg. A Biography. Chicago: American Medical Association, 1920.
        (2) Gibson, John M.: Soldier in White. The Life of General George Miller Sternberg. Durham: Duke University Press, 1958.

148. General Orders No. 51, Headquarters of the Army, Adjutant General's Office, Washington, D.C., 24 June 1893.

149. The first yearly reports of the Army Medical School, with summaries of the courses, are to be found in the Annual Reports of The Surgeon General to the Secretary of War for the fiscal years ending 30 June 1894, 1895, 1896, 1897, and 1898.

150. The Treaty of Paris, terminating the Spanish-American War and specifying geographical, territorial, and other arrangements, was signed on 10 Dec. 1898 and ratified by the U.S. Senate on 6 Feb. 1899.

151. (1) Sternberg, George Miller: Report of The Surgeon General of the Army to the Secretary of War for the Fiscal Year Ended 30 June 1898, dated 10 Nov. 1898. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1898. See esp. pp. 100-265 for the first and only comprehensive account of "The Work of the Medical Department in the Spanish War." An abridgement of this was published in J.A.M.A. 31: 1356-1360, 3 Dec. 1898.
        (2) See also Reports of The Surgeon General to the Secretary of War for the years 1899-1901, passim.

152. Sternberg, G. M.: Sanitary Lessons of the War. J.A.M.A. 32 (23): 1287-1294, 10 June 1899. This was privately reprinted in Sternberg, G. M.: Sanitary Lessons of the War and Other Papers. Washington: Press of Byron S. Adams, 1912.

153. (1) Reed, Walter, Vaughan, Victor C., and Shakespeare, Edward O.: Preliminary Report on Typhoid in Military Camps of the United States. To: The Surgeon General of the Army. Washington, D.C., 25 Jan. 1899. This preliminary report was published for the first time in the Army M. Bull., No. 53, July 1940, pp. 73-103.
        (2) ---: Abstract of Report on the Origin and Spread of Typhoid Fever in U.S. Military Camps During the Spanish War


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of 1898. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1900. This contains the extraordinarily modern and penetrating chap. XV, pp. 194-239, "The Etiology of Typhoid Fever," [by Walter Reed] which was omitted from the final publication of the Report in 1904.
        (3) ---: Report on the Origin and Spread of Typhoid Fever in U.S. Military Camps During the Spanish War of 1898. Prepared in Accordance With Act of Congress Under the Direction of Surgeon General Robert M. O'Reilly, U.S. Army. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1904. In 2 volumes: vol. 1, quarto, 721 pp., observations, discussions, statements, and conclusions, etc.; vol. 2, folio, 3 maps and 93 charts. Issued also as House Document 757, 58th Congress, 2d sess., in 2 pts., 1904-1905.

154. Ashburn, P.M.: A History of the Medical Department of the United States Army. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1929, pp. 178, 180.

155. Report of the Commission Appointed By the President to Investigate the Conduct of the War Department in the War With Spain. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1900, in 8 vols., 56th Congress, 1st sess., Senate Document No. 221. Vol. 1 contains minutes of meetings, the report to the President, and appendixes. The general conclusions and recommendations relative to the Medical Department are on pp. 188-189, vol. 1. Testimony regarding the Medical Department occupied pp. 571-734 in vol. 1, and pp. 737-776 in vol. 2.

156. O'Reilly, R. M.: Report of The Surgeon-General, U.S. Army to the Secretary of War for the Fiscal Year Ending 30 June 1908, dated 14 Sept. 1908. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1908, pp. 121-126.

157. Summaries of work done and some detailed scientific reports provided by these boards are included in the Annual Reports of the Surgeons General from 1900 to 1933.

158. Vedder, Edward B.: A Synopsis of the Work of the Army Medical Research Boards in the Philippines. Army M. Bull., 1929, (unnumbered issue).

159. (1) Yellow Fever. A Compilation of Various Publications. Results of the Work of Major Walter Reed, Medical Corps, United States Army, and the Yellow Fever Commission. Senate Document No. 822, 61st Congress, 3d sess., Dec. 5, 1919- Mar. 4, 1911. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1911. Reprints of all the scientific papers of the Walter Reed Yellow Fever Commission are included in this document, together with bibliograpbic references.
         (2) Sternberg, G. M.: Report of The Surgeon-General of the U.S. Army to the Secretary of War for the Fiscal Year Ended 30 June 1901. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1901. See pp. 176-202 for report entitled "Board for the Study of the Etiology and Prevention of Yellow Fever."


226

        (3) Truby, Albert E.: Memoir of Walter Reed: the Yellow Fever Episode. New York: Paul B. Hoeber, Inc., 1943.
        (4) Kelly, Howard A.: Walter Reed and Yellow Fever. Baltimore: Medical Standard Book Co., 1906, 2d edition.
        (5) Wood, L. N.: Walter Reed: Doctor in Uniform. New York: Julian Messner, Inc., 1943.
        (6) Bayne-Jones, S.: Walter Reed (1851-1902). Mil. Medicine 132 (5): 391-400; and editorial, p. 401, May 1967.

160. Welch, William H.: Papers and Addresses edited by Walter Burket. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1920, vol. III, p. 389.

161. For Ashford's first report, see: Report of the Surgeon-General of the Army to the Secretary of War for the Fiscal Year Ended 30 June 1900. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1900, pp. 247-277.

162. Meleney, H. E.: Tropical Medicine in United States Military History. Bull. N.Y. Acad. Med. 18: 329-337, May 1942.

163. Gorgas, W. C.: A Short Account of the Results of Mosquito Work in Havana, Cuba. J. Assoc. Mil. Surgeons [Mil. Surgeon] 12: 133-139, 1903.

164. Smith, Theobald, and Kilborne, F. L.: Investigations Into the Nature, Causation, and Prevention of Texas or Southern Cattle Fever. Bulletin No. 1, Bureau of Animal Industry, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1893.

165. Gorgas, Marie D., and Hendrick, Burton J.: William Crawford Gorgas: His Life and Work. Garden City: Doubleday, Page and Co., 1924.

166. Gorgas, William Crawford: Sanitation in Panama. New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1915.

167. See reference 166, pp. 279 et seq. in the cited volume.

168. General Orders No. 10, War Department, Washington, 21 Jan. 1909.

169. Siler, J. F., et al.: Immunization to Typhoid Fever. Results Obtained in the Prevention of Typhoid Fever in the United States Army, United States Navy, and Civilian Conservation Corps, by the Use of Vaccines * * *. American Journal of Hygiene Monographic Series, No. 17, September 1941. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1941.

170. Darnall, C. R.: The Purification of Water by Anhydrous Chlorine. J. Am. Pub. Health Assoc. 1 (11): 783-797, November 1911. Reprinted in Army M. Bull. No. 46, October 1938, pp. 3-22.

171. Lyster, W. J.: Sterilization of Drinking Water by Calcium Hypochlorite in the Field. Mil. Surgeon 36: 222-228, 1915.

172. (1) General Orders No. 26, War Department, Washington, 16 Aug. 1912.
        (2) Munson, Edward Lyman: The Soldier's Foot and the Military Shoe. A Handbook for Officers and Noncommissioned Offi-


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cers of the Line. Menasha, Wis.: George Banta Publishing Co., 1917.

173. (1) Munson, Edward Lyman: The Theory and Practice of Military Hygiene. New York: William Wood and Co., 1901. This remarkable, well-illustrated book of 971 pages contains a vast amount of detailed information. The first military textbook statement on the transmission of human malaria by Anopheles mosquitoes is on pp. 704-708.
        (2) Ashburn, P. M.: The Elements of Military Hygiene: Especially Arranged for Officers and Men of the Line. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1909, 2d edition, 1915.
        (3) Havard, Valery: Manual of Military Hygiene for the Military Services of the United States. New York: William Wood and Co., 1917.
        (4) Vedder, Edward B.: Sanitation for Medical Officers. Medical War Manual No. 1. Authorized By the Secretary of War and Under the Supervision of The Surgeon-General and the Council of National Defense. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1917, 2d edition, 1918.
        (5) Dunham, George C.: Military Preventive Medicine. See reference 1.

174. The full text of the National Defense Act of 1916 was printed in Bulletin No. 16, War Department, Washington, 22 June 1916. Sections pertaining to the Medical Department are given in Medical Department of the United States Army in the World War. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1923, vol. I, pp. 75-80.

175. For a succinct account of the medical activities of the Council of National Defense see: Medical Department of the United States Army in the World War. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1923, vol. I, chap. III, "The Committee on Medicine, Council of National Defense," pp. 559-565.

176. Manual for the Medical Department, 1916. War Department, Document No. 504, Office of The Surgeon General, 10 Feb. 1916. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1916, pars. 530, 531, p. 179.

177. Medical Department of the United States Army in the World War. Sanitation. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1926, vol. VI. p. 17.

178. (1) Report of The Surgeon General, U.S. Army, to the Secretary of War, 1919. Containing the statistics for the calendar year 1918 and the general activities of the Medical Department for the fiscal year ending 30 June 1919. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1919, 2 vols. Letter of transmission, with summary, by Maj. Gen. Merritte W. Ireland, The Surgeon General, 8 Oct. 1919, pp. 37-51. Activities of The Surgeon General's Office in the United States, pp. 53-1289. American Expeditionary Forces and Special Activities, pp. 1290-2149.


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        (2) Medical Department of the United States Army in the World War. Statistics. Washington: Government Printing Office, vol. XV, pt. 2, Medical and Casualty Statistics, p. 158, 1925.

179. (1) The material on activities of the Office of The Surgeon General in the United States have been drawn from sources too numerous for citation here. The main authorities are the following:
        (2) Annual Reports of the Surgeon General to the Secretary of War for the years 1914-1920.
        (3) The Medical Department of the United States Army in the World War. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, (various years in the period 1923-1928, especially those listed below).
             (a) Vol. I. The Surgeon General's Office, 1923.
             (b) Vol. VI. Sanitation, 1926.
             (c) Vol. IX. Communicable and Other Diseases, 1928.

180. Zinsser, H.: The Sanitation of a Field Army. Mil. Surgeon, 44: 445-464; 571-581, 1919. First issued as Document No. 170, Army Sanitary School, A.E.F., Langres, France, 1918.

181. General Orders No. 80, sec. III, War Department, 30 June 1917.

182. General Orders No. 113, sec. III, War Department, 22 Aug. 1917.

183. (1) The history of the gas defense activity of the Medical Department and of its care of gas casualties, of which there were 70,552 with 1,221 deaths among troops of the American Expeditionary Forces in France from February to 11 November 1918, will not be recounted here. Rather, attention will be focused on several matters of philosophy, policy, and procedure. For specific details see:
       (2) Medical Department of the United States Army in the World War. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1923 and 1926.
             (a) Vol. I. Chap. XVII, Division of Gas Defense, pp. 504-511, 1923.
             (b) Vol. XIV. Medical Aspects of Gas Warfare, 1926.
       (3) Annual Report of The Surgeon General, United States Army to the Secretary of War, 1918. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1918, see esp. p. 324.

184. (1) Medical Department of the United States Army in the World War. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1925, 1926, and 1927.
             (a) Vol. II. Administration. American Expeditionary Forces, 1927.
             (b) Vol. VI. Sanitation. Sect. II, American Expeditionary Forces, pp. 519-1116, 1926.
             (c) Vol. VIII. Field Operations. Includes description and discussion of the Medical Department in the Theater of Operations, 1925.


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        (2) Report of The Surgeon General, Maj. Gen. Merritte W. Ireland, MC, U.S. Army, to the Secretary of War. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1919, 2 vols. See vol. I, pp. 37-51, Letter of Transmission; pp. 67-73, Health of the Army, Europe; vol. II, 1290-2149, American Expeditionary Forces, and pp. 1309-1336, Sanitation.
        (3) Ashburn, P. M.: A History of the Medical Department of the United States Army. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1929, pt. 5, chaps. XIV and XV, American Expeditionary Forces, 319-359.

185. For a well-documented concise presentation of this dispute and of some of its confusing effects, see: Cline, Ray S.: United States Army in World War II. The War Department. Washington Command Post: The Operations Division. Office of the Chief of Military History, Department of the Army. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1951, see esp. pp. 18-19.

186. Harbord, James G.: The American Army in France, 1917-1918. Little, Brown, and Co., 1936, p. 111.

187. March, Peyton C.: The Nation at War. New York: Doubleday, Doran & Co., Inc., 1932, pp. 264-266, passim.

188. (1) Final Report of General John J. Pershing, Commander-in-Chief, American Expeditionary Forces. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1919.
        (2) Pershing, John J.: My Experiences in the World War. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Co., 1931, 2 vols.

189. Coffman, Edward M.: The Hilt of the Sword: The Career of Peyton C. March. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1966, pp. 117-118.

190. Ireland, M. W.: The Medical Service in a Theater of Operations. Mil. Surgeon 62 (5): 573-591, May 1928.

191. (1) Medical Department, American Forces in Germany, From the Date of Occupation to May 31, 1919. In Report of the Surgeon General to the Secretary of War. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1920, pp. 368-391.
        (2) Medical Department of the United States Army in the World War. Administration. American Expeditionary Forces. Washington: Government Printing Office, vol. II, 1927.
             (a) Department of Sanitation and Public Health, German Occupied Territory, chap. XXIX, pp. 821-827.
            (b) The Army of Occupation in Germany. The American Forces in Germany-Medical Service, chap. XXVIII, pp. 813-819.
        (3) Hunt Report, 1920. American Military Government of Occupied Germany. Report of the Officer in Charge of Civil Affairs, Third Army and American Forces in Germany, 1918-1920. Coblenz, Germany, 4 Mar. 1920. Mimeographed: 4 vols; vol. I, narrative, vols. II-IV, appendixes. Printed copy of vol. I. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1943.


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        (4) Medical Department, United States Army. Preventive Medicine in World War II. Volume VIII. Civil Affairs-Military Government Public Health Activities. [In preparation.]
            (a) Chaps. I-IV. Purpose and Development of Plans.
            (b) Chap. XV. Planning and Preparation for Civil Affairs-Military Government Public Health Activities in the European Theater of Operations.
            (c) Chap. XVI. Public Health Activities of Civil Affairs-Military Government in the European Theater of Operations, 1944-45.

192. Grissinger, J. W.: Medical Field Service in France [and Germany]. Reprinted from Mil. Surgeon, vols. 61, 62, and 63, 1927-28. Washington: Association of Military Surgeons, 1928, 149 pages, esp. pp. 145-148.

193. See reference 191 (2) (a), esp. p. 822 in the cited volume.

194. (1) S.[cheirer], G.: Medical Research Boards, Army Medical Department. Army M. Bull. No. 51, January 1940, pp. 65-70. War Department, Office of The Surgeon General, 1940.
        (2) Vedder, Edward M.: A Synopsis of the Work of the Army Medical Research Boards in the Philippines. Army M. Bull. (unnumbered), 29 Apr. 1929, 179 pp.

195. Gordon, John E.: The Twentieth Century - Yesterday, Today, and Tomorrow (1920 - ). In The History of American Epidemiology by C.-E. A. Winslow, Wilson G. Smillie, James A. Doull, and John E. Gordon, edited by Franklin H. Top. St. Louis: C. V. Mosby Co., 1952, pp. 114-167, esp. 115, 116, and 156-158.

196. Quoted from the draft Introduction of this volume written by Brig. Gen. James S. Simmons.

197. See reference 169, pp. 25 and 28 in the cited volume.

198. Reynolds, Charles R.: Foreword: In Military Preventive Medicine, by Brig. Gen. George C. Dunham. Carlisle Barracks, Pa., Army Medical Field Service School, 1938, 3d edition, p. vi.

199. Simmons, James S.: Journal and Scrapbook [Diary]. Vols. I and II, entry for 15 Feb. 1940. Verified by S.B.-J.