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The Evolution of Preventive Medicine in the United States Army, 1607-1939

Books and Documents

STANHOPE BAYNE-JONES, M.D.

Prepared and published under the direction of
Lieutenant General LEONARD D. HEATON
The Surgeon General, United States Army

Editor in Chief
Colonel ROBERT S. ANDERSON, MC, USA

OFFICE OF THE SURGEON GENERAL
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 1968

Advisory Editorial Board
for the
History of Preventive Medicine
in the
United States Army in World War II

Brigadier General JAMES STEVENS SIMMONS, USA (Deceased)
Chairman, 1948-54
Brigadier General STANHOPE BAYNE-JONES, USAR (Ret.)
Chairman

JOHN E. GORDON, M.D. 

PAUL F. RUSSELL, M.D.

WILLIAM A. HARDENBERGH, B.E. 

THOMAS B. TURNER, M.D.

ANTHONY J. LANZA, M.D. (Deceased)

DOUGLASS W. WALKER, M.D.

ELLIOTT S. A. ROBINSON, M.D. (Deceased)

Colonel TOM F. WHAYNE, MC, USA (Ret.)

 EBBE CURTIS HOFF, Ph.D., M.D., Editorial Director (ex officio)
Colonel H. E. GRIFFIN, MC, USA (ex officio)
Colonel ROBERT S. ANDERSON, MC, USA (ex officio)

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 60098

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C.  20402-Price $2.50


Contents

PREFACE

I. Introduction

    Principles, Objectives, Programs
    Army Structure and Government
    Medical Department Jurisdictions
    State of the Art
    Period Covered

II. The Colonial Period (1607-1775)

    Predominance of English Sources
    European Wars in American Colonies
    British and European Military Preventive Medicine
    --Sir John Pringle
    --James Lind and Scurvy
    --Gerhard van Swieten
    --Richard Brocklesby
    Inoculation Against Smallpox (1721); Cotton Mather and Zabdiel Boylston
    Historical Note on Inoculation
    Cotton Mather and "The Angel of Bethesda"
    Statistical Approach
    The Pre-Revolutionary Half Century
    Prevalent Diseases
    Public Health Activities
    Medical Schools Established
    Medical and Sanitary Personnel

III. The American Revolutionary War and First Years of the Republic (1775-1783; 1799)

    Establishment of the Medical Department of the Army
    First American Vade Mecum of Military Hygiene by John Jones (1775)
    Van Swieten's Manual on Diseases Incident to Armies
    Nostalgia, Morale, and Recreation
    George Washington (1732-1799); Care for Health of Troops
    Mosaic Sanitary Code: Cleanliness
    Benjamin Rush (1745-1813); Preservation of Health of Soldiers
    Baron von Steuben (1730-1794); Order and Discipline
    James Tilton (1745-1822); Rules for Prevention of Diseases
    Tilton's Hospital
    The Army Inoculated Against Smallpox (1777)
    Victories of a Smallpox-Free Army
    Health of the Continental Army (1775-1781)
    Summary and Conclusions

 IV. From the First to the Second War With England (1783-1812)

    Developments Connected With the Medical Department (1783-1812)
    The Legion
    Military Medical Retrogression
    First American Pharmacopoeia (Lititz)
    Prevention of Communicable Disease a Military Duty
    Observations by Benjamin Rush
    Edward Cutbush on Preserving the Health of Soldiers and Sailors
    Guyton de Morveau and Disinfection
    Jackson's System of Military Hygiene
    Developments Outside the Army (1783-1812)
    The Cosmic Epidemiology of Noah Webster
    Anticontagionists: Stubbins Ffirth and Others
    Medical Journalism
    Smallpox Vaccination (Jennerian) of the Army (1812)

V. Three Wars-The Sanitary Reform Movement (1812-1860)

    The War of 1812 (18 June 1812-21 January 1815)
    The Burlington Hospital (1812-1814)
    Vaccination
    The Regime of Surgeon General Lovell (1818-1836)
    Medical Police for Camp Sanitation
    "Meteorological Registers"
    Library of the Surgeon General's Office
    Vital Statistics of the Army
    Climatology
    The Mexican War (1846-1848)
    Disease and Battle Casualty Statistics
    Civil Affairs-Military Government and Public Health
    Rank of Medical Officers
    The Crimean War (14 September 1854-12 July 1856)
    Losses From Disease in British and French Troops
    Sanitary Contrasts
    Florence Nightingale
    The Specialty of Army Health
    The Royal Army Medical School
    Further Influence of Sanitary Experience of Crimean War
    The Sanitary Reform Movement (1800-1860)
    The Sanitary Movement Abroad
    Chadwick, Farr, Simon, and Smith
    The Sanitary Movement in the United States; Lemuel Shattuck's Report (1850)

VI. The American Civil War (15 April 1861-30 June 1865)-Beginnings of Bacteriological Era and Scientific Preventive Medicine (1861-1898)

    The American Civil War (1861-1865)
    Sources and Critique
    Weakness of the Army Medical Department at Start
    Morbidity and Mortality Rates From Disease and Battle
    Diseases in the Union Army
    The United States Sanitary Commission
    Reorganization of the Medical Department
    Publications by the Commission and Health Education
    Surgeon General Hammond Starts a New Era
    Hammond and Letterman; Improvements and Innovations
    Army Medical Museum Established (1862); Army Medical School and General Hospital Proposed
    Treatise on Military Hygiene
    Demobilization
    Civil War to Spanish-American War (1865-1898)
    Sanitary Reporting Monthly
    Medical Museum and the Surgeon General's Library
    Physical Standards and Statistics
    Beginnings of Scientific Preventive Medicine
    Beginning of the Bacteriological Era (1876)
    Lister's "System of Antiseptic Surgery"
    George Miller Sternberg, Pioneer Bacteriologist
    Surgeon General Sternberg Establishes the Army Medical School (1893)

VII. The Spanish-American War-Tropical Preventive Medicine (1898-1914)

    The Spanish-American War (1898)
    Some Medical Aspects of the War With Spain
    Sickness and Mortality
    Typhoid Fever in Military Camps in the United States
    The Reed-Vaughan-Shakespeare Typhoid Board
    Investigations and Report
    "Report" (1899) and "Abstract of Report" (1900)
    Typhoid Carriers
    The Dodge Commission Report (1899)
    Army Medical Department Reorganization
    Boards for the Study of Tropical Diseases
    Army Medical Research Boards in the Philippines (1900-1933)
    Yellow Fever Board in Cuba (1900-1901); Reed, Lazear, Carroll, and Agramonte
    Carlos Finlay and Mosquito Transmission of Yellow Fever
    Hookworm Disease in Puerto Rico; Ashford's Work
    Advances in the Early 20th Century (1901-1917)
    Tropical Medicine
    Havana Freed From Yellow Fever and Malaria Reduced
    Disease Control and Building the Panama Canal (1904-1914)
    Antityphoid Vaccination
    Chlorination of Drinking Water by Darnall
    The Lyster Bag
    The Army Shoe Board and the Munson Last
    Books on Preventive Medicine Produced

VIII. World War I (1914-1919)

    Beginning of World War I in Europe (1914)
    National Defense Act of 1916
    National Preparedness and the Committee on Medicine
    World War I, USA Participation (1917-1919)
    Military Preventive Medicine Concerned With Administration of the Whole Army
    Mobilization and Crowded Camps
    Pneumonia Commission Established (1918)
    Sanitary Organizations in the Surgeon General's Office
    Sanitary Inspectors
    Sanitary Corps Established (1917); Reestablished (1923)
    Gas Defense and Service
    Chemical Warfare Policies and Missions
    Sanitation of Manufacturing and Gas Plants
    American Expeditionary Forces (1917-1919)
    Staff Relationships. - (a) Theater of Operations, AEF, and the War Department
    Staff Relationships. - (b) The Chief Surgeon, AEF, and The Surgeon General, War Department
    Sanitation in the AEF
    Results and the Influenza Pandemic (1918-1919)
    Occupation of Germany, United States Army Zone (1919)
    Third Army Sanitation, Preventive Medicine, and Health
    Civil Affairs-Military Government Public Health
    Discontinuance of Third Army

IX. Two Post-War Decades (1919-1939)

    A Period of Peace, Progress, and Peril
    Educational Resources for Preventive Medicine
    Schools of Public Health in the United States
    Epidemiology Broadened
    Malaria Threat Recognized
    Atabrine Introduced as Substitute for Quinine
    Chemotherapy and Chemoprophylaxis
    Penicillin Discovered (1929) and Antibiotics Produced
    Civilian Conservation Corps (1933-1942)
    Status of the Preventive Medicine Unit in the Surgeon General's Office (1919-1939)
    Leadership in Preventive Medicine Service-The Simmons Regime Initiated

X. Epilogue

APPENDIXES

REFERENCES

ALPHABETIC REFERENCE LIST

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