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Contents

Books and Documents

SPECIAL STUDIES

THE DEMANDS OF
HUMANITY: ARMY MEDICAL
DISASTER RELIEF

by
Gaines M. Foster

CENTER OF MILITARY HISTORY
UNITED STATES ARMY
WASHINGTON, D.C., 1983

SPECIAL STUDIES SERIES

David F. Trask, General Editor

Advisory Committee
(As of 1 January 1982)

James C. Olson
University of Missouri

Joseph E. Harris
Howard University

Maj. Gen. Quinn H. Becker
Deputy Surgeon General, USA

John H. Hatcher
The Adjutant General Center

Maj. Gen. John B. Blount
U.S. Army Training and
Doctrine Command

Morten Jay Luvaas
Allegheny College

Brig. Gen. Dallas C. Brown, Jr.
U.S. Army War College

James O'Neill
National Archives and Records Service

Richard D. Challener
Princeton University

John Shy
University of Michigan

Col. Roy K. Flint
U.S. Military Academy

Col. William A. Stofft
U.S. Army Command and
General Staff College

Arthur L. Funk
University of Florida

Betty M. Unterberger
Texas A. & M. University

U.S. Army Center of Military History

Brig. Gen. James L. Collins, Jr., Chief of Military History

Chief Historian
Chief, Histories Division
Editor in Chief

David F. Trask
Col. James W. Dunn
John Elsberg


Contents

FOREWORD

THE AUTHOR

PREFACE

1. INTRODUCTION

2. THE NINETEENTH CENTURY: PRECEDENTS

    The Emergence of Federal Disaster Assistance
    The Role of the Medical Department

3. EMERGING MISSIONS: COMBATING EPIDEMICS ABROAD

    Sanitary and Organizational Reform
    Combating Epidemics

4. ESTABLISHING THE MISSION: VOLCANOES, EARTHQUAKES, TORNADOES, AND FLOODS, 1898-1917

    Changes in the Domestic Scene and the San Francisco Earthquake
    Additional Relief Operations and Formal Recognition of the Mission

5. DISEASE IN THE AFTERMATH OF WAR: DISASTER AID TO POLAND AND RUSSIA AFTER WORLD WAR I

    Postwar Relief and America's Sense of Humanitarian Mission
    Typhus in Poland
    Famine in Russia

6. RELIEF ROLE IN TRANSITION: ASSISTANCE AT HOME AND ABROAD, 1918-1939

    Confusion over the Army's Disaster Relief Role
    Reevaluation and Relief in the Thirties
    Toward New Relief Roles

7. DOMESTIC ASSISTANCE UNDER CIVILIAN COORDINATION, 1945-1976

    The Texas City Explosion
    Creation of a Federal Relief Bureaucracy
    Medical Relief Missions of the Fifties and Sixties
    Federal Reorganization and Minor Medical Missions of the Seventies

8. ACTIVISM ABROAD: FOREIGN DISASTER RELIEF, 1945-1976

    Relief in the Early Postwar Period
    Establishing a Relief System and the Activism of the Early Sixties
    Increasing Problems in Foreign Disaster Relief Operations

9. CONCLUSION

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE