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Contents

Books and Documents

BATTLE CASUALTIES AND MEDICAL STATISTICS

U.S. Army Experience in the Korea War

By

FRANK A. REISTER

THE SURGEON GENERAL
Department of the Army
Washington, D.C.


Contents

FOREWORD

PREFACE

Chapter

ONE Casualty and Morbidity Experience

    Units and Strength
    Battle Casualties and Admissions
    Outpatient Care and Carded for Record Only
    Average Duration of Stay
    Noneffectiveness
    Type of Disposition and Place of Final Treatment
    Deaths
    Separations for Battle Disabilities

TWO Effects of Type of Operation and Tactical Action

    Source and Limitations
    Offensive Operations
    Pursuit and Mopping-up Operations
    Maintaining Static Defensive Lines
    Limited Operations From Main Battle Positions
    Defensive (Enemy Offensive) Operations
    Withdrawal Operations
    Summary by Type of Operation and Tactical Action

THREE Lethality of Weapons and Location of Wounds

    Death From Wounding
    Causative Agent and Nature of Traumatism
    Causative Agent and Tactical Operation
    Anatomical Location of Wound
    Anatomical Location of Wounds and Tactical Operation
    Nonbattle Injuries and Tactical Operation

FOUR Hospitalization in Korea

    Hospital Support in Korea
    Hospital System in Korea, 1952
    Source of Data
    Outpatient and Quarters Care
    Limitations of Data
    Field Army Area Hospitals
    Communications Zone Hospitals
    Prisoner-of-War Hospitals
    Category of Personnel
    Cause of Admission
    Type of Disposition
    Hospital Death Ratios
    Average Patient Census and Average Duration of Hospitalization

FIVE Evacuation of Patients From Overseas

    Evacuee Report Card
    Evacuation Policy and Days Before Evacuation
    Type of Specialized Treatment Required
    Category of Admission
    Surgical Operations Performed Overseas
    Causative Agents
    Type of Traumatism and Anatomical Location of Wound
    Time From Wounding to First Medical Care
    Time From Wounding to First Hospitalization

SIX Surgical, Medical, and Logistic Considerations

    Surgery and the Wounded
    Surgery said Nonbattle Admissions
    Medical Surveys of Repatriated Prisoners of War
    Estimating Bed Requirements Overseas
    Estimating Patient Accumulations and Dispositions
    Subdividing the Remaining Curve
    Nonfixed Versus Fixed Beds Overseas
    Skipping Echelons of Hospitalization in Evacuation
    Estimating Beds for Overseas Evacuees

Appendix

A    Methods of Computation [Adobe PDF file] (309K)
B    Tabular Data (12 tables) for U.S. Army, Korea, by Month, Type of Unit, Diagnostic Classification Groups, and Tactical Operation; and Disability Separations by Detail of Primary Cause of Separation.
C    Evacuee, Remaining, and Disposition Factors (four tables) for Patients Admitted to Hospital on One Day of Operations in Overseas Theaters

Illustrations

1 U.S. Army divisions and regiments as percent of U.S. Army strength and regiments as percent of U.S. Army division strength, Korea, July 1950-July 1953
2 Percent distribution, nonbattle injury admissions, by nature of traumatism and type of unit, U.S. Army, Korea, July 1950-December 1953
3 Disease admissions, by diagnostic class and type of unit, U.S. Army, Korea, July 1950-Decornber 1953
4 Cumulative percentage distributions of average U.S. Army divisional hit rates (KIA, WIA-CRO, and WIA admissions), by type of tactical operation, Korean War
5 Final demarcation line between north and south Korea, 27 July 1953
6 Causative agents of wounded or injured in action admissions, by type of operation, all U.S. infantry divisions and regimental combat teams, Korea, July 1950-July 1953
7 Causative agents of wounded or injured admissions, by selected periods of time, all U.S. Army infantry divisions and regimental combat teams, Korea, July 1950-July 1953
8 Anatomical location of wounded or injured in action as a percent of all admissions for each respective type of operation, all U.S. Army infantry divisions and regimental combat teams, Korea, July 1950-July 1953
9 Anatomical location of wounded or injured in action admissions, by selected periods of time, all U.S. Army infantry divisions and regimental combat teams, Korea, July 1950-July 1953
10 Average number of days elapsed before evacuation from Japan-Korea, U.S. Army personnel, 2 September 1950-31 December 1953
11 Number of U.S. Army evacuees received in United States from Japan-Korea, monthly by cause of evacuation, 2 September 1950-31 December 1953
12 Percentages of battle evacuees received in United States compared with percentage of battle admissions in Korea, 2 September 1950-31 December 1953
13 Accumulation and accumulation-decumulation of wounded hospital admissions, U.S. Army, Korea, 1950-53, converted to one patient per day
14 Subdivisions of the remaining curve, by echelon of hospitalization
15 Percentage of wounded hospital admissions evacuated, by length of evacuation policy, U.S. Army, Korea, 1950-53

Tables

1 Distribution of U.S. Army division and non-division monthly mean strength, Korea, July 1950-July 1953
2 Distribution of division and separate regimental combat team monthly mean strength, U.S. Army, Korea, July 1950-July 1953
3 Percent distribution of U.S. Army and U.S. Army divisions, by type of combat unit, Korea, July 1950-July 1953
4 Annual rates for killed in action and admissions to medical treatment facilities, U.S. Army, Korea, July 1950-July 1953
5 Distribution of average mean strength and killed in action; battle and nonbattle admissions to medical treatment facilities, by type of combat unit: number, percent, and rate, U.S. Army, Korea, July 1950-July 1953
6 Nonbattle admissions and CRO cases for division and non-division, by period and type of case, U.S. Army, Korea
7 Admissions due to battle injuries and wounds by type of unit and diagnosing, U.S. Army, Korea, July 1950-July 1953
8 Number and percent distribution of out patient cases carded for record only, by type of unit, U.S. Army, Korea, July 1950-December 1953
9 Outpatient treatments at U.S. Army medical treatment facilities, Korea, by category of personnel and type of treatment, 1 June 1951-31 December 1953
10 Average duration of stay in U.S. Army hospital and quarters, worldwide: World War II and Korean War; and combat units by area of disposition and type of case, Korea, July 1950-July 1953
11 Average duration of stay in U.S. Army hospital and quarters, worldwide, for nonbattle causes separated for disability, by year, 1950-53
12 Noneffective rates, U.S. Army division and separate regimental combat teams, Korea, July 1950-December 1953
13 Disposition of U.S. Army patients originating in Korea, by type of case and place of final treatment, U.S. Army divisions and regimental combat teams, Korea, July 1950-July 1953
14 Killed in action and died of wounds, by type of traumatism, U.S. Army, Korea, July 1950-July 1953
15 Number of U.S. Army personnel killed in action and died of wounds, by age group, U.S. Army, Korea, July 1950-July 1953
16 Deaths and death rates for disease, by principal cause, U.S. Army, Korea, 1950-53
17 Deaths and death rates for nonbattle injury, by nature of traumatism, U.S. Army, Korea, 1950-53
18 Number of disability separations for battle causes, by type of separation and year, U.S. Army, 1950-53
19 Distribution of U.S. Army personnel separated for disability due to battle injuries and wounds, by primary diagnostic cause of separation, by type of separation, and by causative agent, 1950-53
20 Frequency distribution of division-periods, killed-in-action rates, by type of operation
21 Frequency distribution of division-periods, wounded-in-action rates, by type of operation
22 Killed and wounded in action during major offensive operations, U.S. Army divisions, Korean War
23 Killed and wounded in action during major offensive operations, by tactical action, U.S. Army regiments, Korean War
24 Killed and wounded in action, during pursuit and mopping-up operations, by tactical action, U.S. Army regiments, Korean War
25 Killed and wounded in action during pursuit and mopping-up operations, U.S. Army divisions, Korean War
26 Killed and wounded in action during operations maintaining static defensive lines, U.S. Army divisions, Korean War
27 Killed and wounded in action during operations maintaining static defensive lines, by tactical action, U.S. Army regiments, Korean War
28 Killed and wounded in action during limited operations from main battle positions, U.S. Army divisions, Korean War
29 Killed and wounded in action during limited operations from main battle positions by tactical action, U.S. Army regiments, Korean War
30 Killed and wounded in action during defensive (enemy offensive) operations, U.S. Army divisions, Korean War
31 Killed and wounded in action during defensive (enemy offensive) operations, by tactical action, U.S. Army regiments, Korean War
32 Killed and wounded in action during withdrawal operations, U.S. Army divisions, Korean War
33 Killed and wounded in action during withdrawal operations, by tactical action, U.S. Army regiments, Korean War
34 Killed and wounded in action, by type of ground operations, U.S. Army divisions, Korean War
35 Killed and wounded in action during ground operations, by tactical actions, U.S. Army regiments, Korean War
36 Admission rates, by type, U.S. Army division and separate regimental combat teams, U.S. Army, Korea, 1950-53
37 Disease and nonbattle injury, by type of ground operations, U.S. Army divisions, Korean War
38 Killed-in-action and wounded-in-action admissions, by type of case, U.S. Army, World War II and Korean War
39 Killed-in-action and wounded-in-action admissions and CRO cases, by type of unit and type of case, U.S. Army, Korea, July 1950-July 1953
40 Percent distribution of battle casualties, by causative agents, U.S. Army, World War II and Korean War
41 Fatality percentage of deaths among total hit (killed and wounded in action), by causative agent and nature of traumatism, U.S. Army, Korea, 1950-53
42 Case fatality percentage of deaths among wounded in action, by causative agent and nature of traumatism, U.S. Army, Korea, 1950-53
43 Killed in action, by causative agent and type of ground operation, U.S. Army divisions, Korean War
44 Wounded in action, by causative agent and type of ground operation, U.S. Army divisions, Korean War
45 Percent distribution for anatomical location of wounds, by category of casualty, U.S. Army, World War II and Korean War
46 Fatality percentage of deaths among total, hit (killed and wounded in action), by anatomical location of wounds and causative agents, U.S. Army, Korea, 1950-53
47 Case fatality percentage of deaths among wounded in action, by anatomical location of wounds and causative agents, U.S. Army, Korea, 1950-53
48 Fatality percentage of deaths among total hit (killed and wounded in action), by anatomical location of wounds and nature of traumatism, U.S. Army, Korea, 1950-53
49 Case fatality percentage of deaths among wounded in action, by anatomical location of wounds and nature of traumatism, U.S. Army, Korea, 1950-53
50 Killed in action, by anatomical location of fatal wound and type of ground operation, U.S. Army divisions, Korean War
51 Wounded in action, by anatomical location of wound and type of ground operations, U.S. Army divisions, Korean War
52 Nonbattle injury, by causative agent and type of ground operation, U.S. Army divisions, Korean War
53 Nonbattle injury admissions, by anatomical location of injury and type of ground operation, U.S. Army divisions, Korean War
54 Patient flow and other hospitalization data, U.S. Army hospitals, Korea, 1952, all personnel, nonbattle causes.
55 Patient flow and other hospitalization data, U.S. Army hospitals, Korea, 1952, U.S. Army personnel, nonbattle causes
56 Patient flow and other hospitalization data, U.S. Army hospitals, Korea, 1952, all personnel, battle causes
57 Patient flow and other hospitalization data, U.S. Army hospitals, Korea, 1952, U.S. Army personnel, battle causes
58 Admissions to hospital for all causes, by category of personnel and by type of hospital within major operational echelon, U.S. Army hospitals, Korea, 1952
59 Admissions to hospital, by cause of admission and by type of hospital within major operational echelon, U.S. Army hospitals, Korea, 1952
60 Dispositions from hospitals, by type of hospital within major operational echelon, for selected types of dispositions, U.S. Army hospitals, Korea, 1952
61 Percentage distribution of dispositions from hospital, by type of disposition, for selected groupings of U.S. Army hospitals, Korea, 1952
62 Average bed occupancy and average duration of hospitalization, by cause of admission and by type of hospital within major operational echelon, U.S. Army hospitals, Korea, 1952
63 All evacuees received in continental United States, by area, of origin and category of personnel, 2 September 1950-31 December 1953
64 Percentage distribution, by mode of transportation and type of personnel, all evacuees received in United States, 2 September 1950-31 December 1953
65 All evacuees received in United States, by specialized treatment required and category of personnel, 2 September 1950-31 December 1953
66 U.S. Army evacuees received in United States, by specialized treatment required and type of admission, 2 September 1950-31 December 1953
67 Percent distribution of U.S. Army evacuees, by specialized treatment, required and type of admission, 2 September 1950-31 December 1953
68 U.S. Army evacuees, by prior operation overseas, category of admission, and overseas areas, 2 September 1950-31 December 1953
69 U.S. Army wounded evacuees received in United States, by causative agent, 2 September 1950-31 December 1953
70 Number and percent of U.S. Army wounded evacuees, by type of traumatism, 2 September 1950-31 December 1953
71 Percent distribution of U.S. Army wounded evacuees, by anatomical location of wound, 2 September 1950-31 December 1953
72 U.S. Army wounded evacuees, from time of wounding to first medical care, 2 September 1950-31 December 1953
73 Percent of U.S. Army evacuees wounded, reaching surgical and evacuation hospitals within a specified number of days after wounding, July 1950-August 1953
74 Cumulative percentage reaching surgical or evacuation hospitals after day wounded, Army wounded in action evacuees by month wounded, July 1950-Auguat 1953
75 Admissions for wounded in action and surgical operations, anatomical location and type of surgery, U.S. Army, Korea, July 1950-July 1953
76 Admissions for wounded in action with surgical operations, annual rates, and percent distribution, by type of surgery and type of unit, U.S. Army, Korea, July 1950-July 1953
77 Comparison of admissions excluded to total nonbattle admissions processed, by type of admission with surgical operation, U.S. Army, Korea, July 1950-December 1953
78 Number and percent, of nonbattle admissions processed, by type of admission with surgical operation, U.S. Army, Korea, July 1950-December 1953
79 Admissions for disease with surgical operations, annual rates, and percent distribution, by type of surgery and type of unit, U.S. Army, Korea, July 1950-December 1953
80 Admissions for nonbattle injury with surgical operations, annual rates, and percent distribution, by type of surgery and type of unit, U.S. Army, Korea, July 1950-December 1953
81 U.S. military repatriated prisoners of war, Korea, by age group
82 Average weight lost by body build at capture and by weeks in captivity, U.S. military repatriated prisoners of war, Korea
83 Number and percent of wounded in action by anatomical location of wound, U.S. military repatriated prisoners of war, Korea
84 Number and percent with surgical operations, U.S. military repatriated prisoners of war, Korea
85 Number and percent of results of psychiatric examinations, medical survey of U.S. military repatriated prisoners of war, Korea
86 Number and percent of results of eye, lip, and mouth examinations, medical survey of U.S. military repatriated prisoners of war, Korea
87 Number and percent of results of chest X-ray examinations, U.S. military repatriated prisoners of war, Korea
88 Number and percent of results of skin examinations, medical survey of U.S. military repatriated prisoners of war Korea
89 Number and percent of stool examinations, U.S. military repatriated prisoners of war, Korea
90 Field army accumulation-decumulation factors, by type of case, and specified evacuation policies
91 Theater accumulation-decumulation factors, by type of case, and specified evacuation policies
92 Accumulation-decumulation factors for wounded patients by echelon, for a 5-day Army and 30-day theater evacuation policy
93 CONUS accumulation-decumulation factors, by type of case, and specified evacuation policies

Appendix Tables

[All in Adobe PDF format]

B-1 Numbers and annual rates for killed in action, wounded in action, and nonbattle causes, admissions and CRO cases, by year and month, U.S. Army, Korea, July 1950-July 1953 (196K)
B-2 Numbers and annual rates for killed in action, wounded in action, and nonbattle causes, admissions and CRO cases, by year and month, all U.S. Army divisions with regimental combat teams, Korea, July 1950-July 1953 (203K)
B-3 Numbers and rates for killed in action, wounded in action, and nonbattle causes, admissions and CRO cases, by year and month, U.S. Army non-divisional units, Korea, July 1950-July 1953 (186K)
B-4 Summary of battle and nonbattle admissions: all divisions and separate regimental combat teams, by type of casualty, diagnostic classification, year and month, Korea, July 1950-July 1953 (480K)
B-5 U.S. Army divisions and separate regimental combat teams, by tactical operation, U.S. Army, Korea, July 1950-July 1953 (634K)
B-6 U.S. Army division headquarters, headquarters and service companies, by tactical operation, U.S. Army, Korea, July 1950-July 1953 (616K)
B-7 U.S. Army regiments and regimental combat teams, by tactical operation, U.S. Army, Korea, July 1950-July 1953 (631K)
B-8 U.S. Army division artillery, by tactical operation, U.S. Army Korea, July 1950-July 1953 (598K)
B-9 U.S. Army division engineer battalions, by tactical operation, U.S. Army, Korea, July 1950-July 1953 (572K)
B-10 U.S. Army division medical battalions, by tactical operation, U.S. Army, Korea, July 1950-July 1953 (545K)
B-11 U.S. Army division tank battalions, by tactical operation, U.S. Army, Korea, July 1950-July 1953 (568K)
B-12 U.S. Army personnel separated for disability due to battle injuries and wounds, by primary diagnostic cause of separation, by rank, by type of separation, and by causative agent, 1950-53 (115K)
C-1 Remaining and disposition, factors for wounded patients admitted to hospital overseas on any one day of operations, wounded admissions in Korea, 1950-53, converted to one admission per day (220K)
C-2 Remaining and disposition factors for disease and nonbattle injury patients admitted to hospital overseas on any one day of operations, disease and nonbattle injury admissions in all overseas areas, 1950-53, converted to one admission per day (222K)
C-3 Evacuee factors for wounded patients admitted to hospital on any one day of operations, wounded admissions in Korea, 1950-53, converted to one admission per day (191K)
C-4 Evacuee, factors for disease and nonbattle injury patients admitted to hospital on any one day of operations, disease and nonbattle injury admissions in all overseas areas, 1950-53, converted to one admission per day (201K)