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Chapter 4

Battle Casualties and Medical Statistics

Hospitalization in Korea

HOSPITAL SUPPORT IN KOREA

In medical planning for combat support, many estimates must be developed from consideration of projected numbers of hospital patients and beds. Estimates may be made, for example, concerning number and classes of hospital beds and hospitals and of medical personnel required to operate them, or numbers and classes of military personnel who will reach personnel replacement depots after hospital treatment. In making these estimates, the planner deals at one time or another with projected hospital admissions; with hospital bed occupancy and the average duration of hospital stay, influencing and influenced by the length of the evacuation policy; and with dispositions from hospital, by type of disposition, returns to duty, out-of-theater evacuations, deaths; and for echelon-to-echelon analysis-transfers to other hospitals. All of these are needed separately for various categories of patients (for example, Army, non-Army; battle casualty, disease and nonbattle injury) and for various types of hospitals (for example, close combat support, and communications zone). While past experience seldom provides exact parallels to the situations with which the planner must deal, it often provides a basis, or at least a starting point, for the development of useful descriptions of relationships among the variables to be considered in planning for hospitalization.

It is extremely difficult at best to present a picture of hospital support in Korea which would reflect the classical configuration of echelon deployment. During the initial stages of the campaign, hospital support was critically short. By the end of the first 6 months, all U.N. casualties had received their care from a maximum of four mobile army surgical hospitals (whose bed capacities increased from 60 to 150 by November 1950), three 400-bed semimobile evacuation hospitals, four 400-bed field hospitals, one station hospital, and three hospital ships (9). During the year 1951, the same four mobile army surgical hospitals (with bed capacities increased to 200 in May 1951) continued in close support of the frontline divisions. In April 1951, an additional unit of this type became operational. Of the three 400-bed semimobile evacuation hospitals, only one continued its mission in reasonably close support of combat troops, one was inactivated in December 1950, and the other was returned to Japan upon the withdrawal from North Korea following the intervention of the Chinese Communists When this latter unit was later recommitted in July 1951 at Taejon, it was too far to the rear to permit its utilization in close support of the divisions. A fourth evacuation hospital was at Conju until the fall of 1951 when it moved to Wonju. Although three additional evacuation hospitals were committed in November 1951, they operated more or less in the role of station hospitals. Of the four field hospitals that had been in Korea in 1950, only one functioned in its normal role and it was inactivated in November 1951. Another that had returned to Japan in December 1950 was recommitted at Koje-do in April 1951 to provide medical care for enemy prisoners of war. The other two field hospitals were in Pusan and they also were engaged in treating enemy prisoners. The one station hospital activated in 1950 was operational in Pusan until November 1951, when it was inactivated. A second station hospital was operational in Pusan until October 1951.

HOSPITAL SYSTEM IN KOREA, 1952

With the initiation of truce talks at Kaesong in July 1951 and the subsequent general stabilization of battlelines, the functions of certain hospitals in the chain of evacuation in Korea became identifiable, although somewhat unorthodox, since the functions of those hospitals were not those indicated by their official designations. Nevertheless, by considering the functions actually performed rather than the unit designations, the relationship of the units to the pattern of hospital operations became generally, discernible, and the framework in which these data are presented, represents a reconstruction


56

of the way in which the hospitalization. and evacuation systems operated in Korea in 1952.

In this manner, 10 separate functional types of hospitals could be identified among the 25 U.S. Army hospitals which were operated at various times by designated U.S. Army medical units in Korea during this period. It was also possible to group nine of the 10 types of U.S. Army hospitals in Korea into the two major zones of operations: the field army area (combat zone) and the communications zone. Since the POW (prisoner-of-war) hospitals were established expressly to treat and care for internees and enemy prisoners of war, they are considered as a separate group and have not been identified with either of the two major operational echelons of hospitalization.

Calendar Year 1952 is particularly relevant to this analysis because it represented a period during which the hospitalization and evacuation pattern for Korea remained fairly even, reflecting the relative stabilization of battlelines which took place after initiation of truce talks in mid-1951.

The character of tactical operations is reflected in the frontispiece which shows admissions for U.S. Army personnel to hospital and quarters, for each month, in terms of numbers per year per 1,000 average strength. For the first 5 months of 1952, the trend of the battle casualty rates reflects relatively minor engagements, patrol skirmishes, and occasional raids into enemy territory. In June, the battle casualty admission rate tripled when heavy fighting for possession of strategic heights broke out in the Chorwon-Yonchon sector of the central front. A seesaw "battle of the ridges" continued during July, settling down in August to localized though bitter battles for individual hills: "Old Baldy," "T-Bone," and "Bunker Hill." Fighting for the latter hill raged on indecisively during September. Battle casualty admissions reached their peak for the year during October, when the Communists launched a coordinated attack (the largest of the year) on the western and central fronts. Wounded admissions declined sharply in November and December, reflecting curtailment of combat operations in the severe winter weather.

Variations in admission rates for nonbattle causes reflected annual seasonal influences to some extent; the rate for February represented a winter peak, and rates for January and March were relatively high. The subsequent decline was interrupted in May- increased incidence of neuropsychiatric conditions and of malaria was reported, coincident with increasing intensity of combat- but the downward trend was resumed in September.

It should be pointed out that the situation depicted is perhaps completely atypical in some respects- for example, a very high proportion of patients in Army hospitals in Korea in 1952 were non-Army personnel, chiefly, prisoners of war. On the other hand, these data present a body of data pertaining to all hospitals in a combat area-communications zone system although, ordinarily, readily available logistical information pertains only to fixed hospitals. While the data provide a historically valid quantitative account of a 12-month period of wartime Army hospital operations in Korea as they actually took place, it is necessary to emphasize that any critical analysis of these data should evaluate very carefully the many special factors which influenced them.

SOURCE OF DATA

Each Army medical treatment facility which provided hospital beds was required to submit a Beds and Patients Report (DD Form 443) each month to The Surgeon General and to senior medical officers in appropriate intermediate headquarters. These data were obtained from that report, which was submitted weekly as required by Army regulations in effect in 1952 (10). The report included the number of admissions to hospitals, distinguishing "initial" admissions (patients, admitted directly, and patients referred from dispensaries, aid stations, and other nonhospital facilities) from admissions by transfer from other hospitals. The number of dispositions from hospital by type (such as duty, death, evacuation to the United States, and transfers to other medical treatment facilities) was also included, along with the patient census and the number of beds occupied. These data were reported separately for several types of patients- Army, Navy-Marine Corps, and Air Force active-duty personnel, and other patients as a group. When a facility's patients included battle casualties, a separate report pertaining to battle casualties was submitted. Medical treatment facilities providing hospital care for prisoners of war also furnished data pertaining specifically to that category of patients.

OUTPATIENT AND QUARTERS CARE

Although these data deal with hospitalization in Korea, it is of background interest to note briefly the size of the nonhospital patient care workload in


57

that particular area during this period of the Korean War.

Of those who required care at Army medical treatment facilities, the majority were not, of course, admitted to hospital or excused from duty for treatment elsewhere, but were, in reality, attended as outpatients. During 1952, in Korea, there were more than 4,700,000 visits to Army medical treatment facilities by outpatients; and almost 1,500,000 of these outpatient visits were made by Army active-duty personnel, at sick call or at other times (11).

The patient who is admitted in the course of a visit to a medical treatment facility is not reported as an outpatient. He is a "direct admission"- that is, for U.S. military personnel, a patient excused from duty (retained past midnight, so that his organization's Morning Report reflects a change in his status) for treatment in hospital or "quarters," including nonhospital facilities such as aid stations, clearing stations, and dispensaries. During calendar year 1952, Army, hospitals and other Army medical treatment facilities in Korea reported some 133,172 admissions "to hospital and quarters" for Army active-duty personnel, including 12,007 wounded admissions and 121,165 disease and nonbattle injuries.

Of these admissions to hospital and quarters, treatment for a high proportion was completed forward of hospital or while they were in a "quarters" status- they did not become hospital admissions. Thus, in Korea during 1952, there were approximately 73,000 initial admissions to hospital for U.S. Army personnel, the remaining excused-from-duty patients being treated not as hospital patients but in "quarters" or in nonhospital facilities. For U.S. Army personnel in Korea, the rates of admission per year per l,000 average strength were as follows: to hospital and quarters for all causes, 576, and to hospital, 326; for wounded, to hospital and quarters, 52, and to hospital, 44; and for nonbattle causes, to hospital and quarters, 524, and to hospital, 282.

LIMITATIONS OF DATA

Tables 54 through 57 present data on patient flow and other hospitalization data in detail, for all personnel and for U.S. Army personnel, separately, by cause of admission (battle and nonbattle) for individual U.S. Army hospitals operating in Korea during 1952. The data are also presented for functional groups of hospitals.

It will be observed that "initial admissions" have not been supplied for the individual hospitals listed in tables 54-57. While the total number of hospital admissions reported from Korea in 1952 appears to be valid, analysis indicates that the reported number of initial hospital admissions was understated, particularly for Army patients admitted for nonbattle causes, with a corresponding overstatement in the number of admissions by transfer. Such, a disparity may arise when personnel at rearward hospitals assume erroneously that patients from forward units should be reported as "transfers," the presumption being that they will already have been reported as initial admissions by forward hospitals. Unfortunately, such an assumption is perhaps least valid when it is most tempting to make it during periods of peak admission loads. Peak work-loads at hospitals in the rear may reflect increased activity at the front, which, of itself, may have required unusual or changed evacuation procedures- that is, medical treatment facilities normally in the chain of evacuation may have been bypassed, or fighting on a flank may have resulted in a large number of casualties in an area to which forward medical facilities had not yet been deployed, so that the casualties were moved directly to rearward hospitals. Valid estimates of the correct numbers of the initial admissions and of admissions by transfer may be obtained for the entire area by considering the number and nature of the dispositions reported. Reasonably precise "corrections" may also be made in the data pertaining to groups of hospitals. However, estimating "corrections" for individual hospitals is more difficult and requires information not readily available. Consequently, estimated numbers of initial hospital admissions and of admissions by transfer are presented for the Korean area as a whole and for groups of hospitals, but such estimates for individual hospitals are not shown. It may be presumed with some certainty, of course, that virtually all admissions to hospitals in the field army close-support group were initial admissions.

FIELD ARMY AREA HOSPITALS

Units operating hospitals in the field, army area included five, designated as 60-bed mobile army surgical hospitals, but augmented to 200-bed evacuation hospitals. These evacuation hospitals (semimobile) furnisbed close support to the frontline troops. One of these hospitals (8225th MASH) became inoperational at the end of May 1952. At that time, the portion of the line to its front was held by Republic of Korea troops. However, it was later reopened, in September 1952, as a 60-bed


58

Table 54.- Patient flow and other hospitalization data, U.S. Army hospitals, Korea, 1952, all personnel, nonbattle causes

Major echelon of operation, type of hospital function, and specific unit designation

Patient census, start 1952

Total admissions

Average daily number beds occupied2

Average duration in hospital (days)2

Disposition of patients by type

Patient census, end 1952

Total1

Initial1

Transfer1

All dispositions

Duty

Death

Hospital transfers intra-Korea

Evacuation to Japan

Other dispositions

Field Army area hospitals, total

705

80,706

50,873

29,833

850

7.6

80,618

31,145

372

40,355

7,820

926

793

First level, close support, total

290

35,989

35,989

(4)

209

2.4

36,137

8,173

214

26,773

89

888

142

Evacuation hospitals (semimobile) (200-bed),5 total

290

34,157

34,157

(4)

192

2.1

34,335

7,515

212

25,647

89

872

112

8055th MASH (43d Surgical)

92

11,659

(6)

(6)

48

1.7

11,711

1,674

45

9,966

(4)

26

40

8063d MASH (44th Surgical)

59

6,869

(6)

(6)

38

2.0

6,893

1,360

84

5,360

89

(4)

35

8076th MASH (45th Surgical)

24

7,094

(6)

(6)

34

1.8

7,105

1,999

32

4,496

(4)

578

13

8209th MASH (46th Surgical)

91

6,599

(6)

(6)

58

3.2

6,666

1,887

40

4,471

(4)

208

24

8225th MASH (47th Surgical)

24

1,936

(6)

(6)

33

2.5

1,960

595

11

1,354

(4)

(4)

(4)

Surgical hospital (mobile-army) (60-bed), 8225th MASH (47th Surgical)7

(4)

349

(6)

(6)

4

1.3

345

29

2

314

(4)

(4)

4

Transfer point, holding stations (60-120 bed), 629th Medical Clearing Co. (Sep)8

(4)

1,483

(6)

(6)

19

3.0

1,457

629

(4)

812

(4)

16

26

Second level, Army rear, total

415

44,717

14,884

29,833

641

7.3

44,481

22,972

158

13,582

7,731

38

651

Evacuation hospitals (semimobile) (400-bed), total

415

40,651

13,313

27,338

505

4.6

40,591

20,212

107

12,755

7,517

(4)

475

11th Evacuation Hospital

199

14,299

(6)

(6)

254

6.6

14.374

8.183

42

3,919

2,229

(4)

125

121st Evacuation Hospital

216

26,352

(6)

(6)

251

3.6

26,218

12,029

65

8,836

5,288

(4)

350

Specialized treatment hospitals, total

(4)

4,066

1,571

2,495

136

19.0

3,890

2,760

51

827

214

38

176

Hemorrhagic fever and cold injury hospital (200-bed),5 8228th MASH (48th Surgical)9

(4)

2,237

(6)

(6)

133

16.8

2,091

1,386

50

618

(4)

37

146

Neuropsychiatric hospital (300-bed), 123d Medical Holding Co. and 212th Psychiatric Detachment10

(4)

1,829

(6)

(6)

48

7.4

1,799

1,374

1

209

214

1

30

Communications Zone hospitals, total (less POW)

1,068

30,288

25,998

13,290

1,162

11.6

39,011

23,573

134

1,806

9,372

4,126

1,345

Station, hospitals (400-bed), total

768

30,207

21,218

8,989

674

8.5

30,351

20,226

32

666

8,806

621

624

21st Evacuation Hospital

282

15,188

(6)

(6)

325

8.1

15,083

10,283

16

263

4,104

417

387

22d Evacuation Hospital11

346

4,564

(6)

(6)

288

9.8

4,910

3,726

2

64

1,106

12

(4)

25th Evacuation Hospital

140

10,455

(6)

(6)

224

8.0

10,358

6,217

14

339

3,596

192

237

Army unit with Swedish Red Cross hospital (400-bed), 8211th Medical Administrative Detachment

154

3,705

(6)

(6)

208

21.1

3,604

1,751

80

95

565

1,113

255

Korean Service Corps-station hospital (400-bed), 171st Evacuation Hospital

146

5,376

(6)

(6)

280

19.9

5,056

1,596

22

1,045

1

2,392

466

Prisoner-of-war hospitals, total

6,163

42,265

37,003

5,262

6,398

65.2

42,491

33,779

876

6,968

(4)

868

5,937

3d and 14th Field Hospitals (800-bed combined)12

4,789

8,020

(6)

(6)

3,864

147.6

11,475

8,033

591

2,234

(4)

617

1,334

64th Field Hospital (400-bed)

1,347

30,238

(6)

(6)

2,448

31.6

27,234

23,411

264

3,557

(4)

2

4,378

514th Medical Clearing Company13

(4)

2,741

(6)

(6)

72

6.7

2,599

1,561

19

770

(4)

249

142

1st Platoon (100-bed)

((4))

(585)

(6)

(6)

(19)

7.9

(559)

(200)

(5)

(231)

(4)

(123)

(26)

2nd Platoon (100-bed)

((4))

(1,556)

(6)

(6)

(32)

5.3

(1,487)

(884)

(2)

(475)

(4)

(126)

(69)

3d Platoon (100-bed)

((4))

(600)

(6)

(6)

(21)

9.2

(553)

(477)

(12)

(64)

(4)

(4)

(47)

543d Medical Clearing Company (200-bed)14

(4)

1,266

(6)

(6)

90

11.3

1,183

774

2

407

(4)

(4)

83


59

    1 Group totals estimated.
    2 As indicated in these notes, some hospitals were not operational throughout the entire calendar year. Averages in this column pertain to the actual period of operation for individual hospitals; for echelon and other groups, however, averages pertain to the entire year. Consequently, individual hospital averages as shown do not in all cases add to averages for the groups.
    3 Estimated on the basis of summary report data.
    4 Indicates no patients and so forth were reported, or that a computed average was smaller than 0.5 or 0.05, as applicable.
    5 In 1953, these hospitals were reorganized and redesignated from 200-bed units functioning as evacuation hospitals (and one specialized hospital) to 60-bed surgical hospitals with missions appropriate to that type of unit. For convenient reference, the new designations applicable in 1953 are shown in parentheses.
    6 Although group totals have been estimated, such estimates are not feasible, on the basis of available data, for individual hospitals. See discussion in text.
    7 Functioned as an evacuation hospital, January-May 1952, inclusive. In June 1952, this hospital was placed on a standby training basis, and was reopened in September 1952 as a 60-bed surgical hospital, operating as such through the remainder of the year.
    8 Functioning during the period May-December 1952, inclusive. This unit operated seven holding stations at points of transfer from ambulance to rail or air transport. This table does not reflect the unit's holding station operations, however ; patients received at transfer points and held for very brief periods awaiting further transportation are not accounted for as admissions or otherwise in summary statistical reports of hospital patients. Data shown pertain to personnel from organizations in the vicinity of those stations, for which the clearing company provided primary medical care.
    9 Functioning during the period April-December 1952, inclusive.
    10 Functioning during the period April-December 1952, inclusive. These two units were designated as the 123d Medical Holding Hospital.
    11 Functioning during the period January-May 1952, inclusive.
    12 These two units combined operated a single POW hospital at Pusan until the summer of 1952, when the 3d Field Hospital moved to the island of Cheju-do. However, single monthly reports for the two hospitals combined were received throughout 1952.
    13 Functioning during the period April-Deceraber 1952, inclusive.
    14 Functioning during the period August-December 1952, inclusive. The lst Platoon operated a 150-bed hospital, while the 2d and 3d Platoons each operated a 50-bed holding hospital for POW patients awaiting evacuation to the rear. However, only single monthly reports for the three platoons combined were received throughout 1952.

    Source: Beds and Patients Report (DD Form 443).


60

Table 55.- Patient flow and other hospitalization data, U.S. Army hospitals, Korea, 1952, U.S. Army personnel, nonbattle causes

Major echelon of operation, type of hospital function, and specific unit designation

Patient census, start 1952

Total admissions

Average daily number beds occupied2

Average duration in hospital (days)2

Disposition of patients by type

Patient census, end 1952

Total1

Initial1

Transfer1

All dispositions

Duty

Death

Hospital transfers intra-Korea

Evacuation to Japan

Other dispositions

Field Army area hospitals, total

582

67,438

42,284

25,154

685

6.1

67,406

27,246

174

33,649

6,315

22

614

First level, close support, total

223

29,291

29,291

(4)

144

1.9

29,425

6,540

95

22,697

71

22

89

Evacuation hospitals (semimobile) (200-bed),5 total

223

27,690

27,690

(4)

130

1.8

27,848

5,946

94

21,715

71

22

65

8055th MASH (43d Surgical)

70

9,271

(6)

(6)

34

1.5

9,321

1,244

22

8,054

(4)

1

20

8063d MASH (44th Surgical)

40

5,266

(6)

(6)

25

1.8

5,284

1,007

28

4,178

71

(4)

22

8076th MASH (45th Surgical)

22

5,802

(6)

(6)

21

1.3

5,818

1,619

18

4,167

(4)

14

6

8209th MASH (46th Surgical)

70

5,718

(6)

(6)

43

2.8

5,771

1,548

21

4,195

(4)

7

17

8225th MASH (47th Surgical)

21

1,633

(6)

(6)

22

2.0

1,654

528

5

1,121

(4)

(4)

(4)

Surgical hospital (mobile-army) (60-bed), 8225th MASH (47th Surgical)7

(4)

248

(6)

(6)

2

1.0

247

22

1

224

(4)

(4)

1

Transfer point, holding stations (60-120 bed), 629th Medical Clearing Co. (Sep)8

(4)

1,353

(6)

(6)

18

3.0

1,330

572

(4)

758

(4)

(4)

23

Second level, Army rear, total

359

38,147

13,196

24,951

541

6.7

37,981

20,706

79

10,952

6,244

(4)

525

Evacuation hospitals (semimobile) (400-bed), total

359

34,889

11,915

22,974

432

4.6

34,867

18,398

50

10,363

6,056

(4)

381

11th Evacuation Hospital

184

13,296

(6)

(6)

227

6.3

13,379

7,612

23

3,655

2,089

(4)

101

121st Evacuation Hospital

175

21,593

(6)

(6)

205

3.6

21,488

10,786

27

6,708

3,967

(4)

280

Specialized treatment hospitals, total

(4)

3,258

1,281

1,977

109

14.9

3,114

2,308

29

589

188

(4)

144

Hemorrhagic fever and cold injury hospital (200-bed),5 8228th MASH (48th Surgical)9

(4)

1,625

(6)

(6)

103

18.0

1,506

1,057

28

421

(4)

(4)

119

Neuropsychiatric hospital (300-bed), 123d Medical Holding Co. and 212th Psychiatric Detachment10

(4)

1,633

(6)

(6)

42

7.4

1,608

1,251

1

168

188

(4)

25

Communications Zone hospitals, total (less POW)

891

30,716

19,760

10,956

737

9.3

30,934

21,432

13

1,185

8,283

21

673

Station, hospitals (400-bed), total

674

26,858

18,852

8,006

594

8.5

26,995

18,591

12

546

7,826

20

537

21st Evacuation Hospital

241

13,663

(6)

(6)

288

8.1

13,571

9,655

6

219

3,679

12

333

22d Evacuation Hospital11

322

4,262

(6)

(6)

267

9.7

4,584

3,504

2

60

1,014

4

(4)

25th Evacuation Hospital

111

8,933

(6)

(6)

190

8.0

8,840

5,432

4

267

3,133

4

204

Army unit with Swedish Red Cross hospital (400-bed), 8211th Medical Administrative Detachment

75

1,851

(6)

(6)

84

17.0

1,813

1,281

1

74

456

1

113

Korean Service Corps-station hospital (400-bed), 171st Evacuation Hospital

142

2,007

(6)

(6)

58

10.4

2,126

1,560

(4)

565

1

(4)

23

Prisoner-of-war hospitals, total

3

1,785

1,785

(4)

27

5.7

1,775

671

3

1,098

(4)

3

13

3d and 14th Field Hospitals (800-bed combined)12

(4)

(4)

(4)

(4)

(4)

(4)

(4)

(4)

(4)

(4)

(4)

(4)

(4)

64th Field Hospital (400-bed)

3

1,501

(6)

(6)

25

6.2

1,494

460

2

1,032

(4)

(4)

10

514th Medical Clearing Company13

(4)

279

(6)

(6)

3

3.3

276

210

1

62

(4)

3

3

1st Platoon (100-bed)

(4)

(88)

(6)

(6)

(1)

2.5

(86)

(40)

(1)

(42)

((4))

(3)

(2)

2nd Platoon (100-bed)

(4)

(53)

(6)

(6)

(1)

3.8

(53)

(52)

((4))

(1)

((4))

((4))

((4))

3d Platoon (100-bed)

(4)

(138)

(6)

(6)

(2)

3.7

(137)

(118)

((4))

(19)

((4))

((4))

(1)

543d Medical Clearing Company (200-bed)14

(4)

5

(6)

(6)

(4)

3.0

5

1

(4)

4

(4)

(4)

(4)


61

    1 Group totals estimated.
    2 As indicated in these notes, some hospitals were not operational throughout the entire calendar year. Averages in this column pertain to the actual period of operation for individual hospitals; for echelon and other groups, however, averages pertain to the entire year. Consequently, individual hospital averages as shown do not in all cases add to averages for the groups.
    3 Estimated on the basis of summary report data.
    4 Indicates no patients and so forth were reported, or that a computed average was smaller than 0.5 or 0.05, as applicable.
    5 In 1953, these hospitals were reorganized and redesignated from 200-bed units functioning as evacuation hospitals (and one specialized hospital) to 60-bed surgical hospitals with missions appropriate to that type of unit. For convenient reference, the new designations applicable in 1953 are shown in parentheses.
    6 Although group totals have been estimated, such estimates are not feasible, on the basis of available data, for individual hospitals. See discussion in text.
    7 Functioned as an evacuation hospital, January-May 1952, inclusive. In June 1952, this hospital was placed on a standby training basis, and was reopened in September 1952 as a 60-bed surgical hospital, operating as such through the remainder of the year.
    8 Functioning during the period May-December 1952, inclusive. This unit operated seven holding stations at points of transfer from ambulance to rail or air transport. This table does not reflect the unit's holding station operations, however ; patients received at transfer points and held for very brief periods awaiting further transportation are not accounted for as admissions or otherwise in summary statistical reports of hospital patients. Data shown pertain to personnel from organizations in the vicinity of those stations, for which the clearing company provided primary medical care, and so forth.
    9 Functioning during the period April-December 1952, inclusive.
    10 Functioning during the period April-December 1952, inclusive. These two units were designated as the 123d Medical Holding Hospital.
    11 Functioning during the period January-May 1952, inclusive.
    12 These two units combined operated a single POW hospital at Pusan until the summer of 1952, when the 3d Field Hospital moved to the island of Cheju-do. However, single monthly reports for the two hospitals combined were received throughout 1952.
    13 Functioning during the period April-Deceraber 1952, inclusive.
    14 Functioning during the period August-December 1952, inclusive. The lst Platoon operated a 150-bed hospital, while the 2d and 3d Platoons each operated a 50-bed holding hospital for POW patients awaiting evacuation to the rear. However, only single monthly reports for the three platoons combined were received throughout 1952.

    Source: Beds and Patients Report (DD Form 443).


62

Table 56.- Patient flow and other hospitalization data, U.S. Army hospitals, Korea, 1952, all personnel, battle causes

Major echelon of operation, type of hospital function, and specific unit designation

Patient census, start 1952

Total admissions

Average daily number beds occupied2

Average duration in hospital (days)3

Disposition of patients by type

Patient census, end 1952

Total

Initial1

Transfer1

All dispositions

Duty

Death

Hospital transfers intra-Korea

Evacuation to Japan

Other dispositions

Field Army area hospitals, total

145

22,838

13,704

9,134

156

4.3

22,875

968

456

15,098

5,627

726

108

First level, close support, total

72

13,205

13,204

1

79

2.3

13,238

424

401

11,389

298

726

39

Evacuation hospitals (semimobile) (200-bed),4 total

72

12,546

12,546

(5)

78

2.3

12,580

414

398

10,745

298

725

38

8055th MASH (43d Surgical)

2

4,796

(6)

(6)

22

1.8

4,784

179

58

4,547

(5)

(5)

14

8063d MASH (44th Surgical)

28

3,266

(6)

(6)

19

2.2

3,288

53

175

2,762

298

(5)

6

8076th MASH (45th Surgical)

11

1,206

(6)

(6)

10

3.1

1,213

44

47

695

(5)

427

4

8209th MASH (46th Surgical)

22

2,914

(6)

(6)

24

3.1

2,922

112

112

2,400

(5)

298

14

8225th MASH (47th Surgical)

9

364

(6)

(6)

8

3.2

373

26

6

341

(5)

(5)

(5)

Surgical hospital (mobile-army) (60-bed), 8225th MASH (47th Surgical)7

(5)

539

(6)

(6)

6

1.1

538

9

3

526

(5)

(5)

1

Transfer point, holding stations (60-120 bed), 629th Medical Clearing Co. (Sep)8

(5)

120

(6)

(6)

1

0.3

120

1

(5)

118

(5)

1

(5)

Second level, Army rear, total

73

9,633

500

9,133

77

3.0

9,637

544

55

3,709

5,329

(5)

69

Evacuation hospitals (semimobile) (400-bed), total

73

9,633

500

9,133

77

3.0

9,637

544

55

3,709

5,329

(5)

69

11th Evacuation Hospital

25

2,971

(6)

(6)

37

4.6

2,979

315

34

1,209

1,421

(5)

17

121st Evacuation Hospital

48

6,662

(6)

(6)

40

2.2

6,658

229

21

2,500

3,908

(5)

52

Specialized treatment hospitals, total

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

Communications Zone hospitals, total (less POW)

224

6,184

716

5,468

213

13.6

6,147

2,666

5

183

2,819

474

261

Station, hospitals (400-bed), total

135

4,298

557

3,741

84

7.8

4,389

1,742

2

79

2,539

27

44

21st Evacuation Hospital

65

1,627

(6)

(6)

28

7.6

1,678

628

(5)

36

993

21

14

22d Evacuation Hospital9

35

237

(6)

(6)

21

13.3

272

172

1

1

98

(5)

(5)

25th Evacuation Hospital

35

2,434

(6)

(6)

47

7.2

2,439

942

1

42

1,448

6

30

Army unit with Swedish Red Cross hospital (400-bed), 8211th Medical Administrative Detachment

62

1,125

(6)

(6)

61

20.0

1,138

826

(5)

32

280

(5)

49

Korean Service Corps-station hospital (400-bed), 171st Evacuation Hospital

27

761

(6)

(6)

68

36.5

620

98

3

72

(5)

447

168

Prisoner-of-war hospitals, total

2,854

259

45

214

1,367

318.8

2,923

2,378

10

532

(5)

3

190

3d and 14th Field Hospitals (800-bed combined)10

2,854

259

(6)

(6)

1,367

318.8

2,923

2,378

10

532

(5)

3

190

    1 Group totals estimated.
    2 As indicated in these notes, some hospitals were not operational throughout the entire calendar year. Averages in this column pertain to the actual period of operation for individual hospitals; for echelon and other groups, however, averages pertain to the entire year. Consequently, individual hospital averages as shown do not in all cases add to averages for the groups.
    3 Estimated on the basis of summary report data.
    4 In 1953, these hospitals were reorganized and redesignated from 200-bed units functioning as evacuation hospitals (and one specialized hospital) to 60-bed surgical hospitals with missions appropriate to that type of unit. For convenient reference, the new designations applicable in 1953 are shown in parentheses.
    5Indicates no patients and so forth were reported, or that a computed average was smaller than 0.5 or 0.05, as applicable.
    6 Although group totals have been estimated, such estimates are not feasible, on the basis of available data, for individual hospitals. See discussion in text.
    7 Functioned as an evacuation hospital, January-May 1952, inclusive. In June 1952, this hospital was placed on a standby training basis, and was reopened in September 1952 as a 60-bed surgical hospital, operating as such through the remainder of the year.
    8 Functioning during the period May-December 1952, inclusive. This unit operated seven holding stations at points of transfer from ambulance to rail or air transport. This table does not reflect the unit's holding station operations, however ; patients received at transfer points and held for very brief periods awaiting further transportation are not accounted for as admissions or otherwise in summary statistical reports of hospital patients. Data shown pertain to personnel from organizations in the vicinity of those stations, for which the clearing company provided primary medical care, and so forth.
    9 Functioning during the period April-December 1952, inclusive.
    10 These two units combined operated a single POW hospital at Pusan until the summer of 1952, when the 3d Field Hospital moved to the island of Cheju-do. However, single monthly reports for the two hospitals combined were received throughout 1952.

    Source: Beds and Patients Report (DD Form 443).


63

Table 57.- Patient flow and other hospitalization data, U.S. Army hospitals, Korea, 1952, all personnel, battle causes

Major echelon of operation, type of hospital function, and specific unit designation

Patient census, start 1952

Total admissions

Average daily number beds occupied2

Average duration in hospital (days)3

Disposition of patients by type

Patient census, end 1952

Total

Initial1

Transfer1

All dispositions

Duty

Death

Hospital transfers intra-Korea

Evacuation to Japan

Other dispositions

Field Army area hospitals, total

99

16,629

9,529

7,100

101

4.0

16,686

786

197

11,287

4,412

4

42

First level, close support, total

49

9,465

9,464

1

47

1.9

9,496

335

169

8,769

219

4

18

Evacuation hospitals (semimobile) (200-bed),4 total

49

8,998

8,998

(5)

46

1.9

9,019

326

166

8,304

219

4

18

8055th MASH (43d Surgical)

1

3,578

(6)

(6)

14

1.7

3,570

143

38

3,389

(5)

(5)

9

8063d MASH (44th Surgical)

18

2,251

(6)

(6)

12

2.0

2,268

45

69

1,935

219

(5)

1

8076th MASH (45th Surgical)

9

577

(6)

(6)

3

1.9

586

33

5

547

(5)

1

(5)

8209th MASH (46th Surgical)

16

2,296

(6)

(6)

14

2.3

2,304

83

51

2,167

(5)

3

8

8225th MASH (47th Surgical)

5

286

(6)

(6)

5

2.5

291

22

3

266

(5)

(5)

(5)

Surgical hospital (mobile-army) (60-bed), 8225th MASH (47th Surgical)7

(5)

399

(6)

(6)

5

1.2

399

8

3

388

(5)

(5)

(5)

Transfer point, holding stations (60-120 bed), 629th Medical Clearing Co. (Sep)8

(5)

78

(6)

(6)

(5)

0.2

78

1

(5)

77

(5)

(5)

(5)

Second level, Army rear, total

50

7,164

65

7,099

54

2.8

7,190

451

28

2,518

4,193

(5)

24

Evacuation hospitals (semimobile) (400-bed), total

50

7,164

65

7,099

54

2.8

7,190

451

28

2,518

4,193

(5)

24

11th Evacuation Hospital

21

2,705

(6)

2,705

32

4.4

2,713

297

19

1,059

1,338

(5)

13

121st Evacuation Hospital

29

4,459

65

4,394

22

1.8

4,477

154

9

1,459

2,855

(5)

11

Specialized treatment hospitals, total

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

Communications Zone hospitals, total (less POW)

199

5,160

519

4,641

136

10.3

5,277

2,479

1

135

2,660

2

82

Station, hospitals (400-bed), total

119

4,031

510

3,521

77

7.5

4,112

1,654

1

56

2,399

2

38

21st Evacuation Hospital

55

1,479

198

1,281

24

6.9

1,525

581

(5)

26

918

(5)

9

22d Evacuation Hospital9

31

230

5

225

20

13.1

261

166

(5)

1

94

(5)

(5)

25th Evacuation Hospital

33

2,322

307

2,015

45

7.2

2,326

907

1

29

1,387

2

29

Army unit with Swedish Red Cross hospital (400-bed), 8211th Medical Administrative Detachment

55

1,004

2

1,002

54

19.8

1,015

727

(5)

27

261

(5)

44

Korean Service Corps-station hospital (400-bed), 171st Evacuation Hospital

25

125

7

118

6

16.2

150

98

(5)

52

(5)

(5)

(5)

Prisoner-of-war hospitals, total

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

(5)

    1 Group totals estimated.
    2 As indicated in these notes, some hospitals were not operational throughout the entire calendar year. Averages in this column pertain to the actual period of operation for individual hospitals; for echelon and other groups, however, averages pertain to the entire year. Consequently, individual hospital averages as shown do not in all cases add to averages for the groups.
    3 Estimated on the basis of summary report data.
    4 In 1953, these hospitals were reorganized and redesignated from 200-bed units functioning as evacuation hospitals (and one specialized hospital) to 60-bed surgical hospitals with missions appropriate to that type of unit. For convenient reference, the new designations applicable in 1953 are shown in parentheses.
    5Indicates no patients and so forth were reported, or that a computed average was smaller than 0.5 or 0.05, as applicable.
    6 Although group totals have been estimated, such estimates are not feasible, on the basis of available data, for individual hospitals. See discussion in text.
    7 Functioned as an evacuation hospital, January-May 1952, inclusive. In June 1952, this hospital was placed on a standby training basis, and was reopened in September 1952 as a 60-bed surgical hospital, operating as such through the remainder of the year.
    8 Functioning during the period May-December 1952, inclusive. This unit operated seven holding stations at points of transfer from ambulance to rail or air transport. This table does not reflect the unit's holding station operations, however ; patients received at transfer points and held for very brief periods awaiting further transportation are not accounted for as admissions or otherwise in summary statistical reports of hospital patients. Data shown pertain to personnel from organizations in the vicinity of those stations, for which the clearing company provided primary medical care, and so forth.
    9 Functioning during the period April-December 1952, inclusive.

    Source: Beds and Patients Report (DD Form 443).

 


64

surgical hospital and, in October 1952, was placed in support of a U.S. Army infantry division near the Punchbowl area.

From these hospitals, patients were transported by ambulance to the air bases and railheads (where holding stations were operated by a separate medical clearing company) for air or rail evacuation to two 400-bed semimobile evacuation hospitals. The latter two hospitals were authorized to determine the next destination of patients requiring evacuation to southern Korea and to Japan. They were, too far to the rear to furnish close support or to function as evacuation hospitals in the strictest sense; therefore, to distinguish them from the close-support evacuation hospitals (semimobile, 200 bed), the term "second level-Army rear" has been coined.

From tables 54-57, it may be seen that all admissions at the close-support 200-bed evacuation hospitals and at the surgical hospital were initial admissions, while about three-quarters of all dispositions were transfers to other hospitals in Korea. These, units operated in, immediate support of the frontline troops and, therefore, received their patients either directly or from aid stations and clearing companies. On the other hand, the second-level 400-bed evacuation hospitals received almost all (90 percent) of their patients by transfer from the frontline hospitals. About one-half of the dispositions at second-level 400-bed evacuation hospitals were returns to duty, about one-fourth were evacuations to Japan, and one-fourth were transfers to communications zone hospitals in Korea.

Tables 54-57 also include data for two specialized treatment hospitals which were part of the field army area hospitalization system in Korea. The specialized treatment center for epidemic hemorrhagic fever was established in April 1952, and operated by a unit with table-of-organization-and-equipment designations as a mobile army surgical hospital. During the winter of 1952-53, this hospital also functioned as the Eighth U.S. Army Cold Injury Treatment Center. A neuropsychiatric hospital was also established in April 1952 to treat and rehabilitate all neuropsychiatric cases for U.S. and U.N. Forces in Korea. This hospital was operated by a medical holding company combined with a psychiatric detachment.

COMMUNICATIONS ZONE HOSPITALS

Tables 54-57 also identify the U.S. Army units and present the patient flow and other hospitalization data for U.S. Army hospitals in the communications zone. (As used here, the term " communications zone " refers to location and function rather than to organizational affiliation. The Korean Communications Zone per se did not become operational until August 1952, at which time it assumed control of the existing hospitals operating in the rear areas.) The rear-area hospitals in Korea during 1952 consisted of four 400-bed evacuation hospitals, which functioned as station hospitals and also provided care for patients evacuated from forward medical treatment facilities. One of these (22d Evacuation Hospital) became inoperational in June 1952. Another (171st Evacuation, Hospital) provided hospital support to the Korean Service Corps (labor) personnel. In addition, there was an Army unit which operated with the Swedish Red Cross Hospital.

The communications zone hospitals received about one-half of their nonbattle admissions as initial admissions and one-half as admissions by transfer from other hospitals. Almost all of the battle admissions were by transfer. Most of the dispositions at the communications zone hospitals were returns to duty. Evacuations to Japan made up about one-fourth of their dispositions.

PRISONER-OF-WAR HOSPITALS

Detailed information for enemy POW hospitals operated by U.S. Army units in Korea during 1952 are also included in tables 54-57. Three field hospitals and two medical clearing companies operated a total of nine POW hospitals. The 3d Field hospital and the 14th Field hospital operated a combined POW hospital at Pusan until the summer of 1952, when the 3d Field hospital moved to the island of Cheju-do. However, only a consolidated monthly Beds and Patients Report for both hospitals combined was received throughout 1952. Therefore, the data are presented as for one hospital, rather than for each of the two hospitals. The 64th Field hospital was the third U.S. Army unit of this type. The remaining six POW hospitals were operated by the three platoons of each of two separate medical clearing companies. While, reports were received from each of the three platoons of one of these units, the 514th Medical Clearing Company, only a consolidated report was furnished by the 543d Medical Clearing, Company. For the latter, the combined data are presented as for one hospital rather than


65

for each of the three hospitals which the company actually operated.

CATEGORY OF PERSONNEL

As a presentation of admission workload, table 58 deals with total hospital admissions; that is, initial admissions and admissions by transfer combined.

Approximately 81 percent (84,067) of the 103,544 admissions (including transfer admissions) to U.S. Army field army area hospitals in Korea during 1952 were Army personnel (table 58). Other U.S. active-duty military personnel accounted for 2,119 admissions (2 percent), while the remaining 17 percent was comprised of 10,823 allied, and neutral military personnel, 456 prisoners of war, and 6,079 "others" (chiefly Korean civilians, but also American National Red Cross personnel, correspondents, and others). The distribution was similar for the 45,472 admissions at the communications zone hospitals, where U.S. Army personnel were responsible for 79 percent of all admissions, other active-duty U.S. military personnel for 4 percent, and other personnel for 17 percent. At the Korean Service Corps station hospital, "other" patients (mainly Korean Service Corps personnel) made up 63 percent of the admissions; and at the POW hospitals, prisoners of war made up 83 percent of the admissions. The percentages of U.S. Army personnel in the total admitted to the latter two types of hospitals were 35 percent and 4 percent, respectively.

CAUSE OF ADMISSION

As did the preceding table, table 59 deals with total hospital admissions, presenting initial and transfer admissions according to cause groups for all patients and for U.S. Army patients. For the Korean area as a whole, the distribution by cause group of initial admissions alone is also of interest. During the year 1952, there were 128,339 initial admissions of all personnel to Army hospitals in this area: 14,465 of battle casualty patients (11 percent of all initial admissions) and 113,874 for nonbattle causes. Initial admissions of U.S. Army personnel for all causes numbered 73,877, of which 10,048 (14 percent) were battle casualty patients and 63,829 were patients admitted for nonbattle causes. Army patients made up 59 percent of those initially admitted for all causes; 69 percent of the initial admissions of battle casualties were Army patients, while initial admissions of Army nonbattle patients represented 56 percent of all patients initially admitted for nonbattle causes.

As seen in table 59, there were 103,544 total admissions (including transfer admissions) of all personnel at field army area hospitals, of which 80,706 (78 percent) were for nonbattle causes (disease and nonbattle injury combined) while 22,838 (22 percent) were for battle causes. U.S. Army personnel accounted for 84 percent of all the nonbattle admissions and 73 percent of all the battle admissions at field army area hospitals. Of the total 84,067 admissions to field army area hos-

Table 58.- Admissions1 to hospital for all causes, by category of personnel and by type of hospital within major operational echelon, U.S. Army hospitals, Korea, 1952

Major echelon of operation and type of hospital function

Total hospital admissions

Active-duty military personnel

Other personnel

Army

Navy

Marine Corps

Air Force

Allied and neutral military personnel

POW

Other

Field Army area hospitals

103,544

84,067

63

673

1,383

10,823

456

6,079

Evacuation (semimobile) (200-bed)

46,703

36,678

7

132

101

5,940

196

3,649

Surgical (mobile-army)

888

647

--

1

--

152

--

88

Holding hospitals

1,603

1,431

--

1

1

108

2

60

Evacuation (semimobile) (400-bed)

50,284

42,053

47

354

1,163

4,319

258

2,090

Hemorrhagic fever and cold injury hospital

2,237

1,625

9

183

6

223

--

191

Neuropsychiatric hospital

1,829

1,633

--

2

112

81

--

1

Communications Zone hospitals

45,472

35,876

41

112

1,462

2,039

60

5,882

Station hospitals

34,505

30,889

40

108

1,386

1,296

6

780

Army unit with Swedish Red Cross hospital

4,830

2,855

--

1

31

684

--

1,259

Korean Service Corps station hospital

6,137

2,132

1

3

45

59

54

3,843

Prisoner-of-war hospitals

42,524

1,785

3

--

--

101

35,271

5,364

    1Admissions shown in this table represent not just initial admissions, but the sum of initial and transfer admissions; thus, a particular patient may be reported at several echelons, and the total shown will be greater than the number of initial admissions to hospital.

    Source: Beds and Patients Report (DD Form 443).

 


66

Table 59.- Admissions1 to hospital, by cause of admission and by type of hospital within major operational echelon, U.S. Army hospitals, Korea, 1952

Major echelon of operation and type of hospital function

All personnel

U.S. Army personnel

All causes

Nonbattle

Battle

All causes

Nonbattle

Battle

Number

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Number

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Field Army area hospitals

103,544

80,706

77.9

22,838

22.1

84,067

67,438

80.2

16,629

19.8

Evacuation (semimobile) (200-bed)

46,703

34,157

73.1

12,546

26.9

36,678

27,690

75.5

8,988

24.5

Surgical (mobile-army)

888

349

39.3

539

60.7

647

248

38.3

399

61.7

Holding hospitals

1,603

1,483

92.5

120

7.5

1,431

1,353

94.5

78

5.5

Evacuation (semimobile) (400-bed)

50,284

40,651

80.8

9,633

19.2

42,053

34,889

83.0

7,164

17.0

Hemorrhagic fever and cold injury hospital

2,237

2,237

100.0

--

--

1,625

1,625

100.0

--

--

Neuropsychiatric hospital

1,829

1,829

100.0

--

--

1,633

1,633

100.0

--

--

Communications Zone hospitals

45,472

39,288

86.4

6,184

13.6

35,876

30,716

85.6

5,160

14.4

Station hospitals

34,505

30,207

87.5

4,298

12.5

30,889

26,858

87.0

4,031

13.0

Army unit with Swedish Red Cross hospital

4,830

3,705

76.7

1,125

23.3

2,855

1,851

64.8

1,004

35.2

Korean Service Corps station hospital

6,137

5,376

87.6

761

12.4

2,132

2,007

94.1

125

5.9

Prisoner-of-war hospitals

42,524

42,265

99.4

259

0.6

1,785

1,785

100.0

--

--

    1Admissions shown in this table represent not just initial admissions, but the sum of initial and transfer admissions; thus, a particular patient may be reported at several echelons, and the total shown will be greater than the number of initial admissions to hospital.

    Source: Beds and Patients Report (DD Form 443).

Table 60.- Dispositions from hospital, by type of hospital within major operational echelon, for selected types of dispositions, U.S. Army hospitals, Kprea, 1952

Major echelon of Operation and type of hospital function

Total dispositions

Duty

Death

Hospital transfers

Evacuation

Other1

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

Number

Percent

All Personnel

All U.S. Army hospitals, Korea

194,065

100.0

94, 509

100.0

1,853

100.0

64,942

100.0

25,638

100.0

7,123

100.0

Field Army area hospitals

103,493

53.3

32,113

34.0

828

44.7

55,453

85.4

13,447

52.4

1,652

23.2

Evacuation (semimobile) (200-bed)

46,915

24.2

7,929

8.4

610

32.9

36,392

56.0

387

1.5

1,597

22.4

Surgical (mobile-army)

883

0.5

38

(2)

5

0.3

840

1.3

(2)

(2)

(2)

(2)

Holding hospitals

1,577

0.8

630

0.7

(2)

(2)

930

1.4

(2)

(2)

17

0.3

Evacuation (semimobile) (400-bed)

50,228

25.8

20,756

22.0

162

8.7

16,464

25.4

12,846

50.1

(2)

(2)

Hemorrhagic fever and cold injury

2,091

1.1

1,386

1.5

50

2.7

618

1.0

(2)

(2)

37

0.5

Neuropsychiatric hospital

1,799

0.9

1,374

1.4

1

0.1

209

0.3

214

0.8

1

0.0

Communications Zone hospitals

45,158

23.3

26,239

27.7

139

7.5

1,989

3.1

12,191

47.6

4,600

64.6

Station hospitals

34,740

18.0

21,968

23.2

34

1.8

745

1.2

11,345

44.3

648

9.1

Army unit with Swedish Red Cross hospital

4,742

2.4

2,577

2.7

80

4.3

127

0.2

845

3.3

1,113

15.6

Korean Service Corps hospital

5,676

2.9

1,694

1.8

25

1.4

1,117

1.7

1

(2)

2,839

39.9

Prisoner-of-war hospitals

45,414

23.4

36,157

38.3

886

47.8

7,500

11.5

(2)

(2)

871

12.2

U.S. Army personnel

All U.S. Army hospitals, Korea

122,078

100.0

52,614

100.0

388

100.0

47,354

100.0

21,670

100.0

52

100.0

Field Army area hospitals

84,092

68.8

28,032

53.3

371

95.6

44,936

94.6

10,727

49.5

26

50.0

Evacuation (semimobile) (200-bed)

36,867

30.2

6,272

11.9

260

67.0

30,019

63.4

290

1.3

26

50.0

Surgical (mobile-army)

646

0.5

30

0.1

4

1.0

612

1.3

(2)

(2)

(2)

(2)

Holding hospitals

1,408

1.2

573

1.1

(2)

(2)

835

1.8

(2)

(2)

(2)

(2)

Evacuation (semimobile) (400-bed)

42,057

34.4

18,849

35.8

78

20.1

12,881

27.2

10,249

47.3

(2)

(2)

Hemorrhagic fever and cold injury

1,506

1.2

1,057

2.0

28

7.2

421

0.9

(2)

(2)

(2)

(2)

Neuropsychiatric hospital

1,608

1.3

1,251

2.4

1

0.3

168

0.3

188

0.9

(2)

(2)

Communications Zone hospitals

36,211

29.7

23,911

45.5

14

3.6

1,320

2.8

10,943

50.5

23

44.2

Station hospitals

31,107

25.5

20,245

38.5

13

3.3

602

1.3

10,225

47.2

22

42.3

Army unit with Swedish Red Cross hospital

2,828

2.3

2, 008

3.8

1

0.3

101

0.2

717

3.3

1

1.9

Korean Service Corps hospital

2,276

1.9

1, 658

3.2

(2)

(2)

617

1.3

1

(2)

(2)

(2)

Prisoner-of-war hospitals

1,775

1.5

671

1.2

3

0.8

1,098

2.3

(2)

(2)

3

5.8

    1 Includes transfers to quarters and patients listed as AWOL.
    2 Indicates that no dispositions were reported, or that a computed percentage was less than 0.05.

    Source: Beds and Patients Report (DD Form 443).

 


67

Table 61.- Percentage distribution of dispositions from hospital, by type of disposition, for selected groupings of U.S. Army hospitals, Korea, 1952

Major echelon of Operation and type of hospital function

All personnel

U.S. Army personnel

Total dispositions

Duty

Death

Hospital transfers intra-Korea

Evacuation to Japan

Other1

Total dispositions

Duty

Death

Hospital transfers intra-Korea

Evacuation to Japan

Other1

Field Army area hospitals

100.0

31.0

0.8

53.6

13.0

1.6

100.0

33.3

0.4

53.4

12.8

(2)

First level, close support

100.0

17.4

1.2

77.3

0.8

3.3

100.0

17.7

0.7

80.8

0.7

0.1

Evacuation (semimobile) (200-bed)

100.0

16.9

1.3

77.6

0.8

3.4

100.0

17.0

0.7

81.4

0.8

0.1

Surgical (mobile-army)

100.0

4.3

0.6

95.1

(2)

(2)

100.0

4.6

0.6

94.7

(2)

(2)

Holding hospitals

100.0

39.9

(2)

59.0

(2)

1.1

100.0

40.7

(2)

59.3

(2)

(2)

Second level, Army rear

100.0

43.5

0.4

32.0

24.1

0.1

100.0

46.8

0.2

29.8

23.1

(2)

Evacuation (semimobile) (400-bed)

100.0

41.3

0.3

32.8

25.6

(2)

100.0

44.8

0.2

30.6

24.4

(2)

Hemorrhagic fever and cold injury

100.0

66.3

2.4

29.6

(2)

1.8

100.0

70.2

1.9

28.0

(2)

(2)

Neuropsychiatric hospital

100.0

76.4

0.1

11.6

11.9

0.1

100.0

77.8

0.1

10.4

11.7

(2)

Communications Zone hospitals

100.0

58.1

0.3

4.4

27.0

10.2

100.0

66.0

(2)

3.6

30.2

0.1

Station hospitals

100.0

63.2

0.1

2.1

32.7

1.9

100.0

65.1

(2)

1.9

32.9

0.1

Army unit with Swedish Red Cross hospital

100.0

54.3

1.7

2.7

17.8

23.5

100.0

71.1

(2)

3.6

5.4

(2)

Korean Service Corps hospital

100.0

29.8

0.4

19.7

(2)

50.0

100.0

72.8

(2)

27.1

(2)

(2)

Prisoner-of-war hospitals

100.0

79.6

2.0

16.5

(2)

1.9

100.0

37.8

0.2

61.9

(2)

0.2

    1 Includes transfers to quarters and patients listed as AWOL.
    2 Indicates that a computed percentage was less than 0.05.

    Source: Beds and Patients Report (DD Form 443).

pitals for U.S. Army personnel, 67,438 (80 percent) were nonbattle and 16,629 (20 percent) were battle admissions. At communications zone hospitals, 86 percent of the total admissions for all personnel were for nonbattle causes, while 14 percent were battle admissions. For most of the groups which have been combined by type of hospital function, nonbattle causes accounted for the great majority of the admissions. The exception was the lone surgical hospital (mobile army), where battle admissions represented 61 percent of the total, compared with only 39 percent for nonbattle admissions. For the other groups, the percentage which nonbattle admissions constituted of all admissions for all personnel ranged from 73 percent for evacuation hospitals (semimobile, 200 bed) to 100 percent for the two specialized treatment hospitals.

TYPE OF DISPOSITION

Tables 60 and 61 show that 194,065 dispositions (including dispositions by transfer) of all personnel (including enemy POW patients) were accomplished by U.S. Army hospitals in Korea during 1952. Of these dispositions, 64,942 were transfers between hospitals within Korea and 25,638 were patients evacuated to Japan. There were 94,509 patients returned to duty, 1,853 deaths, and 7,123 other dispositions (mainly transfers to quarters and patients listed as absent without leave).

Table 60 indicates, as might be expected, that 85 percent of all intra-Korea transfers of patients involved the rearward movement of patients from hospitals in the field army area, while only 3 percent were transfers between hospitals of the communications zone; the balance (12 percent) represents transfers from POW hospitals. Prisoner-of-war patients transferred between POW hospitals represented 10 percent of the intra-Korea, transfers, and 2 percent were U.S. military Personnel transferred from POW hospitals to other U.S. hospitals in Korea.

Of the total number of patients evacuated to Japan, about 52 percent came from field army hospitals (almost all from the second-level evacuation hospitals, semimobile, 400 bed), while 48 percent came from communications zone hospitals (largely from the station hospitals). No POW patients were evacuated to Japan.

At field army area hospitals occurred 34 percent of all the returns to duty and 45 percent of all deaths. Most of the deaths were reported by the close-support evacuation hospitals (semimobile, 200 bed), while most of the returns to duty from field army area hospitals came from the Army rear area, evacuation hospitals (semimobile, 400 bed). Among


68

all personnel in U.S. Army hospitals in Korea during 1952, 48 percent of all deaths occurred at the POW hospitals. However, the inclusion of enemy POW patients fit the figures for all personnel tends to distort the hospital pattern by echelon of operation. For example, when the 122,078 dispositions of U.S. Army patients are considered separately, it may be seen that 95 percent of all of the intra-Korea transfers of U.S. Army patients originated at field army hospitals. The pattern of patients evacuated to Japan is consistent, however, since no enemy POW patients were included.

The percentage distributions in table 61 show the relative frequency of each type of disposition among all, dispositions from the several hospital-function groups. These proportions follow the patterns that might be expected: The proportion of dispositions which were "final" is lowest for hospitals closer to the front, and, correspondingly, the relative number of transfers is higher at the direct-support hospitals and lower at the rearward hospitals. For example, hospitals in close support at the first level returned 17.7 percent of Army patients to duty and transferred 80.8 percent to other hospitals in Korea. At the second level, in the field army rear, 46.8 percent of the Army patients went to duty; and 52.9 percent were moved to other hospitals for further treatment, with 23.1 percent of all dispositions being evacuated to Japan and 29.8 percent being transferred to communications zone hospitals in Korea. At the latter hospitals, two-thirds (66 percent) of the Army patients were returned to duty.

HOSPITAL DEATH RATIOS

In connection with data on hospital deaths in tables 60 and 61, it is important to emphasize that they do not provide a basis for qualitative consideration of the hospital care provided. Any such consideration would require analysis of a large volume of data (such as data on diagnoses, and data on time-lapse between injury and admission) which are not directly related to the purposes of these data and should, in any event, be based on ratios adjusted to take into account the varying proportion of "final" to total dispositions.

The battle casualty "case fatality rate" (2.5 percent) for Korea, which has been reported elsewhere in comparisons with those for earlier wars, is derived from relating the total number who died of wounds, whether in hospital or in another type of medical treatment facility, to the total number who were excused from duty as wounded in action. Since these data pertain only to hospitalized patients, case fatality ratios of the same type, cannot be derived from them.

AVERAGE PATIENT CENSUS AND AVERAGE DURATION OF HOSPITALIZATION

As may be seen in table 62, the average daily number of beds occupied by all classes of personnel at U.S. Army hospitals in Korea, during 1952, was 10,141 and the estimated average duration of hospitalization was 33 days per case.

Table 62 shows that field army hospitals had an average bed occupancy of 1,001 patients, compared with 1,375 for the communications zone hospitals. The average bed occupancy of 7,765 patients at POW hospitals represented approximately 76 percent of the total number of patients occupying beds on the average day during 1952 in, Korea. The estimated average duration of hospitalization per case was 6.7 days for all personnel at field army hospitals, 11.9 days at communications zone hospitals, and 76.8 days at POW hospitals.

The large numbers of POW patients apparently exerted an overwhelming influence on the overall averages and, therefore, have tended to distort the pattern of hospital load in terms of echelon of operation. This effect may be seen when data for U.S. Army personnel are considered separately (table 62). The average of 1,683 U.S. Army patients was distributed as 782 in field army hospitals, 873 in communications zone hospitals, and the balance (27) in POW hospitals. The overall average duration of hospitalization for U.S. Army patients in Korea during 1952 was 10.7 days per case; an average of 6.8 days was spent in field army hospitals, and 9.5 days were spent in communications zone hospitals for each case hospitalized in them during 1952. It is of interest to note that the close-support evacuation hospitals (semimobile, 200 bed) show an average duration of about 2 days per case regardless of class of patients (those admitted for battle causes or those admitted for nonbattle causes), while the second-level evacuation hospitals (semimobile, 400 bed) show an average duration of stay of approximately 3 days for battle patients, compared with about 5 days for nonbattle patients. The daily average beds occupied figures of 103 for U.S. Army personnel at the hemorrhagic and cold injury hospital and of 43 at the neuropsychiatric hospital compared to the daily average of 133 and


69

Table 62.- Average bed occupancy and average duration of hospitalization, by cause of admission and by type of hospital within major operational echelon, U.S. Army hospitals, Korea, 1952

Major echelon of Operation and type of hospital function

Daily average number of beds occupied

Average duration in hospital (days)1

All causes

Nonbattle

Battle

All causes

Nonbattle

Battle

All Personnel

All U.S. Army hospitals, Korea

10,141

8,405

1,736

33.0

31.8

41.0

Field Army area hospitals

1,001

845

156

6.7

7.6

4.3

Evacuation (semimobile) (200-bed)

270

192

78

2.2

2.1

2.3

Surgical (mobile-army)

10

4

6

1.2

1.3

1.1

Holding hospitals

20

19

1

2.8

3.0

0.3

Evacuation (semimobile) (400-bed)

582

505

77

4.3

4.6

3.0

Hemorrhagic fever and cold injury

133

133

(2)

16.8

16.8

(2)

Neuropsychiatric hospital

48

48

(2)

7.4

7.4

(2)

Communications Zone hospitals

1,375

1,162

213

11.9

11.6

13.6

Station hospitals

758

674

84

8.5

8.5

7.8

Army unit with Swedish Red Cross hospital

269

208

61

20.9

21.1

20.0

Korean Service Corps hospital

348

280

68

21.9

19.9

36.5

Prisoner-of-war hospitals

7,765

6,398

1,367

76.8

65.2

318.8

U.S. Army personnel

All U.S. Army hospitals, Korea

1,683

1,445

238

10.7

11.1

8.9

Field Army area hospitals

782

681

101

6.8

7.6

4.0

Evacuation (semimobile) (200-bed)

176

130

46

1.8

1.8

1.9

Surgical (mobile-army)

7

2

5

1.1

1.0

1.2

Holding hospitals

18

18

(2)

2.8

3.0

0.2

Evacuation (semimobile) (400-bed)

486

432

54

4.3

4.6

2.8

Hemorrhagic fever and cold injury

103

103

(2)

18.0

18.0

(2)

Neuropsychiatric hospital

42

42

(2)

7.4

7.4

(2)

Communications Zone hospitals

873

737

136

9.5

9.3

10.3

Station hospitals

671

594

77

8.4

8.5

7.5

Army unit with Swedish Red Cross hospital

138

84

54

18.0

17.0

19.8

Korean Service Corps hospital

64

58

6

10.8

10.4

16.2

Prisoner-of-war hospitals

27

27

(2)

5.7

5.7

(2)

    1 For patients remaining in U.S. Army hospitals in Korea at the end of 1952 and those evacuated to Japan, the average include only the time lost in U.S. Army hospitals in Korea during 1952.
    2 Indicates that no admission, days, and so forth were reported, or that a computed average was less than 0.5 for number of beds occupied and less than 0.05 for days in hospital.

    Source: Beds and Patients Report (DD Form 443).

48, respectively, for all personnel hospitalized at these two specialized treatment centers. The average duration of stay per case during 1952 for U.S. Army personnel was approximately 18 days at the former and 7 days at the latter hospital. U.S. Army patients in communications zone hospitals averaged 10.3 days per case for battle patients, compared with 9.3 days per case for nonbattle patients. U.S. Army personnel hospitalized at the Swedish Red Cross hospital in 1952 averaged 1.8 days per case, and U.S. Army patients hospitalized at the Korean Service Corps station hospital averaged about 1.1 days per case.

It might be noted, however, that these tables do not include data on the relatively small number of Army patients hospitalized by U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy medical treatment facilities. In Korea, during 1952, there were 512 Army patients admitted (of which 490 were initial admissions) to Air Force organizations operating hospital beds, with a daily average bed occupancy of eight Army patients. Also, 1,970 Army patients were admitted (including 899 initial admissions) to U.S. Navy hospital ships, with a daily average of 75 beds occupied by such Army patients during 1952. Neither do these tables include data on the relatively small numbers of U.S. Army patients hospitalized in allied military medical treatment facilities. With one exception, such patients were accounted for in Beds and Patients Reports from Army hospitals designated by appropriate headquarters as administratively responsible for Army patients in specified "nearby" allied facilities. At the Swedish Red Cross Hospital, the exception, Beds and Patients Reports on Army patients were submitted by an Army medical organization serving with that particular hospital.

Estimates for logistical guidance, however, may be obtained from measurement of the patient flow and the patient load at individual facilities, by type of hospital, at different echelons of operation, and for the several classes of patients reflected in these data.

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