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Section 1, Part 2

The Armed Forces Epidemiological Board

PART II

The Transition to the Armed Forces Epidemiological Board

The Board for the Investigation and Control of Influenza and Other Epidemic Diseases in the Army and its Commissions continued to work on numerous studies, some on a continuing basis and others based on immediate needs. In 1944, the name of the organization was changed to the Army Epidemiological Board, but its relationship to the military, its functions, and its Commissions were unaffected. Some of the significant contributions that were made by the groups that were active through 1944 are summarized and follow:

  • The Respiratory Disease Commission made epochal epidemiological studies of acute diseases of the respiratory tract at Fort Bragg. Some of their findings were: (a) that Acute Respiratory Disease (ARD) was the predominant respiratory infection at military training posts and in recruits; (b) that epidemic influenza A had a distinctive epidemiologic pattern different , from ARD; (c) that patients with primary atypical pneumonia developed cold agglutinins (about one-third did; the volunteer subjects developed immunity in contrast to convalescent ARD patients); and (d) that other infections, such as Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infections, bacterial pneumonia, and rubella, were atypical of those diseases, and were not dependent on the occurrence of acute respiratory diseases.

  • The spread in hospitals of air-borne microorganisms became a major program that led to studies of sterilization of air in occupied enclosures with ultraviolet light, propylene glycol vapor, and the combined effects of each on dust-borne bacteria. The bactericidal and viricidal properties of other glycols were also evaluated.

  • In the Ninth Service Command, the Commission on Epidemiological Survey developed new knowledge of the incidence and epidemiology of coccidiomycosis; significant new information evolved regarding the prevention of this fungal infection, for which there was no specific cure. Clinical studies showed the variability of clinical manifestations; through surveillance, the incidence of infections, the pathogenesis, and preventive measures useful for control were elucidated.

  • The streptococcal grouping and typing of sera useful for identifying hemolytic streptococcal infections made it possible to diagnose, detect, and understand how and where such infections occurred. The identification of the relationship between carrier rates and secondary cases was a major advance by the Strepococcal Commission. They investigated the practical use of the antifibrinolysin test as a measure of streptococcal infection. The Commission's confirmation that rheumatic fever developed following hemolytic streptococcal infection was of great medical significance to the military.

  • The program on influenza was aimed at (a) developing and purifying antigens, (b) detecting new antigens, (c) studying clinical and immunological features of the disease, and (d) studying the genetic


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1944 Army Epidemiological Board and Commission Directors

Front row, left to right: John H. Dingle; Joseph Stokes, Jr.; O. T. Avery; Brig. General James S. Simmons; Francis G. Blake, President of the Board; Stanhope Bayne-Jones, Administrator; E. W. Goodpasture; and Joseph T. Wearn.

Second row, left to right: (unidentified); J. J. Phair; A. J. Warren; A. R. Dochez; O. H. Perry Pepper; O. H. Robertson; Kenneth F. Maxcy; Colin M. MacLeod; Chester S. Keefer; and John R. Paul.


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shifts of the virus, all of which were aimed at the development of effective methods of immunization. Working in association with the pharmaceutical industry, an influenzal vaccine containing types A and B of the inactivated viruses was produced. Research was also directed toward the development of chemical agents to decrease the dissemination of the influenza viruses during epidemics.

  • There were specific efforts directed toward the development of effective vaccines for measles and mumps. This early work led directly to the availability of effective biological vaccines. The Commissions sponsored work on (a) the evaluation of immune globulin for passive immunization during epidemics, and (b) for therapy, especially for meningoencephalitis, which is a serious complication of these diseases, particularly of measles.

  • Members of the Commission participated actively in the investigation of outbreaks of meningococcal meningitis in various Army posts. Strains of meningococci were collected, typed, studied, and stored for use in preparing valuable meningococcal typing sera and studying pathogenesis in animals. The Commission initiated studies, which were conducted jointly and collaboratively with intramural Army scientists, that ultimately led to the preparation of a purified polysaccharide vaccine. 

  • Members of the Commission worked on the isolation of virus strains and serologic surveillance that mapped, in the United States and elsewhere, the occurrence, incidence, and geographic localization of neurotropic virus diseases such as poliomyelitis, lymphocytic choriomeningitis, the eastern and western equine encephalitides, and St. Louis encephalitis. The broad objective of this program was to develop effective protective vaccines. This Commission's contributions culminated in medical advances of historical significance.

  • In addition to its field and laboratory studies, the Commission on Pneumonia sponsored and investigated polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines. Chemotherapy using sulfonalimide, gramicidin, and penicillin were evaluated by Commission members.

  • Although not fully organized until January 1942, the Commission on Tropical Diseases planned studies on malaria, yellow fever, rickettsial diseases, and dysentery. This Commission was short-lived because the categories of interest were so important that separate Commissions were organized: those on Malaria, Rickettsial Diseases, and Enteric Diseases. Problems of yellow fever and dengue were distributed to the Commissions on Virus Diseases and Immunization. The Commission on Tropical Diseases conducted an intensive study of an outbreak of bacillary dysentery at Army posts in Texas, which was brought under control.

From May to December 1944 the Subcommission on Dysentery of the Commission on Tropical Diseases of the Army Epidemiological Board made an extensive survey in the India-Burma theater to evaluate the incidence, epidemiology, means of detection, methods of prevention, and control of diarrheal disorders, particularly bacillary and amoebic dysenteries. This thorough field study was conducted by Drs. Carl Ten Broeck and John B. Nelson, members of the Commission on Tropical Diseases, and Major Gustave J. Dammin, MC, Executive Officer of the mission and officer on assignment to the Preventive Medicine Service in the Surgeon General's Office. The report that Major Dammin wrote stressed the need for better means of (a) clinical and laboratory diagnosis of the two major types of dysentery, (b) the importance of training technical personnel to improve laboratory and morphological diagnoses, (c) the importance of rigid control of water and food supply, and (d) the careful monitoring of food handlers.

Viral hepatitis debuted as a global problem in 1940. The initial scientific studies on jaundice related to hepatitis (formerly called catarrhal jaundice) were sponsored by several Commissions of the Board. Dr. Joseph Stokes, Jr., and his associates Captains John R. Neefe, Jr., MC, and Sydney S. Gellis, MC, working at the University of Pennsylvania, the Pennsylvania State Hospital in Philadelphia, and the New Jersey State Hospital, conducted crucial studies on the infectivity of the hepatitis virus and the protective effect of immune globulin in volunteers. This work was conducted under the aegis of the Commission on Measles and Mumps. Dr. Thomas Francis, Jr., and his group, who had been working on influenza at


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July 1947, near Bayreuth, Germany. Dr. J. R. Neefe, left, Dr. W. P. Havens, and an unidentified acquaintance on a reconnaissance mission to determine the best location for a hepatitis center.

Ann Arbor, studied the infectivity of the hepatitis virus using blood serum, hepatic and brain tissues, and mosquitoes. These studies, conducted with volunteers, were performed at the state prison in Jackson, Michigan. While at Yale, Dr. W. Paul Havens, Jr., working under Dr. John R. Paul as a member of the Commission on Neurotropic Virus Infections, studied the infectivity of hepatitis viruses in animals and humans. Charles A. Janeway, M.D., of Harvard, was a major contributor to these studies.

This hepatitis work, performed under AEB sponsorship, was the first of many studies to confirm that (a) infectious hepatitis is caused by a virus; (b) there are two or more types, not one, of viral hepatitis; (c) the incubation period of the two types differs (ranging from about thirty days for infectious hepatitis to six weeks or more for serum hepatitis); (d) immune globulin either prevents or ameliorates an attack of naturally occurring infectious hepatitis; and (e) contaminated water is a likely source of infection. Because the hepatitis problem was immense, the Commission on Liver Diseases was organized in 1947, and was directed until 1954 by Dr. Cecil Watson of Minnesota.

The 1945 Annual Report of the Army Epidemiological Board

In January 1946, Brigadier General Bayne-Jones prepared the following annual report, which summarizes the activities of the Army Epidemiological Board during 1945:


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CECIL J. WATSON, M.D.

While he was a student at the University of Minnesota School of Medicine, Cecil Watson cultivated interests in pathology, clinical chemistry, and microbiology, which he continued during his residency training and throughout his career. As Chairman of the Department of Medicine at Minnesota he excelled as a teacher, and as a clinician and investigator he trained some of the future leaders in this field. He was, without doubt, one of the nation's leaders on porphyrin metabolism, and was one of his generation's most important medical statesmen.

The AFEB asked Cecil Watson to organize and direct its Commission on Liver Diseases, which he chaired from 1947 to 1954. Under his guidance, and with the help of other authorities on hepatic disorders, the Commission provided inestimable help to the military services. New means of detection, treatment, and prevention of hepatitis and other hepatic diseases were clarified, and new leads to the solution of these problems were identified.


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Established by the Secretary of War in January 1941, this Board and its ten Commissions completed the fifth year of activity in the investigation and control of influenza and other epidemic diseases in the Army. It assisted in supervising the production of the influenza vaccine which was adopted for the Army and used for the vaccination of troops with successful results in the fall and winter of 1945. Foreseeing that Japanese B encephalitis would be a danger to troops invading Japanese territory, protective measures were planned and a vaccine produced in the first part of the year. These measures were ready for use when the disease broke out on Okinawa. When American troops landed on Leyte, they were exposed to a serious disease caused by a worm-parasite which develops in blood vessels. To combat this, a Commission was sent to the Philippines to investigate and devise methods of protection against schistosomiasis. The dengue fevers have at times been a considerable cause of sickness in troops. Various types of dengue virus were recognized and a vaccine against dengue was prepared. Pneumonia has not been a severe cause of sickness in this war, but was potentially dangerous and was important at some posts. To help prevent it, a method of immunization against pneumonia was developed, to be available in case of need. Troops in Italy and civilians at institutions were protected against hepatitis by injections of human immune serum globulin. A Commission aided in the study of diphtheria in troops in Italy and Germany and assisted in improving methods of laboratory diagnosis. A special study was made of special types of paralysis, some of which were attributable to diphtheria. A representative of the Board made a survey of leprosy in the Philippines. As a possible additional weapon against the spread of poliomyelitis, DDT was used to control flies which might carry the disease. The Board and Commissions worked on many problems and furnished much expert information and advice of value to the preventive medicine program of the Army.

The bibliography of scientific work done by AEB and Commission members for 1944 and 1945 follows:

1944

Commission on Acute Respiratory Diseases

Beard, J. W., Sharp, D. G., Taylor, A. R., McLean, I. W., Jr., Beard, Dorothy, Feller, A. E., and Dingle, J. H. Ultracentrifugal, chemical and electron microscopic identification of the influenza virus. Southern Med. J. 1944, 37, 313-320.

Commission on Acute Respiratory Diseases. Epidemiology of atypical pneumonia and acute respiratory disease at Fort Bragg, North Carolina. Am. J. Pub. Health. 1944, 34, 335-346.

Commission on Acute Respiratory Diseases. Primary atypical pneumonia. Am. J. Pub. Health. 1944, 34, 347-357.

Commission on Acute Respiratory Diseases. Endemic exudative pharyngitis and tonsillitis. Etiology and clinical characteristics. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 1944, 125, 1163-1169.

Commission on Acute Respiratory Diseases. Cold hemagglutinins in primary atypical pneumonia and other respiratory infections. Am. J. Med. Sci. 1944, 208, 742-750.

Dingle, J. H., Abernethy, T. J., Badger, G. F., Buddingh, G. J., Feller, A. E., Langmuir, A. D., Ruegsegger, J. M., and Wood, W. B., Jr. Primary atypical pneumonia, etiology unknown. (Parts I, II, and III) Am. J. Hyg. 1944, 39, 67-128, 197-268.

Kaplan, M. H. Nature and role of the lytic factor in hemolytic streptococcal fibrinolysis. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 1944, 57, 40-43.

McLean, I. W., Jr., Beard, Dorothy, Taylor, A. R., Sharp, D. G., Beard, J. W., Feller, A. E., and Dingle, J. H. Influence of temperature of incubation on the increase of influenza virus B (Lee strain) in the chorio-allantoic fluid of chick embryos. J. Immunol. 1944, 48, 305-316.

Sharp, D. G., Taylor, A. R., McLean, I. W., Jr., Beard, Dorothy, Beard, J. W., Feller, A. E., and Dingle, J. H. Isolation and characterization of influenza virus B (Lee strain). J. Immunol. 1944, 48, 129-153.

Tatlock, H. A rickettsia-like organism recovered from guinea pigs. Pro. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 1944, 57, 95-99.

Taylor, A. R. Chemical analysis of the influenza viruses A (PR8 strain) and B (Lee strain) and the swine influenza virus. J. Biol. Chem. 1944, 153, 675-686.


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Taylor, A. R., Sharp, D. G., McLean, I. W., Jr., Beard, Dorothy, Beard, J. W., Dingle, J. H., and Feller, A. E. Purification and character of the swine-influenza virus. J. Immunol. 1944, 48, 361-379.

Commission on Air-Borne Infections

Hamburger, M., Jr., Hilles, Carolyn H., Hamburger, Virginia G., Johnson, Margaret A., and Wallin, Joanna G. Ability of different types of hemolytic streptococci to produce scarlet fever. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 1944, 124, 564-566.

Hamburger, M., Jr. Studies on the transmission of hemolytic streptococcus infections. I. Cross infections in Army hospital wards. J. Infect. Dis. 1944, 75, 58-70.

Hamburger, M., Jr. Studies on the transmission of hemolytic streptococcus infections. II. Beta hemolytic streptococci in the saliva of persons with positive throat cultures. J. Infect. Dis. 1944, 75, 71-78.

Hamburger, M., Jr., Puck, T. T., Hamburger, Virginia G., and Johnson, Margaret A. Studies on the transmission of hemolytic streptococcus infections. III. Hemolytic streptococci in the air, floor dust, and bedclothing of hospital wards and their relation to cross infection. J. Infect. Dis. 1944, 75, 79-94. ,

Hilles, Carolyn H., and Hamburger, M., Jr. Experience with the slide agglutination and the capillary precipitin methods for typing hemolytic streptococci: J. Infect. Dis. 1944, 75, 265-270.

Lemon, H. M., and Wise, H. A flowmeter for use in air sampling procedures. Science 1944, 99, 43-44.

Lemon, H. M., Wise, H., and Hamburger, M., Jr. Bacterial content of air in Army barracks. Results of a study with especial reference to dispersion of bacteria by the air circulation system procedures. Science 1944, 99, 43-44.

Puck, T. T., Wise, H., and Robertson, O. H. A device for automatically controlling the concentration of glycol vapors in the air. J. Exper. Med. 1944, 80, 377-381.

Robertson, O. H., Hamburger, M., Jr., Loosli, C. G., Puck, T. T., Lemon, H. M., and Wise, H. A study of the nature and control of air-borne infection in Army camps. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 1944, 126, 993-1000.

Robertson, O. H., Puck, T. T., Loosli, C. G., Hamburger, M., Jr., Lemon, H. M., and Wise, H. A new approach to the control of air-borne infection. Tr. Assoc. Am. Physicians 1944, 58, 171-174.

Commission on Hemolytic Streptococcal Infections

Rantz, L. A. Group A hemolytic streptococcus antibodies. III. A study of the simultaneous infection of a large number of men by a single type. Arch. Int. Med. 1944, 73, 238-240.

Commission on Influenza

Commission on Influenza. A clinical evaluation of vaccination against influenza. Preliminary report. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 1944, 124, 982-985.

Eaton, M. D., Meiklejohn, G., and van Herick, W. Studies on the etiology of primary atypical pneumonia. A filterable agent transmissible to cotton rats, hamsters, and chick embryos. J. Exper. Med. 1944, 79, 649-668.

Francis, T., Jr. Virus pneumonia. Can. J. Publ. Health 1944, 35, 49-54.

Francis, T., Jr., Pearson, H. E., Salk, J. E., and Brown, P. N. Immunity in human subjects artificially infected with influenza virus, Type B. Am. J. Pub. Health 1944, 34, 317-334.

Francis, T., Jr., Salk, H. E., Pearson, H. E., and Brown, P. N. Protective effect of vaccination against induced influenza A. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 1944, 55, 104-105.

Hilleman, M. R., and Gordon, F. B. Immunologic relations of the psittacosis-lymphogranuloma group of viral agents. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 1944, 56, 159-161.

Loosli, C. G. An apparatus for nebulizing liquids. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 1944, 57, 257-258.

Salk, J. E. A simplified procedure for titrating hemagglutinating capacity of influenza virus and the corresponding antibody. J. Immunol. 1944, 49, 87-98. 


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Salk, J. E., Menke, W. J., and Francis, T., Jr. Identification of influenza virus Type A in current outbreak of respiratory disease. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 1944, 124, 93.

Salk, J. E., Pearson, H. E., Brown, P. N., and Francis, T., Jr. Protective effect of vaccination against induced influenza B. Proc. Soc. Exper. Med. & Biol. 1944, 55, 106-107.

Sharp, D. G., Taylor, A. R., McLean, I. W., Jr., Beard, Dorothy, and Beard, J. W. Density and size of influenza virus A (PR8 strain) in solution. Science 1944, 100, 151-153.

Sharp, D. G., Taylor, A. R., McLean, I. W., Jr., Beard, Dorothy, and Beard, J. W. Sedimentation velocity and electron micrographic studies of influenza viruses A (PR8 strain) and B (Lee strain) and the swine influenza virus. J. Biol. Chem. 1944, 156, 585-600.

Commission on Measles and Mumps

Gellis, S. S., and Peters, M. Mumps with pre-sternal edema. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 1944, 75, 241-250.

McGuinness, A. C., and Gall, E. A. Mumps at army camps in 1943. War Med. 1944, 5, 95-104.

Neefe, J. R., Miller, T. G., and Chornock, F. W. Homologous serum jaundice. A review of the literature and report of a case. Am. J. Med. Sci. 1944, 207, 626-638.

Neefe, J. R., and Reinhold, J. G. Photosensitivity as a cause of falsely positive cephalin-cholesterol flocculation tests. Science 1944, 100, 83-85.

Neefe, J. R., Stokes, J., Jr., Reinhold, J. G., and Lukens, F. D. W. Hepatitis due to the injection of homologous blood products in human volunteers. J. Clin. Investigation, 1944, 23, 836-855.

Stokes, J., Jr. The use of immune bodies in the treatment of certain infectious diseases (viral and rickettsial diseases) caused by intracellular parasites, with emphasis on the need for early diagnostic criteria of infection. Yale J. Biol. & Med. 1944, 16, 415-424.

Stokes, J., Jr., Maris, E. P., and Gellis, S. S. Chemical, clinical and immunological studies on the products of human plasma fractionation. XI. The use of concentrated normal human serum gamma globulin (human immune serum globulin) in the prophylaxis and treatment of measles. J. Clin. Investigation 1944, 23, 531-540.

Commission on Meningococcal Meningitis

Kabat, E. A., Kaiser, Hilda, and Sikorski, Helen. Preparation of the type-specific polysaccharide of the Type I meningococcus and a study of its effectiveness as an antigen in human beings. J. Exper. Med. 1944, 80, 299-307.

Miller, C. P. A note on the agglutination of meningococcus. Yale J. Biol. & Med. 1944, 16, 519-528.

Miller, C. P., Breadenkopf, W. G., Peck, Dolores, and Robbins, Mary Wright. A survey of chronic meningococcus carriers in a semi-permanent population. J. Infect. Dis. 1944, 74, 212-224.

Miller, C. P., and Schad, Doretta. The resistance of meningococci to drying. J. Bact. 1944, 47, 71-77.

Miller, C. P., and Schad, Doretta. Germicidal action of daylight on meningococci in the dried state. J. Bact. 1944, 47, 79-84.

Phair, J. J., Schoenbach, E. B., and Root, Charlotte M. Meningococcal carrier studies. Am. J. Pub. Health 1944, 34, 148-154.

Phair, J. J., and Schoenbach, E. B. The dynamics of meningococcal infections and the effect of chemotherapy. Am. J. Hyg. 1944, 40, 318-344.

Commission on Neurotropic Virus Diseases

Casals, J., and Webster, L. T. Relationship of the virus of louping ill in sheep and the virus of Russian spring-summer encephalitis in man. J. Exper. Med. 1944, 79, 45-63.

Casals, J. Immunological relationships among central nervous system viruses. J. Exper. Med. 1944, 79, 341-359.

Havens, W. P., Jr. Infectious hepatitis in the Middle East. A clinical review of 200 cases seen in a military hospital. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 1944, 126, 17-23.


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Havens, W. P., Jr., Ward, R., Drill, V. A., and Paul, J. R. Experimental production of hepatitis by feeding icterogenic materials. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 1944, 57, 206-208.

Morgan, Isabel M., Olitsky, P. K., and Schlesinger, R. W. Neutralization of Middle East and Lansing strains of poliomyelitis virus by human sera. Federation Proc. 1944, 3, 99.

Paul, J. R. Susceptibility of East African monkeys to experimental poliomyelitis. Yale J. Biol. & Med. 1944, 16, 461-466.

Paul, J. R., Havens, W. P., Jr., van Rooyen, C. E. Poliomyelitis in British and American troops in the Middle East. The isolation of virus from human faeces. British Med. J. 1944, 1, 841.

Philip, C. B., Paul, J. R., and Sabin, A. B. Dimethyl phthalate as a repellent in control of phlebotomus (pappataci or sandfly) fever. War Med. 1944, 6, 27-33.

Reeves, W. C. and Hammon, W. McD. Feeding habits of the proven and possible mosquito vectors of Western equine and St. Louis encephaliti[de]s in the Yakima Valley, Washington. Am. J. Trop. Med. 1944, 24, 131-134.

Sabin, A. B. Philip, C. B., and Paul, J. R. Phlebotomus (pappataci or sandfly) fever. A disease of military importance. Summary of existing knowledge and preliminary report of original investigations. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 1944, 125, 603-606.

Sabin, A. B. Studies on the natural history of poliomyelitis. J. Mount Sinai Hosp. 1944, 11, 185-206.

Sanders, M., and Huang, C. H. Tissue cultures for virus investigations in the field. Am. J. Pub. Health 1944, 34, 461-466.

Commission on Pneumonia

Furth, J., and deGara, P. F. A granular body characteristic of certain non-bacterial pneumonias of mice. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 1944, 56, 107-110.

Tillett, W. S., Cambier, Margaret J., and McCormack, J. E. The treatment of lobar pneumonia and pneumococcal empyema with penicillin. Bull. N. Y. Acad. Med. 1944, 2nd Ser. 20, 142-178.

Commission on Tropical Diseases

Carle, B. N., Dewhirst, W. H., Jr., Braun, W., and Eaton, M. D. Experiments on the transmission of an icterogenic agent in yellow fever vaccine to horses and swine. J. Bact. 1944, 48, 45-68.

Eaton, M. D., Murphy, W. D., and Hanford, V. L. Heterogenetic anti-bodies in acute hepatitis. J. Exper. Med. 1944, 79, 539-557.

Kuhns, D. M., and Anderson, T. G. A fly-borne bacillary dysentery epidemic in a large military organization. Am. J. Pub. Health 1944, 34, 750-755.

Sawyer, W. A., Meyer, K. F., Eaton, M. D., Bauer, J. H., Putnam, Persis, and Schwentker, F. F. Jaundice in Army personnel in the Western region of the United States and its relation to vaccination against yellow fever. (Parts I, II, III, and IV.) Am. J. Hyg. 1944, 40, 35-107.

Scrub Typhus. Bull. U.S. Army Med. Dept. 1944, No. 76, 52-61.

Wood, Leonard, Memorial. World Wide Distribution and Prevalence of Leprosy. Internat'l. J. Leprosy 1944, Suppl. to 12, 1-71

1945

Blake, F. G. Some recent advances in the control of infectious diseases. Rhode Island Med. J. 1945, 28, 409-415; Connecticut State Med. J. 1945, 9, 679-687; The Diplomate 1945, 17, 219-229.

Blake, F. G., Maxcy, K. F., Sadusk, J. R., Jr., Kohls, G. M., and Bell, E. J. Studies on tsutsugamushi disease (scrub typhus, miteborne typhus) in New Guinea and adjacent islands: epidemiology, clinical observations and etiology in the Dobadura area. Am.


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J. Hyg. 1945, 41, 243-373.

Commission on Acute Respiratory Diseases

Commission on Acute Respiratory Diseases. Atypical pneumonia. Am. J. Med. Sci. 1945, 209, 55-58.

Commission on Acute Respiratory Diseases. An experimental attempt to transmit primary atypical pneumonia in human volunteers. J. Clin. Investigation 1945, 24, 175-188.

Commission on Acute Respiratory Diseases. The present status of the etiology of primary atypical pneumonia. [NOTE: There was no attribution for this publication. T.E.W.]

Commission on Acute Respiratory Diseases. Transmission of primary atypical pneumonia to human volunteers. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 1945, 127, 146-149.

Commission on Acute Respiratory Diseases, Dammin, G. J., and Weller, T. H. Attempts to transmit primary atypical pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections to the mongoose. J. Immunol. 1945, 50, 107-114.

Commission on Acute Respiratory Diseases, and Kaplan, M. H. A study of the fibrinolysin-antifibrinolysin reaction. Science 1945, 101, 120-122.

Commission on Air-Borne Infections

Hamburger, M., Jr., Puck, T. T., and Robertson, O. H. The effect of triethylene glycol vapor on air-borne beta hemolytic streptococci in hospital wards. J. Infect. Dis. 1945, 76, 208-215.

Puck, T. T., Hamburger, M., Jr., Robertson, O. H. and Hurst, Valerie. The effect of triethylene glycol vapor on air-borne beta hemolytic streptococci in hospital wards. II. The combined action of glycol vapor and dust control measures. J. Infect. Dis. 1945, 76, 216-225.

Hamburger, M., Jr., Robertson, O. H., and Puck, T. T. The present status of glycol vapors in air sterilization. Am. J. Med. Sci. 1945, 209, 162-166.

Harris, T. N., and Stokes, J., Jr. Summary of a 3-year study of the clinical applications of the disinfection of air by glycol vapors. Am. J. Med. Sci. 1945, 152-156.

Loosli, C. G., and Robertson, O. H. Recent studies on the control of dust-borne bacteria by treatment of floors and bedclothes with oil. Am. J. Med. Sci. 1945, 209, 166-172.

Commission on Epidemiological Survey

See [the entries included in the] Commission on Influenza.

Commission on Hemolytic Streptococcal Infections

Rantz, L. A., and Randall, Elizabeth. A modification of the technique for determination of the antistreptolysin titer. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 1945, 59, 22-25.

Rantz, L. A., Spink, W. W., Boisvert, P., and Coggeshall, H. The Treatment of rheumatic fever with penicillin. J. Pediat. 1945, 26, 576-582.

Commission on Influenza

Francis, R. D., and Gordon, F. B. Cultivation of viruses of the psittacosis group in the allantoic cavity of chick embryos. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 1945, 59, 270-272.

Hale, W. M., and McKee, A. P. The intracranial toxicity of influenza virus for mice. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 1945, 59, 81-84.

Hilleman, M. R. Immunological studies on the psittacosis-lymphogranuloma group of viral agents. J. Infect. Dis. 1945, 76, 96-114.

Jones, Marion. Adaptation of influenza virus to heat. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 1945, 58, 315-319.


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McLean, I. W., Jr., Beard, Dorothy, Taylor, A. R., Sharp, D. G., and Beard, J. W. The antibody response of swine to vaccination with inactivated swine influenza virus. Science 1945, 101, 544-546.

McLean, I. W., Jr., Cooper, G. R., Taylor, A. R., Beard, Dorothy, and Beard, J. W. pH of the chorio-allantoic fluid of chick embryos infected with influenza virus B. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 1945, 59, 192-195.

Meiklejohn, G., Eaton, M. D., and van Herick, W. A clinical report on cases of primary atypical pneumonia caused by a new virus. J. Clin. Investigation 1945, 24, 241-250.

Plummer, N., Duerschner, Dorothy Rhoades, Warren, H. D., Rogliano, F. T., and Sloan, R. A. Penicillin therapy in hemolytic streptococci pharyngitis and tonsillitis. J. Am. Med. Assoc., 1945, 127, 369-374.

Salk, J. E. The immunizing effect of calcium phosphate adsorbed influenza virus. Science 1945, 101, 122-124.

Sharp, D. G., Taylor, A. R., McLean, I. W., Jr., Beard, Dorothy, and Beard, J. W. Densities and sizes of the influenza viruses A (PR8 strain) and B (Lee strain) and the swine influenza virus. J. Biol. Chem. 1945, 159, 29-44.

Taylor, A. R., Sharp, D. G., McLean, I. W., Jr., Beard, Dorothy, and Beard, J. W. Concentration and purification of  influenza virus for the preparation of vaccines. J. Immunol. 1945, 50, 291-316.

Commission on Measles and Mumps

Enders, J. F. A summary of studies on immunity in mumps. Tr. & Stud. Coll. Physicians Philadelphia, 1945, 13, 23-36.

Enders, J. F., Kane, L. W., Cohen, S., and Levens, Jeanette, H. Immunity in mumps. I. Experiments with monkeys (Macaca mulatta). The development of complement-fixing antibody following infection and experiments on immunization by means of inactivated virus and convalescent human serum. J. Exper. Med. 1945, 81, 93-117.

Enders, J. F., Cohen, S., and Kane, L. W. Immunity in mumps. II. The development of complement-fixing antibody and dermal hypersensitivity in human beings following mumps. J. Exper. Med. 1945, 81, 119-135.

Kane, L. W., and Enders, J. F. Immunity in mumps. III. The complement fixation test as an aid in the diagnosis of mumps meningoencephalitis. J. Exper. Med. 1945, 81, 137-150.

Stokes, J., Jr., and Neefe, J. R. The prevention and attenuation of infectious hepatitis by gamma globulin. Preliminary note. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 1945, 127, 144-145.

Commission on Meningococcal Meningitis

Kabat, E. A., Miller, C. P., Kaiser, Hilda, and Foster, Alice Z. Chemical studies on bacterial agglutination. VII. A quantitative study of the type specific and group specific antibodies in antimeningococcal sera of various species and their relation to mouse protection. J. Exper. Med. 1945, 81, 1-8.

Phair, J. J., and Schoenbach, E. B. The transmission and control of meningococcal infections. Am. J. Med. Sci. 1945, 209, 69-74.

Schoenbach, E. B., and Phair, J. J. The dissemination and control of meningococcal infections. J. Mt. Sinai Hosp. 1945, 12, 624-636.

Commission on Neurotropic Virus Diseases

Havens, W. P., Jr. Experiment in cross immunity between infectious hepatitis and homologous serum jaundice. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 1945, 59, 148-150.

Havens, W. P., Jr. Properties of the etiologic agent of infectious hepatitis. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 1945, 58, 203-204.

Havens, W. P., Jr., Paul, J. R., van Rooyen, C. E., Ward, R., Drill, V. A., and Allison, Nancy H. Human transmission of infective hepatitis by the oral route. Lancet 1945, 1, 202-203.

Morgan, Isabel M. Quantitative study of the neutralization of western equine encephalomyelitis virus by its antiserum and the effect of complement. J. Immunol.,1945, 50, 359-371.


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Olitsky, P. K., Morgan, Isabel M., and Schlesinger, R. W. Vaccination with various western equine encephalomyelitis viruses; comparison as antigens and as test inocula. Proc. Soc. Exper. Biol. & Med. 1945, 59, 93-97.

Sabin, A. B., and Schlesinger, R. W. Production of immunity to dengue with virus modified by propagation in mice. Science 1945, 101, 640-642.

Commission on Pneumonia

Christensen, L. R. Streptococcal fibrinolysis: a proteolytic reaction due to a serum enzyme activated by streptococcal fibrinolysin. J. Gen. Physiol. 1945, 28, 363-383.

deGara, P. F., and Furth, J. The relative susceptibility of normal and x-rayed mice of different stocks to pneumotropic viruses. J. Immunol. 1945, 50, 255-264.

The tables showing some of the contract data and expenditures for the fiscal years 1943-1946 that originally accompanied Bayne-Jones's report are shown in Appendix 1 of this volume, which deals with the funding of the Board.