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Section 6

The Histories of the Commissions - Contents

Commission on Parasitic Diseases

Preparation of this history of the Armed Forces Epidemiological Board (AFEB) Commission on Parasitic Diseases was made possible through the help of Colonel Robert A. Wells, Executive Secretary, and Jean P. Ward, Staff Assistant, who assembled essential documents and compiled some of the essential data, and by Helen Day, Editorial Assistant, Department of Tropical Medicine, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, whose assistance in numerous ways was essential.


Foreword

Throughout the annals of military medicine, parasites have relentlessly afflicted combat personnel. Exposure in terrain marked with marshes, streams, rivers, rain forests, and remote villages brought combat troops in direct contact with mosquitoes, plasmodia, microfilariae, snails, schistosomes, and all types of parasites. The realization of their importance sparked the formation of the Commission on Parasitic Diseases of the Armed Forces Epidemiological Board (AFEB). The Commission's innovative work and the contributions of many professionals, who worked on parasite detection, prevention, and ultimate control, are a breath of fresh air in the history of military medicine.

From its beginnings in 1953, the Commission has been blessed with quality leadership. The contributions of its members have represented the best advice and wisest direction available anywhere.

Commission Directors Tom Weller, Gustave J. Dammin, Harry Most, and Paul Beaver were the best of all possible choices. They and their stellar associates worked in consort with their medical military professional counterparts to establish a remarkable program of fundamental research and preventive measures covering the years 1953 to 1973. Paul Beaver prepared this history of the AFEB Commission on Parasitic Diseases at a considerable sacrifice. He completed this work despite his failing health. It should better the cause of medicine everywhere and be of lasting value to the Military Medical Services. Unfortunately, Dr. Beaver died in 1993 before having the opportunity to read and enjoy this historical record of the Commission, which is really a tribute to him.

-Theodore E. Woodward, M.D.


History of the Commission on Parasitic Diseases

Paul C. Beaver, Ph.D.

INTRODUCTION

During World War II and in earlier years, whenever a parasitic disease problem was encountered by a military mission and civilian assistance to search for a solution was needed, a special commission of appropriate experts was formed to deal with it. For example, when the campaign to retake the Philippines was affected by large numbers of casualties due to schistosomiasis, a special commission consisting of selected military and civilian parasitologists was formed to determine the nature and extent of the problem and to take appropriate actions to deal with the problem. The Armed Forces Epidemiological Board (AFEB) established a permanent Commission on Parasitic Diseases in order to anticipate or prevent the outbreak of parasitic diseases. In the fall of 1952, Dr. Colin MacLeod, President of the AFEB, asked Dr. Thomas Weller to organize a Commission on Parasitic Diseases. On 13 January 1953, a preliminary meeting was held at the Army Medical School. Five of the original members of the Commission were in attendance, namely, Drs. Paul Beaver, Gustave J. Dammin, Harry Most, Lloyd Rozeboom, and Weller.

MISSION

The first formal meeting of the Commission was held on 2 October 1953 at the Army Medical Service Graduate School, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, D.C. The following notes were taken from the minutes of the meeting. Those in attendance are listed below.

Members of the Commission
Dr. Thomas H. Weller, Director
Dr. Paul C. Beaver
Dr. Ernest B. Bueding
Dr. Gustave J. Dammin
Dr. Harry Most
Dr. Gilbert F. Otto
Dr. Lloyd E. Rozeboom

Representing the Army
Dr. Stanhope Bayne-Jones
Technical Director of Research, Medical Research and Development Board, Office of The Surgeon General
Colonel Arthur P. Long, MC
Assistant Chief, Preventive Medicine Division,
Office of The Surgeon General, Department of the Army
Dr. Donald B. McMullen
Chief, Department of Medical Zoology, Army
Medical Service Graduate School

Representing the Navy
Commander S. A. Britten, MC, USN
Head, Epidemiology Branch and Communicable Disease Section, Preventive Medicine Division,
Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, Department of the Navy

Representing the Air Force
Major Gerald J. Schipper, MC, USAF
Communicable Disease Control Officer, Preventive Medicine Division, Office of The Surgeon General, Department of the Air Force

Representing the National Research Council
Dr. Leon H. Warren
Associate, Division on Medical Sciences


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Outline of Meeting
Armed Forces Epidemiology Board
Commission on Parasitic Diseases
Walter Reed Army Medical Center
2 October 1953

9:30

Remarks by Commission Director-Thomas H. Weller
Commission's Expected Program-Dr. S. Bayne-Jones, Director of Research, Medical Research and Development Board

Remarks by:

Colonel Arthur P. Long, Department of the Army
Commander S. A. Britten, Department of the Navy
Major Gerald J. Schipper, Department of the Air Force
Dr. Leon H. Warren, National Research Council
Lieutenant Colonel William R. West-Watson, British Joint Services Mission
Lieutenant Colonel R. D. Barron, Canadian Joint Staff Mission

General Discussion
Consideration of applications of:

S. H. Hutner of Haskins Laboratories
Irving G. Kagan, Zoological Laboratory of the University of Pennsylvania
Bruce W. Halstead and associates of College of Medical Evangelists
J. Allen Scott of University of Texas
R. M. Lewert of University of Chicago
Gustave J. Dammin of Harvard Medical School

Executive Session

17:30 Adjournment

 

When he opened the meeting, Dr. Weller emphasized the need felt by the new Commission for information about policies, procedures, funds, and relationships among various organizations and suggested that the Commission should do what it could to remedy the deficiency of workers in parasitology and parasitic diseases. He then introduced Dr. Stanhope Bayne-Jones and asked him to speak about several critical matters. Dr. Bayne-Jones explained that he was serving in his present role as a staff member for the Commission because both the President of the AFEB (Dr. MacLeod) and its Administrator (Colonel Adam Rapalski) were in the Far East. He explained further that he was very new in his position as Technical Director of Research of the Medical Research and Development Board in the Office of The Surgeon General of the Army. He conveyed a welcome from Colonel John Wood and said that he also felt that he was permitted to express his appreciation and welcome on behalf of the three Surgeons General.

Questions and discussions lasted about an hour and recurred often later. The following sections summarize the replies made by Dr. Bayne-Jones during the course of the meeting.

The Board and Commissions

It was noted that the AFEB was an agency of the Department of Defense; under the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of the Army acted as managing agent, responsible for the main administrative affairs of the AFEB and commissions. The Secretary of the Army delegated authority and responsibilities to and through the command divisions (medical departments) of the three services: Army, Navy,


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Outline of Meeting
Commission on Parasitic Diseases
Hotel Peabody, Memphis, Tennessee
2 November 1954

9:30 Introductory Remarks by Commission Director-Thomas H. Weller

Remarks by:

Colonel Whayne, Department of the Army
Captain Sapero, Department of the Navy
Lieutenant Colonel Townsend, Department of the Air Force
Colonel Adam Rapalski, Armed Forces Epidemiological Board

Summary of Research in Progress at the 406th General Medical Laboratory-Dr. Lawrence S. Ritchie
Progress report on work done under contract
DA-49-007-MD-516-Dr. R. M. Lewert

Review of status of revision of TB-MEDS

13:00 Executive session

Discussion of renewal of Contract DA-49-007-MD-516-Dr. Robert M. Lewert
Consideration of applications of:

Dr. Paul C. Beaver, Tulane University
Dr. Henry van der Schalie
Dr. M. G. Lysenko, University of Wisconsin

14:30 Meeting adjourned

19:30 Meeting reconvened in general session

Report of work in parasitology at the Naval Medical Research Institute-Dr. Clay Huff
Informal presentation by Dr. Dammin on certain parasitological findings in monkeys

21:15 Executive session

Discussion of:

Research in the field of malaria
Interest of the Commission in amebiasis
Public health problem posed by groups of individuals infected with intestinal helminths
Problem of hydatid disease in the Alaskan theater

22:15 Meeting adjourned

 

and Air Force. Most of the funds available to the AFEB and commissions were supplied by the Army through the Medical Research and Development Board of the Office of the Surgeon General, Department of the Army. Dr. Bayne-Jones said that the Commission on Parasitic Diseases might be in an especially favorable position to develop projects of joint concern among the three Services.

Special Functions

In research, the commissions had operated in two main ways, namely (1) conducting field investigations, and (2) conducting investigations in the home laboratories of members of the commissions or persons associated with the commissions (Associate Members). The Commission would consider research proposals referred to it by the Medical Research and Development Board.


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Dr. Bayne-Jones said that

. The proposals from outside would be considered in relation to the program or activity of the Commission.

. If a proposal was approved and a contract executed, the project would then become an integral part of the program of the Commission and would be "monitored" by the Commission.

. The investigators supported by such a contract would not need to be made either members or associates of the Commission.

. As a corollary to the first two statements above, the Commission was not an agency for recommending the dispensing of funds on a grant-in-aid basis; rather it was an agency recommending action on contracts for research or related work connected with the missions of the Armed Forces.

Financing

The Commission on Parasitic Diseases could count on having a total budget allocation of approximately $110,000 for FY 54 (1 July 1953 to 30 June 1954) and probably the same amount for FY 55. This was exclusive of any amount provided through the Medical Research and Development Board for investigations on parasitic diseases by the Army Medical Service Graduate School.

Relationships and Research Programs

Relationships among commissions, research and operating sections in the Office of The Surgeon General, or in Class II Installations of The Surgeon General's Office, research organizations and programs of the Navy and Air Force, and civilian organizations were described by Dr. Bayne-Jones as extensive and complicated. This new Commission would have to find its way through a maze of activities, vested interests, and appeals. It was Dr. Bayne-Jones' advice to the Commission to deal with questions as they arose and to develop some special lines of activity. It was again suggested that the Commission's program should include as many projects of mutual interest to the Army, Navy, and Air Force as possible.

Recruitment

With regard to training and recruitment in the field of parasitology and tropical medicine, Dr. Bayne-Jones offered his opinion on the following matters:

. The Commission could not use its funds for fellowships. According to an opinion from the Department of Defense, under the present appropriation acts, it would be illegal to use money from the Defense Department for fellowship stipends.

. He believed that the Commission could employ investigators and hire contractors with various levels of skill and experience to do research that they and the AFEB wanted done.

. To make the need for more trained parasitologists more widely known, he suggested that the Commission could draw up a statement about the deficiencies of "manpower," skills, and knowledge in this field and have it published in appropriate scientific journals, could circularize various organizations, and could mention the subject in connection with the presentation of papers, presidential addresses, or other discourses.

. Furthermore, the Commission could stimulate interest and attract new workers by outlining interesting and important areas of research and by looking for persons who would be interested in working on problems in those areas.

Basic and Applied Research

From time to time during the session, questions were raised by members of the Commission and some of the guests relating to basic research compared to applied research. Dr. Bayne-Jones said that


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although there were many complexities, one simplifying general rule that had been observed from the first was that the research conducted by the AFEB and its commissions must be reasonably related to the mission of the Armed Forces. This mission was, of course, very broad. Although the mission statement was not quoted at the meeting, the following statement of the mission of the Army is quoted from Section II, Paragraph 6, of S.R. 10-5-1, dated 11 April 1950, and entered for the record as follows:

Mission. To provide support for national and international policy, and the security of the United States by planning, directing, and reviewing the military and civil operations of the Army Establishment, to include the organization, training, and equipping of land forces of the United States for the conduct of prompt and sustained combat operations on land in accordance with plans for national security.

In this context, the main point is the breadth of the mission statement, allowing scope for both basic and applied research. The provision that all such research should be reasonably related to the mission of a military service was not so restrictive that it had interfered with the traditional activities of the AFEB and commissions. In this connection, Colonel Arthur P. Long and others pointed out that the research work of the AFEB and commissions was carried out under contracts. Such research contracts did not necessarily have an "end item" in view, but were definitely concerned with work that was expected to be of benefit to the Armed Forces. The commissions and AFEB did not function merely as agencies for dissemination of grants in aid.

Finally, Dr. Bayne-Jones suggested that the question of basic versus applied research should be dealt with in a common-sense manner in direct relation to a research program or research project that might be formulated by the Commission or submitted to it. If it was something that competent investigators wanted to do and could do, and if it was within the broad missions of the Services, there would probably be no serious problems in the way of supporting it if funds were available.

Colonel Long presented information and comments from the Division of Preventive Medicine, Office of The Surgeon General of the Army. He said that the representatives of the Services felt that their place in these meetings was to help the group to understand problems of the Services and to help them evaluate their work as far as the Services were concerned. He said that at that time the military forces were not faced with serious problems of parasitic diseases, but no doubt would have far more extensive problems in case of global war.

Dr. Weller asked what assistance would be requested in connection with revisions of TB-MEDS. Colonel Long said that the staff of the Preventive Medicine Division had sent Dr. MacLeod a stack of TB-MEDS with a request to the AFEB and its commissions to furnish advice and new material for revisions, and for revisions of some other publications.

Captain Sidney A. Britten presented statistics from the Preventive Medicine Division of the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery of the Navy. He said that the Navy was concerned with certain parasitic diseases that caused its personnel loss of time and had an adverse effect on their morale. He quoted a series of figures on schistosomiasis, filariasis, amebiasis, and malaria and referred to the work on schistosomiasis and other diseases being done by the staff of the Navy Medical Research Unit (NAMRU #3) in Cairo, Egypt. Expressing his personal opinion, Commander Britten said that he had considerable interest in prophylaxis against African sleeping sickness (trypanosomiasis) by the use of pentamidine and other compounds. He suggested that the Commission could be of assistance by taking an interest in this subject.

Information from the Preventive Medicine Division of the Office of The Surgeon General of the Air Force was presented by Major Gerald J. Schipper. After discussing some statistics, he pointed out that most of the Air Force personnel were "ground personnel" and, like the other services, the Air Force was concerned about problems of parasitic diseases. Diarrheal disease was one of the major factors interfering with flying duty.

Dr. Leon Warren reviewed the long-standing interest of the National Research Council, Division of Medical Sciences, in the field of parasitology and tropical medicine. He referred to the current committees and subcommittees that were dealing with work in this field and outlined some of their main activities.


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CAPTAIN SIDNEY A. BRITTEN, MC, USN

Executive Secretary
1963-1968


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The Commission then considered the applications that had been submitted to it. Only one application was from a member of the Commission (Dr. Dammin's application). All of the applications had been referred by the Medical Research and Development Board. The Director had already assigned each application to a member of the Commission for study.

Six applications were considered. Two were regarded as unsuitable for sponsorship. Two were thought to be meritorious but more appropriate for support elsewhere (National Institutes of Health [NIH]) or more appropriate for sponsorship by the Commission on Immunization (including Dr. Dammin's application) and two were approved and recommended to the Board for funding. The approved applications were submitted by Dr. Robert M. Lewert on "The Inhibition of Cercarial Penetration" and by Drs. Bruce Halstead and Edward Wagner on "The Biology of the Snail Host of Schistosoma japonicum." (Dr. Lewert later became a member of the Commission.)

In executive session, the Commission considered some matters of policy and the formation of a committee to summarize deficiencies in the supply of trained personnel in the field of parasitic diseases. No action was recorded.

MEMBERSHIP

Commission Directors

Thomas H. Weller, M.D., Harvard School of Public Health, 1953-1959
Gustave J. Dammin, M.D., Harvard Medical School, 1959-1960
Harry Most, M.D., New York University School of Medicine, 1960-1967
Paul C. Beaver, Ph.D., Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, 1967-1972

Deputy Directors

Gustave J. Dammin, M.D., Harvard Medical School, 1957-1959
Elvio H. Sadun, Sc.D., Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 1969-1972

Members

The number of full members of the Commission varied from 8 or 9 (usually 9) up to 1965, to 12 to 14 thereafter. Listed below are all full members with their academic degrees, affiliations, terms of appointment, and fields of special interest:

William B. Balamuth, Ph.D., University of California, 1969-1972-Amebiasis
Paul C. Beaver, Ph.D., Tulane University, 1953-1972-Filariasis, Amebiasis
Ernest Bueding, M.D., Louisiana State University, 1953-1972-Pharmacology, Anthelmintics
G. Robert Coatney, Ph.D., National Institutes of Health, 1965-1968-Malaria
Gustave J. Dammin, M.D., Harvard University, 1953-1968-Pathology, Tropical Diseases
William W. Frye, Ph.D., M.D., Louisiana State University, 1970-1972-Amebiasis
Clay G. Huff, Sc.D., National Naval Medical Center, 1965-1967-Malaria
Rodney C. Jung, M.D., Ph.D., Tulane University,1968-1972-Clinical Tropical Medicine
Robert M. Lewert, Sc.D., University of Chicago, 1958-1972-Biochemistry, Immunology, Schistosomiasis
Donald B. McMullen, Sc.D., Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 1965-1967-Schistosomiasis
Harry Most, M.D., New York University, 19531972-Clinical Tropical Medicine, Malaria
Franklin A. Neva, M.D., Harvard School of Public Health, 1965-1968-Leishmaniasis
Gilbert F. Otto, Sc.D., Abbott Laboratories, 1953-1958-Filariasis
Lloyd E. Rozeboom, Sc.D., The Johns Hopkins University, 1953-1972-Medical Entomology


448

Elvio H. Sadun, Sc.D., Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, 1961-1972-Malaria, Schistosomiasis
Leslie A. Stauber, Sc.D., Rutgers University, 1968-1972-Leishmaniasis
Henry Van der Schalie, Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1953-1972-Malacology
Franz C. von Lichtenberg, M.D., Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, 1965-1968-Pathology, Schistosomiasis
Thomas H. Weller, M.D., Harvard University, 1953-1972-Tropical Diseases, Schistosomiasis
Willard H. Wright, D.V. M., Ph.D., National Institutes of Health, 1953-1972-Helminthology
Martin D. Young, Sc.D., Gorgas Memorial Laboratory, 1968-1972-Malaria

Associate Members

The number of associate members varied from none for the first 2 years to 12 for the years 1963-1964, when chloroquine resistance of Plasmodium falciparum was demanding special attention prior to the establishment of a separate Commission on Malaria. Members who were appointed associate members and later appointed full members were Drs. G. Robert Coatney (1959-1964), Clay G. Huff (1955-1965), Rodney Jung (1967-1968), Lewert (1957-1958), Donald R. McMullen (1955-1965), Franklin A. Neva (1961-1965), Elvio H. Sadun (1963-1965), Leslie A. Stauber (1963-1968), Franz von Lichtenberg (1959-1965), and Martin D. Young (1967-1968).

Those who served on the Commission as associate members only include the following:

Robert Altman, M.D., Walter Reed Army Medical Center, 1967-1970-Malaria
Alf S. Alving, M.D., University of Chicago, 1963-1964-Malaria
Ralph W. Bunn, M.D., Walter Reed Army Medical Center, 1959-1960-Malaria
Daniel H. Connor, M.D., Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, 1968-1972-Filariasis
V. G. Dethler, University of Pennsylvania, 1961-1962-Malaria
Robert C. Elderfield, Ph.D., University of Michigan, 1963-1964-Malaria
John M. Geary, M.D., Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, D.C., 1963-1967-Malaria
R. J. Holoway, MSC, USM, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, D.C.-Pest Control
John Scanlon, Ph.D., University of Texas, 1968-1972-Medical Entomology
Leon H. Schmidt, Ph.D., University of California, 1963-1964-Malaria
William Trager, Ph.D., Rockefeller Institute of Medical Research, 1963-1964-Malaria, Trypanosomiasis

COMMISSION ACTIVITIES

After the first meetings in the fall of 1953 and 1954, fall and spring meetings were held annually (usually in October or November and March or April). Annual reports were submitted by the Director of the Commission to the President of the AFEB. The annual report consisted of the proceedings of the two previous meetings, a summary of Commission activities, and reports from responsible investigators on studies, including those in progress or those completed during the year under sponsorship of the Commission. Frequently, a spring or fall meeting extended over 2 days and included a symposium covering a topic of special military interest. Usually, at both meetings, a regular agenda item included formal reports or comments from representatives of the Army, Navy, and Air Force on the current status of parasitic diseases, or on a special problem such as prophylaxis failure in malaria or the question of risk of hydatid infection for the military personnel stationed in Alaska. Fall meetings occasion-


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THOMAS H. WELLER, M.D.

Dr. Thomas H. Weller always conducted himself as a meticulous student of medicine, thoroughly schooled in the fundamentals of the scientific method. Trained as a clinical and laboratory-oriented pediatrician, he extended his capabilities into the fields of virology and parasitology. With his mentor, John Enders, and his associate, Fred Robbins, he received the Nobel Prize for the cultivation of poliomyelitis virus in tissue cultures.

Tom willingly responded to military medical problems; he served with distinction on the Commission on Parasitology and directed its activities from 1953 to 1959, while concurrently engaged at the Harvard School of Public Health. The AFEB Commissions on Malaria and Virus Diseases profited greatly from Tom Weller's wise counsel, teaching ability, and scientific contributions.


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GUSTAVE J. DAMMIN, M.D.

There are few among us who possess the competence, commitment, wisdom, and equanimity that Dr. Gustave J. Dammin displayed. His productive war record was followed by a stellar career as an experimental pathologist at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis and at Harvard Medical School. Gus was an active contributor to several commissions of the AFEB. Parasitology was one of his favorite fields of interest to which specialty he contributed so importantly. He was Deputy Director of the Commission on Parasitic Diseases from 1957 to 1959 and its Director from 1959 to 1960.

In 1960, he was very appropriately elevated to the Presidency of the AFEB, where he served with great distinction until 1972. During this 12-year period, the AFEB and its commissions dealt with substance abuse in the military, immunization practices, and changes in the organization of the AFEB. Gus steered a steady ship. He saw issues and problems through to their best solutions by his appointments of consultants; the AFEB and its commissions flourished under his guiding hand. A careful and dedicated scientist, Gus Dammin not only advised other investigators, but he also made major contributions of his own. His leadership of the AFEB was of unquestioned historical significance.


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HARRY MOST, M.D.

Dr. Harry Most was born in New York City and was a proud product of the New York City University educational system (B.S., 1927; Medicine, 1931; and D.Sc., 1938). He was a Research Fellow of the International Health Division of the Rockefeller Foundation and DTM, London School of Tropical Medicine. At New York University School of Medicine, he was assistant professor of medicine and clinical pathology from 1941 to 1946, associate professor of preventive medicine from 1946 to 1949, professor of tropical medicine from 1949 to 1954, and the Hermann M. Biggs Professor and chairman of the Department of Preventive Medicine from 1954 to 1976; he served as professor of medicine beginning in 1976.

Harry Most was an important member of the New York State Department of Health and held consultant and visiting professorships at Harvard, various hospitals in New York, and the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta. He served with distinction as a major in the Army of the United States and received the Legion of Merit for special contributions to the military service. Various leading societies awarded him memberships and officerships, including the New York Society of Tropical Medicine, of which he was president in 1963 and 1964; the American Society of Clinical Investigation; the American Medical Association; the American Association for the Advancement of Science; and the Phi Beta Kappa and Alpha Omega Alpha.

For many years, Dr. Most was a member of the Commission on Parasitic Diseases and served as its director in 1950. Truly, he was one our country's leading authorities in tropical medicine and parasitic diseases.


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PAUL C. BEAVER, PH.D.

Paul C. Beaver graduated from Wabash College in 1928 and received his doctoral degree from the University of Illinois in 1935. His alma mater awarded him an honorary degree of D.Sc. in 1963. During his early career, Dr. Beaver held academic positions at the University of Wyoming, Lawrence College, and University of Michigan. Between 1942 and 1945, Dr. Beaver was a member of the Georgia Department of Health. He then joined the faculty of the Tulane University Medical School as Assistant Professor of Parasitology between 1945 and 1947. He progressed through the ranks and became Associate Professor in 1947, Professor in 1952, and chaired the department between 1956 and 1971. In 1976, he was made Professor Emeritus.

Faithful and productive as an outstanding parasitologist, he was an important contributing member of the Commission on Parasitic Diseases from 1960 to 1967, and served as its director from 1967 to 1973, at which time the Commission's activities were terminated by executive order.

Dr. Beaver served as a member, councilor, and officer of numerous academic societies, both domestic and abroad. He was vice president of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene in 1958 and its president in 1969. The American Society of Parasitology honored him with its presidency in 1968. Two high posts were his membership in the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene and NIH membership of the Parasitic Diseases Panel of the U.S. / Japan Cooperative Medical Science Program. Editorial boards of leading parasitological and tropical medicine journals profited from his scholarly capabilities. The AFEB is in his debt for having prepared the history of the Commission on Parasitic Diseases.


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RODNEY C. JUNG, M.D., PH.D.

LESLIE A. STAUBER, SC.D.

WLLIAM TRAGER, PH.D.

MARTIN D. YOUNG, SC.D.


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ally were held at the site of, and just before or immediately following, the annual meetings of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. This practice was discontinued after the 1967 fall meeting.

Malaria Committee

At the 1957 spring meeting of the Commission, the need for research in the field of malaria was discussed at length. The Commission decided to consider areas where investigative work needed to be performed, with particular reference to the present and potential requirements of the Armed Forces. This decision came after a long discussion, in which it was noted that the National Research Council had disbanded its Panel on Malaria at a time when chloroquine-resistant strains were being reported.

Agenda
Commission on Parasitic Diseases
Claypool Hotel, Indianapolis, Indiana
27 October 1959

GENERAL SESSION

0930 Introductory remarks

Dr. Thomas Francis, Jr., President, AFEB
Colonel John Rizzolo, USAF (MC), Executive Secretary, AFEB
Dr. Gustave J. Dammin, Director, CPD

1000 Reports of Preventive Medicine Officers of the Armed Forces

1030 Coffee break

1045 Current work on the treatment of malaria-Dr. Alf S. Alving

1145 Discussion: Commission Members and Guests

1215 Lunch

1330 Malaria and other research in parasitology at the Naval Medical Research Institute-Dr. Clay G. Huff

1400 Recent work of AFPCB on control of insect vectors-Colonel Ralph W. Bunn, MSC

1420 General discussion-Malaria

1440 Informal reports and discussion of training, therapy, research and travel-

Dr. Ernest Bueding
Dr. Franz von Lichtenberg
Dr. Donald McMullen
Dr. Harry Most
Dr. Henry van der Schalie
Dr. Thomas H. Weller

1540 Coffee break

1600 Executive Session


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Agenda
Commission on Parasitic Diseases
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research
7-8 April 1960

GENERAL SESSION-7 April

0930 Introductory Remarks

Dr. Gustave J. Dammin, Director
Colonel John Rizzolo, USAF, MC, Executive Secretary, AFEB
Major Thomas B. Dunne, MC, R&D Command

1000 Reports of Preventive Medicine Officers of the Army, Navy, and Air Force

1030 Intermission

1045 Requirements for personnel and training for work in tropical areas

Subject to be introduced by Dr. Sadun
Discussion by representatives of the Military, Public Health Service and Commission Members

1130 Dr. Henry van der Schalie: Studies of American Pomatiopsis Snails

1200 Film describing work of the 406th Med. Gen. Lab., Zama, Japan

1230 Recess for lunch

1400 Dr. Harry Most and Dr. Meir Yoeli: Biological Studies in Malaria

1445 Dr. Lloyd Rozeboom and Dr. L. M. Howard: Factors Influencing the Susceptibility and Immunity of the Mosquito to Infection by the Malaria Parasite

1530 Work of the Military in Malaria Chemoprophylaxis

Malaria: General Discussion

1700 Adjournment

GENERAL SESSION-8 April

0900 Dr. Paul Beaver, Dr. John Schacher, and Dr. T. J. Danaraj: Visceral Larva Migrans in Relation to Tropical Eosinophilia

0945 Dr. Robert Lewert, Dr. S. Mandlowitz, and Dr. D. Dusanic: Studies on Schistosome cercariae with Special Reference to Inhibition of Penetration by Various Agents

1030 Intermission

1045 Dr. Ernest Bueding: Mechanisms of Anthelminthic Action

1130 Dr. Nathan Entner: Enzymatic Aspects of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Ascaris lumbricoides

1200 Informal reports on research and travel

1300 Recess for lunch

EXECUTIVE SESSION

1400 Meeting of full members of the Commission on Parasitic Diseases for consideration of contract proposals, financing, and membership

 


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At the 1957 fall meeting of the Commission, a special session on the status of malaria research was held. Discussions were led by the country's most eminent malariologists, Dr. Paul Russell of the Rockefeller Foundation, Dr. Huff of the U.S. Naval Medical Research Center, and Dr. Coatney of the NIH Laboratory of Tropical Diseases. Dr. Russell pointed out gaps in knowledge about malaria organisms, mosquito vectors, insecticides, and antimalarials. Dr. Huff discussed the need for basic research on the plasmodium's morphology and behavior, genetics, and physiology. Dr. Rozeboom reviewed the research needs regarding vector taxonomy, transmission potential, and resistance to insecticides. Dr. Coatney discussed problems of chemotherapy and Dr. Willard Wright outlined research currently in progress in the United States and elsewhere.

At the 1958 spring meeting, the needs for research on malaria were again reviewed, and an ad hoc committee called the Committee on Malaria Research was appointed for the purpose of stimulating applications for support of research on malaria. At the 1958 fall meeting of the Commission, members of the committee reported that as a direct result of the committee's discussions in Bethesda earlier in the year, members of the Commission had submitted the following two project applications: Dr. Harry Most and Dr. Meir Yoeli had already begun their "Biological Studies in Malaria," initiated in July 1958 at New York University; Dr. Rozeboom and Dr. Lee M. Howard applied to do research on "Factors Influencing Susceptibility and Immunity in the Mosquito to Infection by the Malaria Parasite," to be initiated in January 1959 at The Johns Hopkins University.

Members of the Committee on Malaria Research included the Chairman, Dr. Most, and Drs. Coatney, Rozeboom, and Weller, who continued discussions at subsequent meetings. They reached no definite conclusions and made no recommendations until the 1962 fall meeting, when the ad hoc committee converted to a permanent, standing committee of the AFEB consisting of Drs. Most (Chairman), Coatney, Huff, Rozeboom, and Weller. Additional discussions about the committee's role and purpose took place at the spring 1963 meeting of the full Commission on Parasitic Diseases. Following discussions, and after reviewing recent malaria problems encountered by the military, the ad hoc committee was established by the AFEB as a permanent committee. The newly established committee presented the following recommendations: that immediate steps be taken to expand research and research training; that the AFEB encourage new studies and intensify studies on a new antimalarial drug; and that the AFEB consider the establishment of a joint governmental, military, and civilian committee on malaria.

Alaska Hydatid Field Investigation

Because it posed a health hazard to military personnel on duty in Alaska, an ad hoc committee was formed to investigate hydatid disease. Ad hoc committee members included Drs. Gilbert Otto (Chairman), Most, and Wright. Dr. Robert Rausch of the Arctic Health Research Center (USPHS), whose research had called attention to the problem, attended the 1956 spring meeting of the Commission and met with the members of the ad hoc committee on hydatid disease. On the recommendation of the committee, a field party conducted a 2-week investigation in Alaska in July 1956. The field party consisted of Dr. Otto, Mr. John Bozicevich of the NIH, and Lieutenant Colonel H. E. Griffin, of the Preventive Medicine Division, Office of The Surgeon General. Based on the committee's epidemiological findings, extensive intradermal tests with controls and confirmation of results by two laboratories (CDC and First Army Laboratory), and based on further discussions at the 1956 fall and 1957 spring meetings of the Commission, it was concluded that hydatid infection in Alaska was not a medical hazard of more than minimal significance to military personnel.

Schistosomiasis Research Methodology

In view of the high importance of schistosomiasis in the Commission's program and the frequency of disappointing results due to oversight of essential experimental conditions, an ad hoc committee was asked to prepare an outline of essential conditions to be considered and included in the planning


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G. ROBERT COATNEY, PH.D.

LLOYD E. ROZEBOOM, SC.D.

WILLARD H. WRIGHT, D.V. M., PH.D.

HENRY VAN DER SCHALIE, M.D.


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ELVIO H. SADUN, SC.D.

Elvio H. Sadun received his early education in Italy and obtained graduate degrees from Harvard University (M.A.) and The Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene (Sc.D.). He taught parasitology for a few years each at the University of Arkansas School of Medicine, Tulane University School of Medicine, and Thai University of Health in Bangkok, Thailand. For 3 years (1954-1957), he was in charge of the helminthological unit at the Communicable Disease Center in Atlanta. He then was parasitologist at the U.S. Army 406th Medical, General Laboratory in Japan, and in 1959 began an illustrious career as Chief of Medical Zoology at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR). At each location, his research contributed significantly to knowledge of immunological or nutritional aspects of parasitic infection.

Dr. Sadun was a member of the Commission on Parasitic Diseases from 1965 to 1972 and was Deputy Director from 1969 to 1972. He was a ready participant in discussions of a wide range of disease problems and was an outstanding leader in the areas of schistosomiasis and malaria. A notable achievement was the organization, direction, and editing of comprehensive malaria research symposiums in 1966, 1969, and 1972. In 1974 he was awarded posthumously the Distinguished Civilian Service Award of the Department of Defense.


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and reporting of schistosomiasis research projects. The following members of the Commission served on the committee: Chairman Henry van der Schalie and members Dr. McMullen, Dr. Robert Kuntz, and Dr. Elmer Berry. Their report covered the sources of eggs, the storage of eggs, and their method of hatching. The report also discussed the background of the snails; the possible methods of exposure to the snails; the duration and conditions of development in snails; the number, behavior, and infectivity of cercariae; method of exposure of vertebrate hosts; and the methods of collecting and handling the adult worms. A bibliography of selected papers on the maintenance of schistosomes in the laboratory was appended to the report.

TB-Medications (TB-MEDS)

At the Commission's first meeting in October 1953, it was noted that a number of TB-Medications (TB-Meds) and other publications were awaiting revision; and that the assistance of the AFEB and commissions was expected. When the 1954-55 Director's Annual Report was released, the revision of the four TB-MEDS assigned to the Commission had been completed. Suggestions were then made at the fall 1964 meeting by Commission members concerning the revision of TB-MEDS on common intestinal helminths and on African trypanosomiasis. The status of the TB-MEDS was again discussed at the 1965 spring meeting. In 1965, the suggestion was offered that the TB-MEDS should be made more generally available through the Government Printing Office. There was no recorded follow-up of that suggestion. By November 1965, the TB-MEDS had been revised on African trypanosomiasis, common intestinal helminths, trematodes other than schistosomes, malaria, filariasis, amebiasis, and schistosomiasis. In October 1972, the need for further revisions of the TB-MEDS was again discussed at the last meeting of the Commission.

Procurement of Antiparasitic Drugs

In February 1961, and at subsequent spring meetings of the Commission, the attention of the AFEB was called to the serious lack of availability of drugs effective in the prophylactic, suppressive, and curative treatment of parasitic infections. Of the 32 listed drugs for prevention or treatment of parasitic infections, fewer than a third were recorded as available in the Federal Supply Catalogue. At the Commission meeting in October 1961, a resolution was prepared for use by the AFEB in an effort to remedy the situation. Later, the list was submitted to the appropriate offices to permit stockpiling the drugs.

During the 1965 spring meeting, members reported that discussions were underway to encourage some pharmaceutical companies to establish a central institute, supported by the industry, to foster and support research on the synthesis, pharmacology, and chemotherapy of drugs needed in tropical medicine. Another key purpose of the institute would be to prepare and produce certain drugs that were currently unavailable because of low demand. Little progress was made toward that goal in 1966. So, the Commission on Parasitic Diseases established an ad hoc committee composed of Drs. Most, Neva, and Bueding to explore ways to resolve the problem. As a result of the work of the Commission, significant progress was reported at the 1967 spring meeting. The Communicable Disease Center (CDC) agreed to act as a sponsor for drugs not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in this country. To make such drugs more readily available to military and civilian physicians, members of the ad hoc committee recommended that repositories be established to serve various geographic areas. At the Commission s next meeting, the scarcity or nonavailability of needed antiparasitic drugs was still a matter of concern, but eventually a satisfactory service was established by the CDC in Atlanta, Georgia.

Special Reports and Symposia

The Commission attempted to integrate its program with that of other agencies by holding the following symposia on parasitology topics at leading institutions:


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Air Force Base, Northeast Cape, St. Laurence Island, Alaska, July 1956.


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Dr. Robert Rausch (Left), Lieutenant Colonel H.E. Griffen (Right), and an Unidentified Eskimo, St. Laurence Island, Alaska, July 1956.


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. Research Laboratories. At the 1954 fall meeting, the parasitology research program of the 406th Medical General Laboratory in Japan was presented by Dr. L. S. Ritchie. Ongoing research at the Naval Medical Research Institute was described by Dr. Huff, and Dr. Wright described the parasitology research conducted at the NIH.

. NIH Schistosomiasis. At the 1955 spring meeting, Dr. Wright presented a summary of the research in progress on schistosomiasis at the NIH.

. LSU Parasitology. At the 1956 fall meeting of the Commission in New Orleans, the research program in parasitology at Louisiana State University School of Medicine was presented by Dr. Bueding and others (Drs. R. Reeves, H. J. Saz, B. E. Mansour).

. Malaria Research. The 1957 fall meeting of the Commission was held at Hotel Benjamin Franklin in Philadelphia. The afternoon session was devoted to reviews of current research on malaria by Drs. Russell, Huff, Rozeboom, and Coatney. Their presentations were followed by a discussion of the role of the Commission in relation to the status of research on malaria.

. Vector Control. At the 1959 spring meeting held at WRAIR, Colonel Ralph Bunn presented a report on current research to control of insect vectors at the Armed Forces Pest Control Branch laboratories in Florida.

. Malaria Research. At the 1960 spring meeting, Dr. Huff reported on the malaria research in progress at the Naval Medical Research Institute. At the same meeting, Dr. Alf S. Alving described the malaria research programs at University of Chicago and the Illinois State Penitentiary at Statesville.

. CDC Program. The 1962 fall meeting held at the CDC in Atlanta, the organization and programs of the CDC were described by Dr. Alan Donaldson, departmental chief. Individual programs were presented by four CDC laboratory chiefs.

. Chicago Area Programs. The 1963 fall meeting was held at University of Chicago. Dr. Lewert presented his own work and that of his colleagues at the university. He also outlined other research in progress in the Chicago area.

. Malaria Research. The 1964 fall meeting was held in New York on November 3rd at the New York University School of Medicine. Reports by representatives of the Preventive Medicine Services indicated that their principal concern was the occurrence of Falciparum malaria, a strain resistant to synthetic antimalarials. Dr. Sadun reviewed the current Walter Reed program on malaria research. Dr. Coatney presented a summary of the proceedings of the first meeting of the newly constituted Commission on Malaria. Although malaria had become the responsibility of a new commission, the Commission on Parasitic Diseases continued to be interested in the subject.

. Tulane University Parasitology. The 1965 fall meeting was held at Tulane University School of Medicine following the annual meeting of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Dr. Beaver and several staff members presented reports on subjects under investigation at Tulane and at its overseas units in Singapore and in Colombia, South America.

. Hemoflagellate Conference. A conference on hemoflagellates was held at the 1967 spring meeting of the Commission on Parasitic Diseases of the AFEB. Dr. Stauber presided. A general introduction and review of fine structure and differentiation was given by Dr. Trager of Rockefeller University. Three speakers covered topics that included the current knowledge and problems of trypanosomiasis The three speakers also spoke on the Leishmania species. Dr. Neva of Harvard University spoke on Chagas' disease, Dr. Frans Goble of Ciba Pharmaceuticals spoke on chemotherapy, and Dr. Nathan Enter of New York University spoke on immunity. The speakers on leishmaniasis were Dr. Kevin Cahill from St. Clare's Hospital in New York City, who covered the clinical aspects and epidemiology in Africa; Dr. Bruce Walton of the U.S. Army Research Unit in Panama, who talked about American cutaneous leishmaniasis; and Dr. Stauber of Rutgers University, who spoke on the identification and evaluation of reservoir hosts. Drs. Howard Hopps, D. Price, and D. Weisberg of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology; Drs. Sadun and E. Fife of the WRAIR; Dr. A. Pipkin of the Naval Medical Research Institute; Dr. T. von Brand of the NIH; and Dr. Young of the Gorgas Laboratory in Panama contributed to the discussions of leishmaniasis. In all of the discussions, the special needs for further research were stressed.


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Agenda
Commission on Parasitic Diseases
Benjamin Franklin Hotel, Philadelphia
31 October 1967

0900 Introductory Remarks

Dr. Thomas Gill for Dr. Gustave J. Dammin, President
Dr. Paul C. Beaver, Director
Captain Sidney A. Britten, Executive Secretary

0915 Reports, Preventive Medicine Officers:

Department of the Army-Lieutenant Colonel John Einarson
Department of the Navy
Department of the Air Force-Major Amos Townsend
Representative, USA Medical R&D Command-Lieutenant Colonel Robert Cutting Report on Niridazole Conference-Dr. Ernest Bueding and Dr. Elvio Sadun

0945 Recess-Coffee

SPECIAL REPORTS-Organized mostly by Elvio Sadun

1000 Lieutenant Colonel Norman E. Wilks, WRAIR: Parasitologic Investigations in Uganda

Major Duane G. Erickson, WRAIR, Problems in the Laboratory Diagnosis of Malaria and Amebiasis in Vietnam
Dr. Robert S. Desowitz, SEATO: Scope of Present Effort and Plans for Immediate Future of the SEATO Parasitological Program
Colonel Stefano Vivona, WRAIR: Overseas Components of WRAIR
Lieutenant Colonel James C. Burke, WRAIR: Parasitology as Presented in the WRAIR Global Medicine Course
Lieutenant Colonel L. J. Legters, WRAIR: Filariasis and Schistosomiasis in Vietnam
Dr. John Cross, NAMRU-2: Capillariasis in the Philippines

1130 Executive Session

1330 LEPTOSPIROSIS CONFERENCE

Introductory Remarks-Dr. Frank Neva, Program Chairman
I. Clinical and Epidemiological Features of Leptospirosis in S.E. Asia

Dr. Fred McCrumb, University of Maryland School of Medicine: Clinical Varieties of Leptospirosis in S.E. Asia

Dr. A. D. Alexander, WRAIR: Epidemiology of Leptospirosis with Particular Reference to S.E. Asia

II. Recent Experience with Leptospirosis in S.E. Asia

Lieutenant Colonel L. J. Legters, WRAIR: Known and Suspected Incidence of Leptospirosis in U.S. Military Personnel

Captain Andrew Whelton, WRAIR: Management of Renal Failure

Dr. A. D. Alexander: Criteria for Diagnosis of Leptospirosis

III. Approaches to Leptospirosis Control for the Military

Dr. Lyle E. Hanson, Univ. Ill. College of Veterinary Medicine: Experience with Leptospiral Vaccines in Veterinary Medicine, and Considerations for their Use in Man

Dr. Fred McCrumb: Treatment of Leptospirosis and Possibilities of Chemoprophylaxis

IV. Summing-Up and Open Discussion

1. Feasibility of Environmental Control of Leptospirosis

2. New Information Having Important Implications for Pathogenesis, Control, Treatment, and Diagnosis of Leptospirosis

Other Participants and Discussants: Dr. Charles D. Cox, Univ. Massachusetts, Dr. Victor M. Arean, Univ. Florida, and Dr. Russell C. Johnson, Univ. Minnesota


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Leptospirosis Seminar

At the 1967 fall meeting in Philadelphia, leptospirosis was the subject of a half-day seminar organized and moderated by Dr. Neva. Although leptospirosis was known to be endemic in parts of Southeast Asia, it was not being dealt with by any other AFEB commission. Clinical and epidemiological features were presented by Dr. Fred McCrumb of the University of Maryland and by Dr. A. D. Alexander of the WRAIR. Recent experience with the disease in Southeast Asia was reported by Lieutenant Colonel L. J. Legters of WRAIR, Captain Andrew Whalton of WRAIR, and Dr. Alexander. Dr. Lyle Hanson of the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine and Dr. McCrumb discussed approaches the military could take for leptospirosis control. Other discussants were Dr. Charles Cox of the University of Massachusetts, Dr. Victor Arean of the University of Florida, and Dr. Russell Johnson of the University of Minnesota.

Military Laboratory Programs. Also at the 1967 fall meeting of the Commission special

Reports on of research projects at military laboratories were also presented during the 1967 fall meeting of the Commission. Lieutenant Colonel Norman E. Wilks of WRAIR reported on parasitological investigations in Uganda. Major Duane G. Erickson of WRAIR reported on problems in the labora tory diagnoses of malaria and amebiasis in Vietnam. Dr. Robert S. Desowitz of SEATO reported on the scope of the SEATO parasitological program and on SEATO plans for the program in the near future. Colonel Stefano Vivano of WRAIR reported on the overseas components of WRAIR. Lieutenant Colonel James C. Burke of WRAIR outlined the WRAIR global medicine course in parasitology.

Lieutenant Colonel Legters of WRAIR reported on the military significance of filariasis and schistosomiasis in Vietnam and Dr. John Cross of the Naval Medical Research Unit-2 (NAMRU-2) reported on capillariasis in the Philippines.

Filariasis Program

At the 1968 fall meeting held at WRAIR, a half-day symposium on filariasis was held, consisting of a film on filariasis with introduction and comment by Colonel Lyman Frick and Dr. Donald Price;

Agenda
Commission on Parasitic Diseases
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research
25 March 1968

0900 Introductory Remarks

Dr. Paul C. Beaver, Director
Dr. Gustave J. Dammin, President
Captain Sidney A. Britten, Executive Secretary

0915 Reports, Preventive Medicine Officers:

Department of the Army-Lieutenant Colonel John Einarson
Department of the Navy-Captain Charles Miller
Department of the Air Force-Major A. Townsend
Representative, USA Medical R&D Command-Lieutenant Colonel Robert Cutting

1030 Recess-Coffee

1045 Research at Overseas Military Installations-Dr. Elvio H. Sadun

1245 Recess-Lunch

1345 Executive Session

Status of TB-MEDS, Drugs for Parasitic Diseases, Discussion of Grants, Contracts, Progress Reports, Personnel, Consideration of Short- and Long-Term Plans of Commission, Program of Fall Meeting

 


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interpretation of microfilaremia by Dr. Guillermo Pacheco; immunological aspects and hypersensitivity by Dr. D. J. Stechschulte; serodiagnosis by Dr. Sadun and Dr. Ralph Duxbury; filariasis in Vietnam by Major Edward Colwell and Lt. Duane R. Armstrong; pulmonary filariasis by Dr. Beaver; pathogenesis of onchocercal dermatitis by Dr. Daniel Connor; and prophylaxis and treatment by Dr. Most.

Latin American Parasitic Diseases

At the 1969 spring meeting at WRAIR, reports on special problems of parasitic diseases in Latin America were presented. Dr. Hopps of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology reported on the Amazon Basin, Dr. Alfred Buck of The Johns Hopkins University gave a summary of findings in a survey of parasitic infections in the Upper Amazon of the Andean Region, Dr. Bryce Walton reviewed the problem of leishmaniasis in South and Central America, and Dr. Young described the research program at the Gorgas Laboratory in Panama.

Immunology Symposium

On the 2nd day of the 1969 fall meeting, a 10-paper symposium was held on immunity in relation to parasitic diseases. Dr. H. N. Eisen spoke on immunization, Dr. K. F. Austen on allergy and hypersensitivity, G. B. Mackaness on mechanisms of resistance, J. S. Remington on immunoglobulins in toxoplasmosis, Dr. J. F. Barbaro on histamine release in schistosomiasis, Dr. E. J. L. Soulsby on cell-mediated immune response, Dr. C. W. Kim on delayed hypersensitivity and lymphocyte transformation, Dr. Kenneth S. Warren on granuloma formation in schistosomiasis, Dr. R. T. Damian on antigens common to host and parasite, and Dr. Sadun on immunization with irradiated parasites.

Special Reports

At the 1970 spring meeting, held at WRAIR, four special reports were presented. Major E. S. Colwell described a study at WRAIR on the in vitro leukocyte and passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reactions in experimental trichinosis and schistosomiasis. Current information on filariasis in Viet Nam was summarized by Captain T. J. Sullivan, concluding that Malayan filariasis had not been found in South Viet Nam and Bancroftian filariasis was uncommon in military personnel. Lieutenant Colonel Dale Wykoff reported that leishmaniasis had become endemic throughout much of East Africa and that both Gambian and Rhodesian trypanosomiasis had again become prevalent there. Dr. Louis Olivier of Pan American Health Organization reported on the prevalence and distribution of Chagas' disease and leishmaniasis in South America.

Schistosomiasis Symposium

At the 1970 fall meeting at WRAIR a symposium was held on schistosomiasis covering in-depth the results of current investigations in nine leading laboratories. The program, reported by Dr. Sadun, included pathogenesis in primates, immediate hypersensitivity, radioactive microprecipitin assay, and prophylactic and suppressive drugs in primates. Dr. George M. Davis of the 406th U.S. Army Medical Laboratory described programs in experimental treatment for schistosomiasis, and in medical malacology. Dr. Margaret Stirewalt, of the Naval Medical Research Institute, reported work on skin invasion


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by cercariae and prevention of invasion. Captain D. C. Kent described the research on schistosomiasis at NAMRU-2. This included studies on treatment, pathogenesis, epidemiology, and immunology. The program at NIH, reported by Dr. A. W. Cheever, consisted of studies on pathogenesis in mammalian hosts and on genetics of vector snails. The work at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston, reported by Dr. von Lichtenberg, was mainly in the areas of pathogenesis and immunology, a large part of which was performed in collaboration with the group at WRAIR.

Work at the Harvard University School of Public Health, presented by Dr. Weller, was centered on factors in the invasion of host snails by miracidia in Dr. Eli Chernin's laboratory, pathogens of snails investigated by Dr. Edward Michelsen, and specific antigens in the urine of heavily infected animals and attempts to obtain cultures of cells from Schistosoma mansoni in progress by Dr. Weller and associates.

Research on the control of schistosomiasis in endemic areas of St. Lucia was reported by the team leader, Dr. P. Jordan. At The Johns Hopkins University, research on schistosomiasis, reported by Dr. Bueding, was directed toward describing the pharmacological characteristics of old and new antischistosomal drugs.

COMMISSION-SPONSORED SCIENTIFIC CONTRIBUTIONS

Among the parasitic diseases of military concern, schistosomiasis and filariasis were considered to be of greatest importance. With the advent of chloroquine resistance of falciparum malaria and mosquito resistance to insecticides, malaria assumed high priority status. A chief purpose of the Commission was to sponsor research investigations designed to solve problems in the prevention and management of these three diseases. Added later to the priority list were leishmaniasis, trypanosomiasis, amebiasis, and others.

Schistosomiasis

Several different aspects of the schistosomiasis problem were investigated. The biology of the snail intermediate host was investigated in a study by Dr. E. D. Wagner at Loma Linda and a long series of studies by Dr. Henry van der Schalie and his group of malacologists at University of Michigan. Possible prevention of infection by inhibition of skin penetration by the infective larvae (cercariae) was investigated by Drs. Hardy A. Kemp and George W. Hunter, III, the mechanisms of cercarial penetration of the skin and immune reactions to infection were studied by Dr. Robert Lewert, and the pathogenesis of the disease was the subject of investigations by Dr. Warren and by Dr. von Lichtenberg. Studies designed to isolate specific antigens from larval and adult schistosomes were undertaken by Dr. Niam Kent. Although early progress was satisfactory, because of a change in location, the project was discontinued without reported results.

Dr. Wagner's studies were performed on Oncomelania quadrasi from the Philippines, Oncomelania nosophora from Japan, and Oncomelania hupensis and Oncomelania formosana from Taiwan. Laboratory observations on methods of cultivation and conditions affecting reproduction and survival were followed by field observations by Dr. Wagner and his assistant, Dr. Lois Wong Chi, in the Philippines and Japan. Of special interest was the finding that when the four species were crossed, fertile hybrids were produced. Results of the 5-year study were published in the following reports.

. Chi, L. W., and Wagner, E. D. A rapid method of sexing snails, Oncomelania nosophora. Trans. Am. Microsc. Soc. 1954, 73, 66-67.

. Chi, L. W., and Wagner, E. D. Some effects of ultraviolet radiation on Oncomelania nosophora and Oncomelania quadrasi, snail intermediate hosts of Schistosoma japonicum. Trans. Am. Microsc. Soc. 1956, 75, 204-210.

. Chi, L. W., and Wagner, E. D. Studies on reproduction and growth of Oncomelania quadrasi, O. nosophora, and O. formosana, snail hosts of Schistosoma japonicum. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1957, 6, 949-959.


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  • Wagner, E. D., and Chi, L. W. Some factors influencing egg laying in Oncomelania nosophora and Oncomelania quadrasi, intermediate hosts of Schistosoma japonicum. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.1956, 5, 544-552.

  • Wagner, E. D., and Chi, L. W. Egg-laying inhibition in Oncomelania nosophora maintained on filter paper. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1957, 6, 946-948.

  • Wagner, E. D., and Chi, L. W. Methods on the rearing of the snail, Oncomelania species. Trans. Am. Microsc. Soc. 1959, 78, 421-423.

  • Wagner, E. D., and Chi, L. W. Species crossing in Oncomelania. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1959, 8,195-198.

  • Wagner, E. D., and Moore, B. Effects of water level fluctuation on egg laying in Oncomelania nosophora and Oncomelania quadrasi. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1957, 5, 553-558.

  • Wagner, E. D., and Moore, B. The development of Schistosoma mansoni in snails kept at certain constant temperatures. Trans. Am. Microsc. Soc. 1959, 78, 424-428.

  • Winkler, L. R., and Wagner, E. D. Filter paper digestion by the crystalline style in Oncomelania. Trans. Am. Microsc. Soc. 1959, 78, 262-268.

Initially, Dr. van der Schalie's studies were mainly field observations on the environmental conditions at sites in Michigan where stable populations of Pomatiopsis snails were found. This snail, Pomatiopsis cincinnatiensis in Michigan, was noted to be "almost identical to Oncomelania, the vector of Oriental schistosomiasis," and therefore might have direct application to the control of Schistosoma japonicum in Asia. The project proved to be of greatest value in serving to train malacologists, and to provide infected snails and experimental animals for research by workers elsewhere in the United States. In the later years of this program, snail hosts of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium were included and Dr. van der Schalie's laboratory provided research materials for numerous other workers, and emphasis was placed on describing methods of cultivation. Attempts to propagate Lithoglyphopsis aperta, the snail host of Schistosoma mekongi, were unsuccessful. The large number of collaborators and colleagues and the range of subjects studied are evident in published articles, as follows:

. Burch, J. B. A serological approach to molluscan systematics. Papua New Guinea Sci. Soc. Annu. Rep. Proc. 1967, 18, 29-36.

. Burch, J. B. Cytological relationships of some Pacific gastropods. Venus Japan. J. Malacol.1967, 25 (3-4).

. Burch, J. B., and Lindsay, G. K. Some immunological relationships in the African genus Bulinus. Annu. Rep. Am. Malacol. Union 1966, 37-38.

. Burch, J. B., and Lindsay, G. K. Electrophoretic analysis of esterases in Bulinus. Annu. Rep. Am. Malacol. Union 1967, 39-40.

. Davis, G. M. Notes on Hydrobiiae tottem. Venus Japan. J. Malacol. 1966, 25, 27-42.

. Davis, G. M. The systematic relationship of Pomatiopsis lapidaria and Oncomelania hypensis formosana (Prosobranchia: Hydrobiidae). Malacologia 1967, 6, 1-143.

. Davis, G. M. A systematic study of Oncomelania hypensis chiui (Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae). Malacologia 1968, 7, 17-70.

. Davis, G. M., and Lindsay, G. K. Disc electrophoretic analysis of molluscan individuals and populations. Malacologia 1967, 5, 311-334.

. Davis, G. M., Moose, J. W., and Williams, J. E. Abnormal development in a hybrid Oncomelania (Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae). Malacologia 1965, 3, 81-102.

. Habe, T., and Burch, J. B. A new species of freshwater limpet, genus Ferrissia, from Japan. Venus, Japan. J. Malacol. 1965, 24, 1-7.

. Liang, Y S. The effect of water quality on laboratory culturing of Biomphalaria pfeifferi and Bulinus globosus. Malacol. Rev. 1972, 5, 11.

. Lo, C. T. Survey for the molluscan hosts of Schistosoma japonicum in Laos. WHO-WPRO Assignment Report. 1969.

. Lo, C. T. Chromosomes of Fasciolopsis buski (Trematoda: Fasciolidae). Bull. Inst. Zool. Acad. Sinica 1969, 8, 1-5.


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  • Lo, C. T. Some abnormal tentacles and eyes of Pachydrobia pellucida Bavay, 1895 (Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae). Venus, Japan. J. Malacol. 1970, 28, 185-188.

  • Lo, C. T. Compatibility and host-parasite relationship between species of the genus Bulinus (Basommatophora: Planorbidae) and an Egyptian strain of Schistosoma haematobium (Trematoda, Digenea). Malacologia 1972, 11, 225-280.

  • Lo, C. T., Berry, E. G., and Iijima, T. Studies on schistosomiasis in the Mekong Basin. II. Malacological investigations on human Schistosoma from Laos. Chinese J. Microbiol. 1971, 4, 168-181.

  • Lo, C. T., Burch, J. B., and Schutte, C. H. J. Infection of diploid Bulinus s.s. with Schistosoma haematobium (Tremaoda: Digenea). Malacol. Rev. 1970, 3, 121-126.

  • Patterson, C. M. Chromosome numbers of some Japanese freshwater snails. Venus, Jap. J. Malacol. 1967, 25, 69-72.

  • van der Schalie, H. The role of snail intermediate hosts in culturing Schistosoma japonicum. Malacologia 1967, 5, 17-20.

  • van der Schalie, H. Snail control problems in Hawaii. Annu. Rep. Am. Malacol. Union 1969, 55-56.

  • van der Schalie, H. Problems in culturing snail intermediate hosts. Malacol. Rev. 1972, 5, 10.

  • van der Schalie, H., and Davis, G. M. Growth and stunting in Oncomelania (Gastropoda: Hydrobiidae). Malacologia 1965, 3, 81-102.

  • van der Schalie, H., and Davis, G. M. Culturing Oncomelania snails (Prosobranchia: Hydrobiidae) for studies of Oriental schistosomiasis. Malacologia 1968, 6, 321-367.

Dr. Lewert's program began with a basic study of the mechanism of skin penetration by the schistosome cercaria. It was thought that with a fundamental knowledge of cercarial penetration, an effective protective ointment could be made for use in prophylaxis. When this approach failed to show promise, immune resistance of the snail host to penetration and development of miracidia was briefly studied. This was followed by an extended period of research on the immune reactions of humans and other mammalian hosts to schistosome infection. The immunological studies of Dr. Lewert were coordinated with those of Dr. Mariano Yogore. For their field studies in endemic areas in the Philippines, they developed and successfully applied a circumoval precipitin test that reliably showed characteristic differences in reactions at different stages of infection and before and after successful treatment. The significant findings were reported in the following published articles:

. Dusanic, D. G., and Lewert, R. M. Electrophoretic studies of the antigen-antibody complexes of Trichinella spiralis and Schistosoma mansoni. J. Infect. Dis. 1966, 116, 270-284.

. Kloetzel, K., and Lewert, R. M. Pigment formation in Schistosoma mansoni infections in the white mouse. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1966, 15, 28-31.

. Lee, C. L., and Lewert, R. M. The maintenance of Schistosoma mansoni in the laboratory. J. Infect. Dis. 1956, 99, 15-20.

. Lee, C. L., and Lewert, R. M. Studies on the presence of mucopoly-saccharidase in penetrating helminth larvae. J. Infect. Dis. 1957, 101, 287-294.

. Lee, C. L., and Lewert, R. M. The distribution of various reactants in human anti-Schistosoma mansoni serums fractionated by starch electrophoresis. J. Infect. Dis. 1960, 106, 69-76.

. Lewert, R. M. Invasiveness of helminth larvae. Symposium on Resistance and Immunity in Parasitic Infections. Rice Inst. Pamphlet 1958, 45, 97-113.

. Lewert, R. M., and Dusanic, D. G. Effects of a symmetrical diaminodibenzylalkane on alkaline phosphatase of Schistosoma mansoni. J. Infect. Dis. 1961, 109, 85-89.

. Lewert, R. M., and Hopkins, D. R. Histochemical demonstration of calcium in preacetabular glands of cercariae and the role of calcium ions in invasiveness. J. Parasitol. 1964, 50, 30.

. Lewert, R. M., and Hopkins, D. R. Cholinesterase activity in Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. J. Parasitol. 1965, 51, 616.

. Lewert, R. M., Hopkins, D. R., and Mandlowitz, S. The role of calcium and magnesium ions in invasiveness of schistosome cercariae. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1966, 15, 314-323.

. Lewert, R. M., and Lee, C. L. Quantitative studies of the collagenase-like enzymes of cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni and the larvae of Strongyloides ratti. J. Infect. Dis. 1956, 99, 1-14.


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  • Lewert, R. M., and Lee, C. L. The collagenase-like enzymes of skin-penetrating helminths. Am. J. Trop Med. Hyg. 1957, 6, 473-477.

  • Lewert, R. M., Lee, C. L., Mandlowitz, S., and Dusanic, D. Inhibition of the collagenase-like enzymes of cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni by serums and serum fractions. J. Infect. Dis. 1959, 105, 180-187.

  • Lewert, R. M., and Mandlowitz, S. Innate immunity to Schistosoma mansoni relative to the state of connective tissue. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1963, 113, 54-62.

  • Lewert, R. M., and Para, B. J. The physiological incorporation of carbon 14 in Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. J. Infect. Dis.1966, 116, 171-182.

  • Lewert, R. M., and Yogore, M. G., Jr. A field circumoval precipitin (FCOP) test for Schistosomiasis japonica. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1969, 63, 343-348.

  • Mandlowitz, S., Dusanic, D., and Lewert, R. M. Peptidase and lipase activity of extracts of Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. J. Parasitol. 1960, 46, 89-90.

  • Yogore, M. G., Jr., Lewert, R. M., Garcia, E. G., Madraso, E. D., and Ramos, E. R. Analysis of Schistosoma japonicum antigens by micro-Ouchterlony technic. In: Proceedings of the First Regional Symposium on Scientific Knowledge of Tropical Parasites, University of Singapore, 1962, 267.

  • Yogore, M. G., Jr., Lewert, R. M., and Silan, R. B. The circumoval precipitin (COP) test in schistosomiasis japonica. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1968, 17, 65-71.

In the period 1 September to 28 February 1956, Drs. Kemp and Dr. Hunter tested 247 ointment preparations for their inhibiting effect on the penetration of schistosome cercariae through the skin of the laboratory mouse. Forty-six of these ointments were effective. However, it was felt that before further screening, the most promising ones should be subjected to intensive toxicologic investigation. This apparently was not followed up.

In August 1964, Dr. Warren began a broad program of studies on the "Pathophysiology of Schistosomiasis." Using white mice exposed to precisely determined numbers of cercariae, he and associates Donald E. Moore and Donald Ostrow, conducted studies on a comparison of hepato-splenic disease caused by Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum, hepato-splenic disease caused by Schistosoma mansoni from different geographic regions (Puerto Rico, Brazil, Egypt, Tanzania), survival of Schistosoma mansoni in relation to hepatic fibrosis, character of pigment produced by Schistosoma mansoni, and suppressive effect of chloramphenicol on development of Schistosoma mansoni in the snail host. In subsequent years, and with additional associates (Drs. R. J. Stenger, E. O. Domingo, R. B. T. Cowan, A. S. Weisberger, P. A. Peters, and J. A. Jane), he expanded the program with experiments on claypipe-stem cirrhosis-like lesions in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni; ultrastructure of liver in acute and chronic Schistosoma mansoni infection; hepatoma in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice; effects of immunosuppression and neonatal thymectomy on granuloma formation in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice; effects of Schistosoma mansoni on intestinal absorption; factors in virulence of Schistosoma mansoni; comparative susceptibility of squirrel monkey, slow loris, and tree shrew to Schistosoma mansoni infection; and effects of metabolic inhibitors, molluscicides, and schistosomicides on development of Schistosoma mansoni in its snail host. Most of these studies were completed with the results reported and published.

In the 2-year period beyond 1 August 1967, Dr. Warren and his several associates (Drs. Domingo, M. S. Rosenthal, L. B. Liu, Stenger, and L. Klein) directed their research on the mechanisms of immunity in schistosomiasis. Using the rat as the experimental mammalian host, they found that in the early stages of Schistosoma mansoni infection the response could not be enhanced or accelerated by the transfer of either serum or cells from histocompatible rats with late stages of infection at a time when the donor animals had largely eliminated their own infections. Results of these and earlier studies were reported in the publications listed below:

. Domingo, E. O., Cowan, R. B. T., and Warren, K. S. The inhibition of granuloma formation around Schistosoma mansoni eggs. I. Immunosuppressive drugs. Am. J. Trop Med. Hyg.1967, 16, 284-292.

. Domingo, E. O., and Warren, K. S. The inhibition of granuloma formation around Schistosoma mansoni eggs. II. Thymectomy. Am. J. Pathol. 1967, 51, 757-767.

. Domingo, E. O., and Warren, K. S. The inhibition of granuloma formation around Schistosoma


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mansoni eggs. III. Heterologous antilymphocyte serum. Am. J. Pathol. 1968, 52, 613-626.

  • Domingo, E. O., and Warren, K. S. Endogenous desensitization: Changing host granulomatous response to schistosome eggs at different stages of infection with Schistosoma mansoni. Am. J. Pathol. 1968, 52, 369-377.

  • Domingo, E. O., and Warren, K. S. Pathology and pathophysiology of the small intestine in murine schistosomiasis mansoni, including a review of the literature. Gastroenterology 1969, 56, 231-240.

  • Domingo, E. O., Warren, K. S., and Stenger, R. J. Increased incidence of hepatoma in mice with chronic schistosomiasis mansoni treated with a carcinogen. Am. J. Pathol. 1967, 51, 307-321.

  • Liu, L. B., Domingo, E. O., Stenger, R. J., Warren, K. S., Confer, D. B., and Johnson, E. A. An ultrastructural study of the toxic and carcinogenic effects of 2-amino-5-azotoluene on the livers of schistosome-infected and uninfected mice. Cancer Res. 1969, 29, 837-847.

  • Moore, D. E., and Warren, K. S. Hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni and japonica compared in mice each infected with one pair of worms. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1967, 61,104-109.

  • Stenger, R. J., Warren, K. S., and Johnson, E. A. An electron microscopic study of the liver parenchyma and schistosome pigment in murine hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1967, 16, 473-482.

  • Stenger, R. J., Warren, K. S., and Johnson, E. A. An ultrastructural study of hepatic granulomas and schistosome egg shells in murine hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni. Exp. Molec. Pathol. 1967, 7, 116-132.

  • Warren, K. S. The pathogenesis of "clay-pipe stem cirrhosis" in mice with chronic schistosomiasis mansoni with a note on the longevity of the schistosomes. Am. J. Pathol. 1966, 49, 477-489.

  • Warren, K. S. A comparison of Puerto Rican, Brazilian, Egyptian and Tanzanian strains of Schistosoma mansoni in mice: Penetration of cercariae, maturation of schistosomes and production of liver disease. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1967, 61, 795-802.

  • Warren, K. S. Studies on the treatment of molluscan schistosomiasis mansoni with antibiotics, non-antibiotic metabolic inhibitors, molluscicides and anti-schistosomal agents. Trans. R Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1967, 61, 368-372.

  • Warren, K. S., Domingo, E. O., and Cowan, R. B. T. Granuloma formation around schistosome eggs as a manifestation of delayed hypersensitivity. Am. J. Pathol. 1967, 51, 735-756.

  • Warren, K. S., and Jane, J. A. Comparative susceptibility to Schistosoma mansoni of the squirrel monkey, the slow loris and the tree shrew. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1967, 61, 534-537.

  • Warren, K. S., and Klein, L. Chronic murine hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni: Relative irreversibility after treatment. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1969, 63, 333-337.

  • Warren, K. S., and Moore, D. E. Murine hepatosplenic schistosomiasis japonica. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1966, 15, 22-27.

  • Warren, K. S., and Peters, P. A. Quantitative aspects of exposure time and cercarial dispersion on penetration and maturation of Schistosoma mansoni in mice. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 1967, 61, 294-301.

  • Warren, K. S., and Peters, P. A. Comparison of penetration and maturation of Schistosoma mansoni in the hamster, mouse, guinea pig, rabbit and rat. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1967, 16, 718-722.

  • Warren, K. S., Rosenthal, M. S., and Domingo, E. O. Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV3) infection in chronic murine schistosomiasis mansoni. Bull. N.Y Acad. Med. 1969, 45, 211-224.

  • Warren, K. S., and Weisberger, A. S. The suppression of schistosomiasis in snails by chloramphenicol. Nature 1966, 209, 422-423.

  • Warren, K. S., and Weisberger, A. S. The treatment of molluscan schistosomiasis mansoni with chloramphenicol. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1966, 15, 342-350.

  • Warren, K. S., and Weisberger, A. S. Molluscan schistosomiasis mansoni: Effect of two analogues of chloramphenicol on both parasite and host. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 1967, 124, 789-791.

In 1961, Dr. von Lichtenberg began studies on schistosomiasis under the title "Host Parasite Relationships in Normal and Abnormal Hosts of Schistosomidae." On 1 March 1965 the title was changed


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ERNEST B. BUEDING, M.D.


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to "Protective Mechanisms in Schistosome Infections." At that time, three studies performed in collaboration with Drs. Salvador Jaimes, Peter Peterson and Alfred Senft, respectively, had been completed: (1) Fluorescent antibody titers in mice infected with normal cercariae, radiated cercariae, and eggs of Schistosoma mansoni; (2) In vivo antigenicity of sequestered schistosome egg antigen in experimental pseudotubercles of S. mansoni; (3) Nonantigenicity of dialyzed culture medium after incubation of live, mating schistosome worms.

At this time, investigative emphasis shifted from immunology to pathogenesis, and a different group of collaborators became involved. With Dr. Sadun and others at WRAIR and Dr. Cheever and others at the NIH, a series of investigations compared schistosomiasis disease processes in several lower primates, including the chimpanzee. Examined also were differences in the pathological changes and pathogenesis produced by various geographic strains of the parasite in humans and experimental animals. Notable observations were made on the Hoeppli phenomenon. A major contribution was made with Dr. C. M. Edington and others on the pathological effects of urinary schistosomiasis in Nigeria, with Dr. J. H. Smith on the ultrastructure of the schistosome integument, urinary schistosomiasis in Egypt, and on tissue degradation of Schistosoma haematobium eggs. Other notable results were obtained from collaborative studies with Dr. D. H. Kelley on abnormal schistosome egg shell material in tissues, with Dr. P. Jordan and others on experimental schistosomiasis in primates in Tanzania, with Dr. T. M. Smith and others on phospholipids in the schistosome granuloma, and with Dr. H. A. Dunsford and others on granulomas caused by bentonite and latex carrier particles. Results of studies completed or in progress as of June 1972 were reported in the following published articles:

. Bruce, J. I., von Lichtenberg, F., Schoenbechler, M. J., and Hickman, R. L. The role of splenectomy in the natural and acquired resistance of rhesus monkeys to infection with Schistosoma mansoni. J. Parasitol. 1966, 52, 831.

. Cavallo, T., Galvanek, E. G., Ward, P. A., and von Lichtenberg, F. The nephropathy of experimental hepatosplenic schistosomiasis. Am. J. Pathol. 1974, 26, 433-445.

. Cheever, A. W., Erickson, D. G., Sadun, E. H., and von Lichtenberg, F. Schistosoma japonicum infection in monkeys and baboons; parasitological and pathological findings. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1974, 23, 51-64.

. Dunsford, H. A., Lucia, H. L., Doughty, B. L., and von Lichtenberg, F. Artificial granulomas using bentonite and latex carrier particles. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1974, 23, 203-217.

. Edington, G. M., von Lichtenberg, F., Nwabuebo, I., Taylor, J. R., and Smith, J. H. Pathologic effects of schistosomiasis in Ibadan, Western State of Nigeria. I. Incidence and intensity of infection, distribution and severity of lesions. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1970, 19, 982-995.

. Erickson, D. G., Lucia, H. L., von Lichtenberg, F., Cheever, A. W., and Sadun, E. H. Schistosoma haematobium infections in five species of primates. Exp. Parasitol. 1971, 29, 128-137.

. Erickson, D. G., von Lichtenberg, F., Sadun, E. H., Lucia, H. L., and Hickman, R. L. Comparison of Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma japonicum infections in the owl monkey, Aotus trivirgatus. J. Parasitol. 1971, 57, 543-558

. Jaimes, S., and von Lichtenberg, F. Host response to eggs of Schistosoma mansoni. IV Fluorescent antibody titers in mice infected with normal cercariae, gamma-radiated cercariae and with purified eggs. Am. J. Trop., Med. Hyg. 1965, 14, 727-735.

. Jordan, P., von Lichtenberg, F., and Goatly, K. D. Experimental schistosomiasis in primates in Tanzania. Preliminary observations on the susceptibility of the baboon, Papio anubis to Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni. Bull. W.H.O. 1968, 37, 393-403.

. Kelley, D. H., and von Lichtenberg, F. "Abnormal" schistosome oviposition: Origin of aberrant shell structures and their appearance in human tissues. Am. J. Pathol. 1970, 60, 271-287.

. Peterson, W. P, and von Lichtenberg, F. Studies on granuloma formation. IV. In vivo antigenicity of schistosome egg antigen in lung tissue. J. Immunol. 1965, 95, 959-965.

. Reid, W. A., and von Lichtenberg, F. Experimental Schistosoma japonicum in miniature pigs. J. Parasitol. 1977, 63, 392-394.

. Ritchie, L. S., Knight, W. B., McMullen, D. B., and von Lichtenberg, F. The influence of infection


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intensity of Schistosoma mansoni on resistance against existing and subsequent infections in Macaca mulatta monkeys. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1966, 15, 43-49.

. Sadun, E. H., Erickson, D. G., von Lichtenberg, E, and Cheever, A. W. Schistosoma mansoni in the chimpanzee. The natural history of chronic infections following single and multiple exposures. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1970, 19, 258-277.

. Sadun, E. H., Reid, W. A., Cheever, A. W., Duvall, R. H., Swan, K. G., Kent, K. M., Bruce, J. I., and von Lichtenberg, F. Effects of portacaval shunting on Schistosoma japonicum infection in chimpanzees: Dissociation of pipe stem fibrosis and glomerulopathy. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1975, 24, 619-631.

. Sadun, E. H., von Lichtenberg, F., and Bruce, J. I. Comparative susceptibility and pathology of Manson's schistosomiasis in 10 species of sub-human primates. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1966, 15, 705-718.

. Sadun, E. H., von Lichtenberg, F., Cheever, A. W., Erickson, D. G., and Hickman, R. L. Experimental infections with Schistosoma haematobium in chimpanzees: Parasitologic, clinical, serologic and pathologic observations. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1970, 19, 437-458.

. Sadun, E. H., von Lichtenberg, F., Erickson, D. G., Cheever, A. W. Bueding, E. E., and Anderson, J. S. Effects of chemotherapy on the evolution of schistosomiasis japonica in chimpanzees. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1974, 23, 639-661.

. Sadun, E. H., von Lichtenberg, F., Hickman, R. I., Bruce, J. I., Smith, J. H., and Schoenbechler, M. J. Schistosomiasis mansoni in the chimpanzee: Parasitological, clinical, serological, pathological and radiological observations. Am. J. Trop., Med. Hyg. 1966, 15, 496-506.

. Smith, J. H., Kamel, I. A., Elwi, A., and von Lichtenberg, F. A quantitative postmortem analysis of urinary schistosomiasis in Egypt. I. Pathology and pathogenesis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.1974, 23, 1054-1071.

. Smith, J. H., Kamel, I. A., Elwi, A., and von Lichtenberg, F. A quantitative postmortem analysis of urinary schistosomiasis in Egypt. II. Evolution and epidemiology. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1975, 24, 806-822.

. Smith, T. M., Lucia, H. L., Doughty, B. L., and von Lichtenberg, F. The role of phospholipids in schistosome granulomas. J. Infect. Dis. 1971, 123, 629-639.

. Smith, J. H., Reynolds, E. S., and von Lichtenberg, F. The integument of Schistosoma mansoni. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1969, 18, 28-49.

. Smith, J. H., and von Lichtenberg, F. The Hoeppli phenomenon in schistosomiasis. II. Histochemistry. Am. J. Pathol. 1967, 50, 993-1007.

. Smith, J. H., and von Lichtenberg, F. Observations on the ultrastructure of the tegument of Schistosoma mansoni in mesenteric veins. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1974, 23, 71-77.

. Smith, J. H., and von Lichtenberg, F. Tissue degradation of calcific Schistosoma haematobium eggs. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1976, 25, 595-601.

. von Lichtenberg, F. Studies on granuloma formation. III. Antigen sequestration and destruction in the schistosome pseudotubercle. Am. J. Pathol. 1964, 45, 75-93.

. von Lichtenberg, F. Mechanisms of schistosome immunity. In: Mostofi, F. K., ed., Bilharziasis. Berlin: Springer-Verlag,1967, 286-300.

. von Lichtenberg, F. The bilharzial pseudotubercle: A model of the immunopathology of granuloma formation. In: Immunological Aspects of Parasitic Infection. Washington, D.C.: Pan American Health Organization, 1967, 107-120. PAHO Sci. Publ. No. 150.

. von Lichtenberg, F. Portal hypertension and schistosomiasis. Ann. NY. Acad. Sci.1970, 170, 100-114.

. von Lichtenberg, F. Experimental approaches to human schistosomiasis. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1977, 26, 79-87.

. von Lichtenberg, F. Immunopathologic mechanisms in parasitic infection with emphasis on schistosomiasis. Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 1978, 9, 186-204.

. von Lichtenberg, F., Bawden, M. P., and Shealey, S. H. Origin of circulating antigen from the schistosome gut. An immunofluorescent study. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1974, 23, 1088-1091.


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  • von Lichtenberg, F., Edington, G. M., Nwabuebo, I., Taylor, J., and Smith, J. H. The pathology of schistosomiasis in Ibadan, Western State of Nigeria. II. Pathogenesis of lesions of the bladder and ureter. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1971, 20, 244-254.

  • von Lichtenberg, F., Erickson, D. G., and Sadun, E. H. Comparative histopathology of schistosome granulomas in hamsters. Am. J. Pathol. 1973, 72,149-175.

  • von Lichtenberg, F., and Raslavicius, P. Host response to eggs of Schistosoma mansoni. V. Reactions to purified miracidia and egg shells, to viable and to heat-killed whole eggs. Lab. Invest. 1967, 16, 892.

  • von Lichtenberg, F., and Sadun, E. H. Parasite migration and host reaction in mice exposed to irradiated cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni. Exp. Parasitol. 1963, 13, 256-265.

  • von Lichtenberg, F., and Sadun, E. H. Experimental production of bilharzial pipestem fibrosis in the chimpanzee. Exp. Parasitol. 1968, 22, 264-278.

  • von Lichtenberg, F., Sadun, E. H., and Bruce, J. I. Host response to eggs of Schistosoma mansoni. III. The role of eggs in resistance. J. Infect. Dis. 1963, 113, 113-122.

  • von Lichtenberg, F., Sadun, E. H., and Bruce, J. Renal lesions in Schistosoma japonicum infected rabbits. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1972, 66, 505-507.

  • von Lichtenberg, F., Sadun, E. H., Cheever, A. W. Erickson, D. G., Johnson, A. J., and Boyce, H. W. Experimental infection with Schistosoma japonicum in chimpanzees. Parasitologic, clinical, serologic and pathologic observations. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1971, 20, 850-893.

  • von Lichtenberg, F., Sher, A., and McIntyre, S. A lung model of schistosome immunity in mice. Am. J. Pathol. 1977, 87, 105-123.

  • von Lichtenberg, F., Smith, J. H., and Cheever, A. W. The Hoeppli phenomenon in schistosomiasis. Comparative pathology and immunopathology. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1966, 15, 886-895.

  • von Lichtenberg, F., Smith, T. M., Lucia, H. L., and Doughty, B. L. A new model for schistosome granuloma formation using a soluble egg antigen and bentonite particles. Nature 1970, 229, 199-200.

Filariasis

In 1963 and 1964, Dr. Rozeboom, in collaboration with Dr. Benjamin D. Cabrera, conducted a study of the epidemiology of filariasis in the Philippine Islands. They showed that in addition to the widespread abaca growing areas in which filariasis was known to be endemic, the basic endemicity of the disease involved rural foci with Anopheles minimus flavirostris the chief vector. They also found a focus of subperiodic Brugia malayi infection in a swamp forest area on the west coast of Palawan, in which microfilaremia rates up to 64% were found in some communities. Infection rates in children under 5 years of age were as high as those in older age groups. The findings were reported in the following publications:

. Cabrera, B. D., and Rozeboom, L. E. Filariasis in Palawan, Philippine Islands. Nature 1964, 202, 725-726.

. Cabrera, B. D., and Rozeboom, L. E. The periodicity characteristics of the filaria parasites of man in the Republic of the Philippines. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1965, 81, 192-199.

. Cabrera, B. D., and Rozeboom, L. E. The occurrence of Dirofilaria magnilarvatum Price and Brugia specie in Philippine monkeys. Acta Med. Philip. 1965, 1, 119-123.

. Rozeboom, L. E., and Cabrera, B. D. Transmission of filariasis in the Philippine Islands by Anopheles minimus flavirostris Ludlow. Nature 1963, 200, 915.

. Rozeboom, L. E., and Cabrera, B. D. Filariasis in Mountain Province Luzon, Republic of the Philippines. J. Med. Entomol. 1964, 1, 18-28.

. Rozeboom, L. E., and Cabrera, B. D. Filariasis caused by Brugia malayi in the Republic of the Philippines. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1965, 81, 200-215.

. Rozeboom, L. E., and Cabrera, B. D. Filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti in Palawan, Republic of the Philippines. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1965, 81, 216-221.


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Filariasis and Tropical Eosinophilia

In 1955, under the title, "Visceral Larva Migrans in Relation to Tropical Eosinophilia," a collaborative study directed by Dr. Beaver of Tulane University was initiated at the University of Malaya Faculty of Medicine in Singapore. That site was selected because tropical eosinophilia, newly described in India in the early 1940s as a disease of unknown etiology, had recently been reported as commonly seen in Singapore. Singapore collaborators were Dr. T. J. Danaraj, Department of Medicine, and Dr. A. A. Sandosham, Department of Parasitology.

In the first 3 years of the project, the principal professional assistant was John Schacher, a Tulane graduate student, and the main objective was to examine the case histories, pathologic tissues, and related environmental conditions for clues to the causative parasite in cases of tropical eosinophilia. Examination of dogs, cats, and other animals commonly associated with people revealed no unusual parasites. Intradermal and serological tests, along with response to treatment, suggested filarial infection as a probable cause of tropical eosinophilia.

At this stage (1960), the project title was changed to "Filariasis in Relation to Tropical Eosinophilia." Schacher resumed graduate studies at Tulane, and Pacheco, a postdoctoral fellow, was sent to Singapore. At Tulane, Schacher did detailed studies on a candidate filaria, Brugia pahangi, in the cat and mosquito hosts. Another graduate student, Ming Ming Wong, performed experimental studies on Dirofilaria immitis, the heartworm of dogs, by examining the determining factors in levels of microfilaremia. In the Singapore studies, intensive examination of serially sectioned lung biopsies revealed the presence of microfilariae being destroyed in granulomas. This strongly suggested that tropical eosinophilia is an aberrant form of filariasis. Filariasis without microfilaremia, including cases of tropical eosinophilia, was a major problem in the Pacific area during World War II.

For a better understanding of the nature of the disease, Pacheco returned to Tulane, and postdoctoral fellows Wong and Hong Fang Lee were sent to The Institute for Medical Research (IMR) in Kuala Lumpur to resume collaboration with Dr. Danaraj. After 1 year, the Kuala Lumpur studies were discontinued for lack of suitable case material.

A final study involving a collaboration of Dr. T. C. Orihel and a graduate student, M. H. Johnson, turned attention again to the question of factors that determine the level of microfilaremia. With Dipetalonema viteae in birds, it was shown that below a critical level of infection with the adult worm, the level of microfilaremia is not determined by the number of microfilaria-producing worms.

Published results of the studies completed in Singapore and at Tulane follow:

. Beaver, P C., and Danaraj, T. J. Pulmonary ascariasis resembling eosinophilic lung. Autopsy report with description of larvae in the bronchioles. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1958, 7, 100-111.

. Beaver, P C., Orihel, T. C., and Johnson, M. H. Dipetalonema viteae in the experimentally infected bird, Meriones unguiculatus. II. Microfilaremia in relation to worm burden. J. Parasitol. 1974, 60, 310-315.

. Carnegie, P. R., and Pacheco, G. Immunochromatography: A combination chromatography and immunodiffusion on a micro-scale. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 1964, 117, 137-141.

. Danaraj, T. J. The treatment of eosinophilic lung (tropical eosinophilia) with hetrazan. A preliminary report. Proc. Alumni Assoc. Malaya 1956, 9, 172-187.

. Danaraj, T. J. The treatment of eosinophilic lung (tropical eosinophilia) with diethylcarbamazine. Q. J. Med. NZ 1958, 27, 243-263.

. Danaraj, T. J. Pathologic studies in eosinophilic lung (tropical eosinophilia). Arch. Pathol. 1959, 67, 515-524.

. Danaraj, T. J., Pacheco, G., Shanmugaratnam, K., and Beaver, P. C. The etiology and pathology of eosinophilic lung (tropical eosinophilia). Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1956, 15, 183-189.

. Danaraj, T. J., and Schacher, J. F. Intradermal tests with Dirofilaria immitis extract in eosinophilic lung (tropical eosinophilia). Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1956, 8, 640-643

. Danaraj, T. J., Schacher, J. F., and Colless, D. H. Filariasis in Singapore. Med. J. Malaya 1958, 12, 605-612.


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  • Danaraj, T. J., da Silva, L. S., and Schacher, J. E The filarial complement-fixation test in eosinophilic lung (tropical eosinophilia). A preliminary report. Proc. Alumni Assoc. Malaya 1957, 10, 109-116

  • Danaraj, T. J., da Silva, L. S., and Schacher, J. F. The serological diagnosis of eosinophilic lung (tropical eosinophilia) and its etiological implications. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.1959, 8, 151-159.

  • Johnson, M. H., Orihel, T. C., and Beaver, P C. Dipetalonema viteae in the experimentally infected bird, Meriones unguiculatus. I. Insemination, development from egg to microfilaria, re-insemination, and longevity of mated and unmated worms. J. Parasitol. 1974, 60, 302-309.

  • Lee, H. F., and Danaraj, T. J. Visceral larva migrans in Malaya. Report of a case. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1972, 21, 174-177.

  • Orihel, T. C., and Pacheco, G. Brugia malayi in the Philippine macaque. J. Parasitol. 1966, 52, 394.

  • Pacheco, G. Serological studies on dogs experimentally infected with Dirofilaria immitis. J. Parasitol. 1961, 47(Suppl.), 24.

  • Pacheco, G. Progressive changes in certain serological responses to Dirofilaria immitis infection in the dog. J. Parasitol. 1966, 52, 311-317.

  • Pacheco, G., and Danaraj, T. J. Ethanol extracts of various helminths in a complement fixation test for eosinophilic lung (tropical eosinophilia). Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1963, 12, 745-747.

  • Pacheco, G., and Danaraj, T. J. Indirect hemagglutination with extracts of various helminths in eosinophilic lung (tropical eosinophilia). Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1963, 15, 355-358.

  • Schacher, J. F. Morphology of the microfilaria of Brugia pahangi and of the larval stages in the mosquito. J. Parasitol. 1962, 48, 679-692.

  • Schacher, J. F. Developmental stages of Brugia pahangi in the final host. J. Parasitol. 1962, 48, 693-706.

  • Schacher, J. F., and Cheong, C. H. Nematode parasites in three common house rat species in Malaya, with notes on Rictularia tani Hoeppli,1929. Malaysian Parasites (Studies from the Institute for Medical Research, Federation of Malaya No. 29), 1960, 209-216.

  • Schacher, J. F., and Danaraj, T. J. Creeping eruption, a non-patent zoonotic helminthiasis in Singapore. Proc. Alumni Assoc. Malaya 1959, 10, 141-146.

  • Schacher, J. F., and Danaraj, T. J. Intestinal helminths in relation to eosinophilic lung (tropical eosinophilia) in Singapore. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1960, 9, 616-619.

  • Wong, M. M. Studies on microfilaremia in dogs. I. A search for the mechanisms that stabilize the level of microfilaremia. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1964, 13, 57-65.

  • Wong, M. M. Studies on microfilaremia in dogs. II. Levels of microfilaremia in relation to immunologic responses of the host. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1964, 13, 66-77.

Parasites of Oriental Primates

In a 4-year period, 1962 to 1966, at the Institute for Medical Research in Malaya, numerous and diverse investigations were performed by collaborators of Dr. Ralph Audy. Essentially all of the observations were made by Dr. Fred L. Dunn, alone or with collaborators. The project was titled "Endoparasites of Oriental Primates" and included human aborigines (Orang Ash) and several species of monkeys. In addition, many parasitic protozoa and helminths were collected and identified from various forest mammals. Of special interest were the findings in extensive surveys of intestinal parasites of tribal hunter-gatherers and forest agriculturists. Dr. Dunn also described and evaluated a method of doing helminth egg counts by direct smear on merthiolate-iodine-formaldehyde (MIF)-preserved fecal specimens (MIF-DS). The findings of these studies were reported in numerous publications as follows:

  • Dunn, F. L. A new trichostrongylid nematode from an Oriental primate. Proc. Helm. Soc. Wash. 1963, 30, 161-165.

  • Dunn, F. L. Odeninaotrema apidion n. sp. (Trematoda: Lecithodendriidae) from a Malayan primitive primate. Proc. Helm. Soc. Wash. 1964, 31, 21-25.

  • Dunn, F. L. Erythrocyte sickling in the barking deer of Borneo. J. Mammal. 1964, 45, 492-493.

  • Dunn, F. L. Blood parasites of Southeast Asian primitive primates. J. Parasitol. 1964, 50, 214-216.

  • Dunn, F. L. Gua Anak Takun: Ecological observations. Malayan Nature J. 1965, 19, 75-87.

  • Dunn, F. L. Observations on the fauna of Pulau Tioman and Pulau Tulai. II. Notes on the en-


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doparasites. Bull. Natl. Mus. Singapore 1966, 34, 141-149.

. Dunn, F. L. Patterns of parasitism in primates: Phylogenetic and ecological interpretations with particular reference to the Hominoidea. Folia Primatol. 1966, 4, 329-345.

. Dunn, F. L. The TIF direct smear as an epidemiological tool: With special reference to counting helminth eggs. Bull. W.H.O. 1968, 39, 439-449.

. Dunn, F. L. Epidemiological factors: Health and disease in hunter gatherers. In: Lee, R. B., and Devore, I., eds. Man the Hunter. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Co.,1968, 221-228.

. Dunn, F. L. The parasites of Saimiri. In the context of platyrhinchine parasitism. In: Rosenblum, L., and Cooper, R., eds. The Squirrel Monkey. New York: Academic Press, 1968, 31-68.

. Dunn, F L. Natural infection in primates; helminths and problems in primate phylogeny, ecology, and behavior. Lab. Anim. Care 1970, 20, 383-388.

. Dunn, F. L. Intestinal parasitism in Malayan aborigines (Orang Asli). Bull. W.H.O. 1972, 46, 99-113.

. Dunn, F. L., and Bolton, J. M. The MIF direct smear (DS) method in the study of intestinal parasitism in Malayan aborigines. Singapore Med. J. 1963, 4, 175-176.

. Dunn, F. L., Eyles, D. E., and Yap, L. F. Plasmodium sandoshami specie nov., a new species of malaria parasite from the Malayan flying lemur. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 1963, 57, 75-81.

. Dunn, F. L., and Greer, W. E. Nematodes resembling Ascaris lumbricoides L.1758, from a Malayan gibbon, Hylobates agilis F. Cuvier, 1821. J. Parasitol. 1962, 48, 150.

. Dunn, F. L., Lim, B. L., and Yap, L. F. Endoparasite patterns in mammals of the Malayan rain forest. Ecology 1968, 49, 1179-1184.

. Dunn, F. L., and Ramachandran, C. P. Some observations on the filarial nematodes of Oriental lorises. In: Proceedings of the first UNESCO Regional Symposium on Scientific Knowledge of Tropical Parasites. 1963, 252-255.

. Dunn, F. L., and Ramachandran, C. P. Southeast Asian filariids, with special reference to those normally parasitic in vertebrates other than man. In: Sardosham, A. A., and Zaman, V., eds. Proceedings of Seminar on Filariasis and Immunology of Parasitic Infections. Singapore: SEAMEO, 1969, 194-209.

. Eyles, D. E., Dunn, F. L., Warren, M., and Guinn, E. Plasmodium coatneyi from the Philippines. J. Parasitol. 1963, 49, 1038.

. Eyles, D. E., Yap, L. E, Dunn, F. L., Guinn, E., Warren, M., and Sandosham, A. A. Plasmodium youngi species nova, a malaria parasite of the Malayan gibbon, Hylobates lar lar. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 1964, 13, 248-255.

. Inglis, W. G., and Dunn, F. L. The occurrence of Lemuricola (Nematoda: Oxyurinae) in Malaya: With the description of a new species. Z. Parasitenk.1963, 23, 354-359.

. Inglis, W. G., and Dunn, F. L. Some oxyurids (Nematoda) from neotropical primates. Z. Parasitenk. 1964, 24, 83-87.

. Miyazaki, I., and Dunn, F. L. Gnathostoma malaysiae species nova from rats on Tioman Island, Malaysia (Nematoda: Gnathostomidae). J. Parasitol. 1965, 51, 382-384.

. Ramachandran, C. P, and Dunn, F. L. The development of Breinlia sergenti (Dipetalonematidae) in Aedes mosquitoes. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 1968, 62, 441-449.

. Ramachandran, C. P., Dunn, F. L., Sandosham, A. A., and Sivanandam, S. A Dirofilaria from the musang. Singapore Med. J. 1963, 4, 176-177.

. Ramachandran, C. P., Wharton, R. H., Dunn, F. L., and Kershaw, W. E. Aedes (Finlava) togoi Theobald. A useful laboratory vector in studies of filariasis. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitol. 1964, 57, 443-445.

Malaria

A 1-year study (1958 to 1959) by Drs. Rozeboom and Howard included a histological survey of the sites of developmental failure of Plasmodium gallinaceum in five species of refractory mosquitoes. In


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Culex fatigans and Culex pipiens, no midgut penetration was noted, whereas in Aedes pseudoscutellaris, Anopheles albimanus, and Culex molestus spherical intramural parasites occurred without evidence of growth. A technique was devised for in vivo study of the sporogonous cycle of the malaria parasite during the blood meal period. Direct observations failed to confirm that the malarial zygote develops into a motile organism at any time. The penetrating form was identical to the recently fertilized macrogamete, and was recoverable from the midgut wall between 24 and 40 hours following engorgement. Evidence indicated that the elongated parasites, formerly referred to as ookinetes and vermicules, were not intermediate between macrogamete and oocyst and that they were not infective. Passive forces were implicated as playing a major role in penetration. In a sequential study of the blood meal in the midgut of the adult female, Aedes aegypti, the principal areas of study were the natural dilution effects of fluids other than blood, weight loss in individual blood meals, coagulation time, the significance of the early clear rim about the meal clot, observations on peritrophic membrane formation, changes in meal volume and consistency, the function of midgut and hindgut musculature, morphological changes in midgut epithelium, and the behavior of inert particles within a blood meal. These studies suggested the nature of passive forces that largely account for the passage of zygotes through the stomach wall.

A series of studies by Drs. Most and Yoeli began in 1958 under the title "Biological Studies in Malaria (Plasmodium berghei)." In the fall of 1964, a separate Commission on Malaria was formed, and all sponsored projects in the area of malaria became the responsibility of the new Commission. In the intervening years, colonies of Anopheles quadrimaculatus and Anopheles aztecus were established in the laboratory, and strains of Plasmodium berghei were maintained by blood transfer in laboratory mice and hamsters. In January 1959, a gametocyte-producing strain of the parasite (Kasapa) was received from the Prince Leopold Institute of Tropical Medicine in Anvers, Belgium. Observations were made on morphology of the ookinete stage, the pigment pattern in the oocyst, and the relation between size of the inoculum and course of infection, and attempts were made to clarify the question regarding conditions causing the disappearance and reappearance of gametocytes in blood forms of the parasite.

In December 1963, the original type host of Plasmodium berghei, Anopheles dureni, was studied and collected in its native habitat (Congo) and successfully transported to New York. Transmission of Plasmodium berghei from naturally infected Anopheles dureni was accomplished both by bite and by inoculation of various animals with sporozoites derived from salivary glands and oocysts. New strains of Plasmodium berghei were isolated and preserved at low temperature for future study. Anopheles quadrimaculatus were successfully infected in the laboratory and cyclical transmission was carried out by sporozoites introduced in natural feeding as well as by infections from salivary glands and oocysts. Successful oviposition of Anopheles dureni was obtained in the laboratory, and limited success was achieved in rearing larval stages of the mosquito. A colony of Congo tree rats flourished, and the ability to infect Anopheles quadrimaculatus and achieve cyclic transmission made possible intensive searches of tissues to determine whether exoerythrocytic parasites exist. Published results obtained in the Most-Yoeli studies on Plasmodium berghei biology are reported in the history of the Commission on Malaria.

Ascariasis

In the period between March 1963 and June 1964, a study entitled "Biochemical Investigations of Host-Nematode Relationships in Ascariasis" was completed by Dr. John G. Adams. It had been started in September 1962 under the direction of Dr. P W. Ragozzino, and some of the findings were reported in a doctoral dissertation by Luis E. Borello. Dr. Adams reported that the role of histamine and serotonin in the disease characteristics of acute experimental nematode infection was investigated in guinea pigs infected with Ascaris lumbricoides var. suum. The study included spectrophotofluorometric determination of blood and tissue levels of histamine and serotonin, determination of the toxicity of histamine and serotonin administered intracardially and as an aerosol, determination of monoamine and diamine oxidase activity of various tissues, and determination of lactic acid dehydrogenase and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase levels in serum and plasma steroid levels in infected and normal animals.


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The effects of histamine and serotonin in the acute symptomatology of ascariasis appear to be overshadowed by other factors arising from mechanical tissue damage. Changes in respiratory patterns are probably associated with hypoventilation resulting from mechanical damage to lung tissue. Death, which appears to be due to respiratory causes, is concurrent with profound degenerative changes in liver and kidney tissues. Increased levels of plasma steroid and serum lactic acid dehydrogenase and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase are indicative of the presence of a stress reaction in response to the presence of the acute infection. Significant decreases occur in the histamine content of lung, brain, and kidney. A less significant but detectable increase occurs in the liver. A significant increase was noted in brain serotonin of infected animals and a less significant but detectable decrease in lung serotonin.

. Adams, J. G., D'Aquila, L., and Malone, M. H. Serotonin levels in acute experimental ascariasis. J. Pharm. Sci. 1969, 58, 279-280.

Beginning in January 1955, Dr. Nathan Entner completed a fundamental 4-year study entitled "Enzymatic Aspects of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Ascaris lumbricoides." The study was considered to be of potential value in the development of anthelmintic agents. In the first year, the experiments were focused on aspects of carbohydrate metabolism of mature Ascaris not previously studied in any helminth. In the final years, the study centered on synthetic processes in the reproductive tract beginning with RNA synthesis. Results were reported in three publications, the first of which described a demonstration of the enzymes of the pentose-phosphate pathway in the worm's smooth muscle. The second reported an analysis of the fate of sugar in Ascaris by the use of radioactive glucose labeled in different carbon atoms. In addition to showing the nature and extent of incorporation of the carbon atoms of glucose into the major parts of the worms, it was also shown that of the two pathways for carbohydrate metabolism, the glycolytic scheme is the major pathway of energy metabolism, whereas the pentosephosphate pathway provides pentose for nucleic acid. The third reported that subcellular particles from the reproductive tract of Ascaris contain enzymes that synthesize RNA in two different ways, with nucleoside-diphosphate precursors, and with nucleoside-triphosphate precursors. These were the first such studies on the enzymatic synthesis of nucleic acid in any parasite. Publications are listed below.

. Entner, N. The occurrence of the pentose-phosphate pathway in Ascaris lumbricoides. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 1957, 71, 52-61.

. Entner, N. Occurrence of polynucleotide phosphorylase in Ascaris lumbricoides. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 1959, 1, 333.

. Entner, N., and Gonzalez, C. Fate of glucose in Ascaris lumbricoides. Exp. Parasitol. 1959, 8, 471-479.

Leishmaniasis

The Commission sponsored studies on leishmaniasis by Dr. Donald W. Twohy at Michigan State University and Dr. John Janovy at University of Nebraska. Under the title, "The Nature of Immunity to Leishmaniasis," Dr. Twohy initiated in May 1967 studies on Leishmania donovani, in mice and in vitro macrophage cultures, designed to explain the basic characteristics of immune reactions to infection with Leishmania species and possibly other intracellular protozoa. Experiments designed to test the hypothesis that immunity to Leishmania donovani depends primarily on cellular factors, not on serum antibodies, showed that the organisms multiply in cultured macrophages from nonimmune but not from immune mice. Transfer of macrophages or macrophage RNA from immune to nonimmune mice and RNA of immune macrophages to cultures of nonimmune macrophages conferred a high degree of resistance. Serum from immune animals was ineffective. It was found that there was "cross-resistance" between different strains of Leishmania donovani and other intracellular parasites such as Plasmodium and Eperythrozoon. Thus, the cellular immunity to Leishmania resembles that to Toxoplasma, Besnoitia, and intracellular bacteria.


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Later experiments showed that in vitro cultures of macrophages from mice that were superinfected with Leishmania donovani supported parasite growth as well as did macrophages from uninfected controls. Results obtained with these host-parasite models were too variable to point to specific factors in the development or expression of immunity. Further observations on the role of macrophages and lymphocytes in resistance to reinfection suggested that the ability of macrophages from immune mice to kill and digest the leishmania parasites was enhanced by in vivo stimulation with live parasites.

Some of the results of these studies were reported in the following publications:

. Miller, H. C., and Twohy, D. W. Infection of macrophages in culture by leptomonads of Leishmania donovani. J. Protozool. 1967, 14, 781-789.

. Miller, H. C., and Twohy, D. W. Cellular immunity to Leishmania donovani in macrophages, in culture. J. Parasitol. 1969, 55, 200-207.

. Skov, C. B., and Twohy, D. W. Cellular immunity to Leishmania donovani. I. The effect of T cell depletion on resistance to Leishmania donovani in mice. J. Immunol. 1974, 113, 2004-2011.

. Skov, C. B., and Twohy, D. W. Cellular immunity to Leishmania donovani. Evidence for synergy between thymocytes and lymph node cells in reconstitution of acquired resistance to Leishmania donovani in mice. J. Immunol. 1974, 113, 2012-2019.

Studies by Janovy and associates, active from May 1968 to October 1972, were designed to explain the localization of Leishmania parasites and lesions in particular anatomical sites in the hosts. A number of in vitro biochemical reactions of different strains and species were examined in relation to temperature. Marked differences were observed in the culture forms of the various strains, but the significance of the findings was not apparent. Experiments were designed to determine differences in anaerobic metabolism among species of Leishmania and to examine the possible correlations between the experimental findings and the disease features commonly associated with the infections. Temperature effects on total acid production, carbon dioxide fixation, and lactate production by Leishmania donovani in the presence or absence of glucose and in the presence of antileishmanial drugs (stibophen and sodium stibogluconate) revealed only that lactate production may be useful as an indicator of the site of drug action. However, the metabolic effects of the two compounds were not clearly delineated by the experiments. These findings were reported in the following publications:

. Bhattacharya, A., and Janovy, J., Jr. Leishmania donovani: Autoradiographic evidence for molecular exchanges between parasite and host cell. Exp. Parasitol. 1975, 37, 353-360.

. Daggett, P M., Decker, J. E., and Janovy, J., Jr. Some physiological alterations accompanying infectivity to mammals by four genera of Trypanosomatidae. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 1978, 59A, 363-366.

. Decker, J. E., and Janovy, J., Jr. Leishmania donovani and Leishmania mexicana: Production of the excretion factor. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 1974, 4913, 513-523.

. Janovy, J., Jr. Temperature and metabolism in Leishmania. III. Some dehydrogenases of Leishmania donovani, Leishmania mexicana, and Leishmania tarentolae. Exp. Parasitol.1972, 32, 196-205.

. Janovy, J., Jr., and Poorman, A. E. Temperature and metabolism in Leishmania. I. Respiration in Leishmania donovani, Leishmania mexicana and Leishmania tarentolae. Exp. Parasitol. 1969, 25, 276-282.

. Poorman, A. E., and Janovy, J., Jr. Temperature and metabolism in Leishmania. II. Aldolase in Leishmania adleri, Leishmania donovani, Leishmania mexicana and Leishmania tarentolae. Exp. Parasitol. 1969, 26, 329-335.

Trypanosomiasis

The possibility of obtaining protection against trypanosomiasis by vaccination was investigated in two studies in 1971 and 1972 on African trypanosomes, by Richard Seed and Gilbert Sanchez, and one 1970 to 1972 study on the American trypanosome, Trypanosoma cruzi by W. L. Hanson. The African


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trypanosomiasis study by Seed and the Trypanosoma cruzi study by Hanson showed that vaccines derived from cultured organisms produced a discernible, although relatively slight, effect on the infections. Seed's studies also suggested that results of treatment with pentamidine isothionate were appreciably better when it was combined with the administration of hydrocortisone. Results obtained in the study by Sanchez were not significant. Hanson found that in passive transfer experiments, protective antibodies were demonstrated in sera taken at 6 weeks postinfection from neonatally thymectomized rats as well as controls. Also, mice immunized with either supernatant or sediment from sonicated mixtures of trypomastigotes and amastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi grown in cell culture developed significantly lower mean parasitemia than controls after challenge with virulent Trypanosoma cruzi.

Results of some of Dr. Seed's experiments were reported in the following publications:

. Lumsden, R. D., Marciacq, Y, and Seed, J. R. Trypanosoma gambiense: Cytopathologic changes in guinea pig hepatocytes. Exp. Parasitol. 1972, 32, 369-389.

. Seed, J. R. Trypanosoma gambiense and Trypanosoma equiperdum: Characterization of variant specific antigens. Exp. Parasitol. 1972, 31, 98-108.

. Seed, J. R. Antigens and antigenic variability of the African trypanosomes. A review article. J. Protozool.,1974, 21, 639-646.

. Seed, J. R., Marcus, H., and Risby, K. E. The effect of hydrocortisone on skin lesions, antibody titers, and parasitemia in Trypanosoma gambiense-infected rabbits. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.1972, 21,150-156.

. Seed, J. R., and Varney, J. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense: Changes in body temperature rhythms of infected New Zealand albino rabbits. Exp. Parasitol. 1976, 40, 238-249.

Agenda
Commission on Parasitic Diseases
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research
26-27 October 1970

Monday, 26 October

0900―Introductory Remarks by Commission Director, President and Executive Secretary of the Board

0930―Reports, Preventive Medicine Officers

Department of the Army―Major J. W. Cutting
Department of the Navy―Commander R. D. Comer
Department of the Air Force―Colonel P. F. Nugent
Report, Representative of USA Medical R&D Command―Colonel R. F. Barquist

1030―Recess―Coffee

1045―PROGRESS REPORTS OF RESPONSIBLE INVESTIGATORS

Dr. William Hanson: Immunity to Chagas' Disease (Contract No. DADA 17-69-C-9167)
Dr. John Janovy, Jr.: Effects of Temperature on Leishmania Metabolism (Contract No. DADA 17-69-C-9122
Dr. Iris Krupp: Immunodiagnosis and Molecular Components of Entamoeba histolytica (Contract No. DADA 17-69-C-9122)
Dr. Cornelius Kruse: Mode of Action of Halogens in Bacteria and Viruses and Protozoa in Water Systems (Contract No. DA-49-193-MD-2314)

1245―Lunch

1415―Dr. Donald Twohy: Nature of Immunity to Leishmaniasis (Contract No. DADA 17-69-C-9135)

Dr. Henry van der Schalie: Biological Relationships of Pomatiopsis and Oncomelania (Contract No. DA-49-007-MD-604)
Dr. Franz von Lichtenberg: Protective Mechanisms in Schistosomiasis (Contract No. DA-49-193-MD-2253)
Dr. Nathan Zvaifler: Rabbit Anaphylactic Antibody in Schistosomiasis (Contract No. DA-49-193-MD-2911) (Dr. Zvaifler was unable to attend)

1615―Recess―Coffee

1630―Executive Session

Tuesday, 27 October

0815―Introductory Remarks by Commission Director and President of the Board

0830―SYMPOSIUM ON SCHISTOSOMIASIS

0830―Second International Congress of Parasitology―Dr. E. H. Sadun

0845―Research at WRAIR―Dr. E. H. Sadun

0915―Research at 406th Medical Laboratory―Dr. G. M. Davis

1000―General Discussion

1030―Recess―Coffee

1045―Research at NAMRI―Commander M. H. Stirewalt

1115―Research at NAMRU-3―Captain D. C. Kent

1145―General Discussion

1215―Lunch

1345―Research at NIH―Dr. A. W. Cheever

1415―Research at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital―Dr. F. von Lichtenberg

1445―Research at Harvard University―Dr. T. H. Weller

1515―General Discussion

1545―Recess―Coffee

1600―Research at Santa Lucia, W.I.―Dr. P. Jordan

1640―Research at Johns Hopkins University―Dr. E. Bueding

1700―General Discussion

Amebiasis

In 1970 the problems related to amebiasis were transferred from the Commission on Enteric Infections to the Commission on Parasitic Diseases. Studies then in progress by Iris Krupp were continued for 1 year, but progress and final reports were submitted to the original Commission. Another study that dealt in part with amebiasis and was sponsored by the Commission on Environmental Health was brought to the attention of this Commission. Report of work concerned with transmission of the infection was presented at the 1970 fall meeting. Progress and final reports were submitted to the original Commission.


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COMMISSION ON MALARIA

Fall Meeting 25 October 1972
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research
Washington, D.C.

Seated, left to right: Drs. Martin D. Young, Robert L. Kaiser (Deputy Director), Robin D. Powell (Commission Director), G. Robert Coatney, and Leslie A. Stauber.

Standing, left to right: Drs. Elvio H. Sadun, Carroll N. Smith, Lloyd E. Rozeboom, Geoffrey M. Jeffery, William D. Tigertt, John D. Arnold, Peter G. Contacos, Thomas H. Weller, Meir Yoeli, and William Trager.


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Anaphylactic Antibody

A study entitled "Anaphylactic Antibody in Helminthic Infection" by Nathan J. Zvaifler was in progress from 1 August 1970 to 31 May 1972. The purpose of the experiments was to determine the possible role of anaphylactic reaction in the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis. The work confirmed the involvement of mast cells in the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction and suggested the involvement of neutrophils. Extensive tests comparing the immediate (4-hour) and delayed (72-hour) reactions supported the conclusion that in the rabbit, the PCA reaction with a short latent period cannot be used to define or distinguish immunoglobulin G homocytotropic antibody from immunoglobulin E. The study was terminated without having specifically related any of the findings to the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis or other helminthic infection.

At least one report was published:

. Bauer, H. Zvaifler, N. J., and Robinson, J. O. Immunoglobulin in the rabbit. Lab. Invest. 1972, 26, 448-458.

Anthelmintic Dithiazanine

In 1958, when Dr. Bueding initiated a study of dithiazanine, the drug was widely used as an anthelmintic, especially for trichuriasis and to a lesser extent for ascariasis. In a 3-year study. Dr. Bueding and his collaborator, Dr. Emil Kmetec, found that its action against Ascaris lumbricoides was a marked inhibitory effect on the utilization of carbohydrates, causing paralysis, and the effect was irreversible and caused by interference with either the uptake or metabolism of glucose. In experiments with Trichuris vulpis, the biochemical effects of the drug were found to interfere with the active transport of glucose into the worm, thus causing its death because of an inadequate supply of energy. While these studies were in progress, dithiazanine was reported to be toxic to humans and its use as an anthelmintic was discontinued.

Antigen Production and Testing

In 1962, Dr. Niam Kent began a program on the isolation of specific antigens from larval and adult schistosomes. Although he had made good progress toward the preparation and storage of such antigens, the work was interrupted by a move to a different location before any quality tests were completed.

In September 1966, under the direction of Dr. Paul Thompson at Parke Davis and Company, Ann Arbor, Michigan, a project was initiated to produce diagnostic antigens for amebiasis and schistosomiasis. Collaborators in the work were Dr. Curt Schneider and Dr. W. P Stucki. After October 1968, the project was directed by Dr. Stucki. With lyophilized Entamoeba histolytica from Diamond's axenic cultures, a standard antigen was produced and shown to be suitable for use in indirect hemagglutination, complement fixation, and agar-gel tests. Sufficient antigen for 6,000 hemagglutination, 5,000 complement-fixation, and comparable numbers of agar-gel tests were delivered to the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command. Antigen of the Chaffee type was prepared from adult Schistosoma mansoni grown in experimental animals. Its usefulness in complement fixation and intradermal tests was demonstrated.

Later, antigens for the diagnosis of filariasis, leishmaniasis, American trypanosomiasis, and toxoplasmosis were produced and tested for stability and suitability for routine use. The program was completed in 1970. Some of the results were reported in published articles:

. Schneider, C. R. The effect of medium components on the specificity of axenic Entamoeba histolytica antigen. J. Parasitol. 1968, 54, 711-714.

. Stucki, W. P. Evaluation of Schistosoma mansoni intradermal test antigens in the rhesus monkey. J. Parasitol. 1968, 54, 174-175.

. Thompson, P. E., Graedel, S. K., Schneider, C. R., Stucki, W. P., and Gordon, R. M. Preparation and evaluation of standardized amoeba antigen from axenic cultures of Entamoeba histolytica. Bull. W.H.O. 1968, 39, 349-365.


485

TRAINING AND RECRUITMENT

One of the stated purposes of the AFEB Commission on Parasitic Diseases was to increase the number of professional workers in the field of parasitology and tropical medicine. It had been originally ruled inappropriate to use funds from the Defense Department budget for fellowship stipends, but investigators at all levels of skill and experience could be employed for contract research. In that way, it was possible to provide training and experience to many young workers who were employed as research assistants or associates. As shown by the number of coauthors on listed publications, notable examples of contracts providing such training opportunities are those of Drs. van der Schalie (malacology), Lewert (schistosomiasis, biochemistry, immunology), Warren (schistosomiasis pathology), von Lichtenberg (schistosomiasis pathology), Dunn (parasite survey), and Beaver (filariasis and tropical eosinophilia). Among the several predoctoral- and postdoctoral-level associates in the filariasis studies, four (Schacher, Pacheco, Wong, Lee) profited from overseas experience for 1, 2, or 3 years. Essentially, all contracts provided professional training experience to one or more trainee-level investigators.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

Active during the period between 1953 and 1972, the Commission on Parasitic Diseases involved 21 members and 11 associate members. Members serving throughout the period were Beaver, Bueding, Most, Rozeboom, van der Schalie, and Weller. Drs. Weller, Most, and Beaver were directors of the Commission for periods of 5 or 6 years each.

The Commission's mission, outlined by Dr. Bayne-Jones, who was acting for AFEB President Dr. MacLeod, was to develop parasitic disease projects of concern to the Armed Forces by conducting field investigations or research projects in the laboratories of members of the Commission or others. It was not conceived as an agency for stimulating grant proposals, but rather one for recommending contracts for research consonant with the mission of the Armed Forces. As a part of its mission, the program of the Commission was expected to increase the number of professional workers in the field of parasitology and tropical medicine.

Early in the history of the Commission, malaria was recognized as the parasitic disease of greatest and most immediate concern to the military. An ad hoc Malaria Committee was appointed, and several symposia on malaria were held. Research projects on rodent malaria and on development of the malaria parasite in the mosquito were sponsored by the Commission. However, with the recognition of chloroquine-resistant strains of malaria, it became evident that the magnitude of the malaria problem justified the establishment of a separate Commission on Malaria.

A field investigation of hydatid disease in Alaska led to the conclusion that the probability of its significance as a health hazard to military personnel was minimal. Ad hoc committees dealt with the methodology of research on schistosomiasis, the revision of tuberculosis medications, and the procurement of antiparasitic drugs.

Special reports, seminars, or symposia were held as part of regular meetings on timely topics including the following:

. research programs at the 406th Medical General Laboratory, NIH, and Department of Parasitology at Louisiana State University in New Orleans;
. current research on malaria in 1957;
. insect vector control;
. research on malaria at the Naval Medical Research Institute;
. research at the CDC in Atlanta;
. parasitology programs in the Chicago area;


486

COMMISSION ON PARASITIC DISEASES, 1972

Seated, left to right: Drs. Elvio H. Sadun (deputy director), Willard H. Wright, Paul C. Beaver (Commission Director), and Thomas H. Weller.

Standing, left to right: Drs. Robert H. Lewert, Henry van der Schalie, John E. Scanlon, Martin D. Young, Ernest B. Bueding, Lloyd E. Rozeboom, William W. Frye, Leslie A. Stauber, and Rodney C. Jung.


487

Agenda
Commission on Parasitic Diseases
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research
26 October 1972

0900―Introductory Remarks by Commission Director, President and Executive Secretary of the Board

0915―Reports of Preventive Medicine Officers

Department of the Army―Colonel Robert Cutting
Department of the Navy―Captain C. E. Alexander
Department of the Air Force―Lieutenant Colonel F. T. Corker
Representative, USA Medical R&D Command―Colonel D. W. Sample

1000―Recess―Coffee

1015―PROGRESS REPORTS OF RESPONSIBLE INVESTIGATORS

Dr. Henry van der Schalie: Studies of the Intermediate Snail Hosts of Oriental and African Schistosomiasis Infections (DA-49-193-MD-2651)
Dr. Nathan Zvaifler: Anaphylactic Antibody in Helminthic Infections (DADA-17-71-C-1002)
Dr. Donald Twohy: Nature of Immunity to Leishmaniasis (DADA 17-69-C-9135)

1215―Recess―Lunch

1330―Dr. John Janovy: Temperature Effects on Leishmania Metabolism (DADA 17-69-C-9122)

Dr. William Hanson: Immunity to Chagas' Disease (DADA 17-69-C-9167)
Dr. Franz von Lichtenberg and Jerome Smith: Protective Mechanisms in Schistosomiasis (DADA 17-72-C-2056)
Dr. Gilbert Sanchez: Biochemical and Antigenic Changes in Trypanosomes (DADA 17-72-C-2020)
Dr. John R. Seed: Immunization Against Trypanosoma gambiense (DADA 17-72-C-2058)

1600―Recess―Coffee

1615―Executive Session

1800―Adjournment

 


488

. current malaria research in 1964;
. parasitology research at Tulane University;
. current research on hemoflagellates;
. the problem of leptospirosis;
. research at military laboratories;
. filariasis research;
. problems of parasites in Latin America;
. immunology of parasitic diseases; and
. current schistosomiasis research in progress at leading laboratories.

The scientific contributions that were sponsored by the Commission were mostly in the general areas of schistosomiasis and filariasis. Significant observations were made in studies on parasites of Malaysian primates, leishmaniasis, and trypanosomiasis.

Studies by Dr. van der Schalie and associates showed that although the American snail Pomatiopsis species is biologically and ecologically similar to the natural intermediate host of Schistosoma japonicum, it is not a satisfactory substitute for Oncomelania in experimental studies. Methods for the laboratory propagation of snail intermediate hosts of common species of schistosomes of humans were useful in maintaining a supply source of material for studies in other laboratories. Biochemical studies by Dr. Lewert and associates on skin penetration by cercariae failed to reveal ways to bar their entry into the skin, but in immunological studies, they perfected a highly reliable circumoval precipitin test for diagnosis of infection in humans. The work of Dr. Warren and associates described factors in granuloma formation and the production of schistosomal disease in the mouse model. They also discovered that development of schistosomes in snails is suppressed by chloramphenicol. The various and numerous contributions on schistosomiasis by Dr. von Lichtenberg and associates included the basic nature and pathogenesis of schistosomiasis mansoni and haematobia in different species of primates including the chimpanzee. Of special interest also were granulomas produced by antigen-coated beads and latex particles in the lungs of experimental animals. Postmortem findings in Egyptian and Nigerian patients with urinary schistosomiasis were of great interest.

Filariasis studies by Drs. Rozeboom and Cabrera described the epidemiology of Wuchereria bancrofti infection in one area of the Philippines and confirmed the endemicity of Brugia malayi in the Philippines. Studies by Drs. Beaver, Danaraj, and Tulane associates in Singapore demonstrated that tropical eosinophilia is a form of filariasis in which the microfilariae that normally would circulate in the blood are screened out and destroyed in the lungs. In New Orleans, the Tulane workers found that in Dipetalonema viteae-infected birds and Dirofilaria-infected dogs, the levels of microfilaremia are determined by factors other than the number of adult worms present. Also, details of development of Brugia pahangi in the mosquito and cat hosts were described.

In a study of parasites of Oriental primates by Dr. Dunn, numerous helminths and some protozoa, including three new species of malaria, were reported. In a survey of intestinal parasites of primitive humans, a new method of quantitative diagnosis was developed.

Before the formation of the Commission on Malaria in 1964, two malaria projects were initiated in 1958 under the sponsorship of the Commission on Parasitic Diseases: One characterized in detail the early development of the parasite in the mosquito, the other described the full life cycle of Plasmodium berghei, the rodent malaria parasite. These studies were basic to understanding the later experimental studies on malaria.

Biochemical studies on acute ascariasis in guinea pigs and metabolic studies on adult Ascaris lumbricoides gave interesting new information, as did also studies on cellular immunity to Leishmania donovani in mice, the metabolic effects of temperature on Leishmania species in vitro, immunization against Trypanosoma gambiense and T. cruzi in experimental animals, and anaphylactic antibody. The anthelmintic action of dithiazanine was shown to be caused by a blocking effect of the transport of nutrients into the worms.

Antigens were produced, tested, and supplied for military, experimental, and diagnostic use in the diagnosis of amebiasis, schistosomiasis, filariasis, leishmaniasis, American trypanosomiasis, and toxoplasmosis.


489

Research investigations involving 20 active contracts were sponsored by the Commission on Parasitic Diseases. Listed as coauthors were approximately 100 workers who were not already recognized professional parasitologists. Programs offering the greatest number of opportunities for training experience in parasitology were those in the fields of schistosomiasis, malaria, filariasis, and leishmaniasis. The last meeting of the Commission was held on 26 October 1972, and the last annual report of the Commission Director was submitted 12 December 1972. The decision to terminate the Commission and some other advisory groups had been taken earlier and announced in a letter addressed to the Director, dated 11 October 1970 and signed by Richard R. Taylor, M.D., Brigadier General, MC, Special Assistant for Research and Development. The letter noted that an appearance of conflict of interest had been created by the arrangement wherein the Commissions of the AFEB reviewed and recommended research proposals submitted by its own members. Roughly, a third of the principal investigators of proposals recommended by the Commission had been member submitted. In the beginning, it had been recognized that the persons best qualified to conduct research in some areas of military interest were members of the Commission. Therefore, support of investigations in laboratories of members was anticipated. The reversal of policy was made necessary by newly established governmentwide standards pertaining to conflict of interest in advisory groups (see Appendix 4).


490

SECTION 6―APPENDIX 1

INFORMATION ABOUT CONTRACTS

This table of information on contracts was prepared by Colonel Robert Wells, AFEB Executive Secretary, and Jean P. Ward, AFEB Staff Assistant. In some instances, the list includes both the responsible investigator and a coinvestigator (Audy and Dunn, Rozeboom and Cabrera, Kemp and Hunter, Thompson and Stucki) or an investigator whose project was not sponsored by the Commission (Burckhalter), not activated (Kessel), or support was for administrative costs only (Beaver, Weller). For numerous projects, information on funding was incomplete or unknown, and for some, the indicated level of funding may be that authorized, not the amount expended. One project was omitted (Zvaifler, NJ, University of California at San Diego, Anaphylactic Antibodies in Helminth Infection, DADA 17-71-C-1002,1 August 1970-31 May 1972).

Investigator/Institute

Title of Project and Contract Number

Period

Amount

Adams, John G.

Biochemical Investigation of the Host-Nematode Relationships in Asacariasis. (TERMINATED)

Contract #DA-49-193-MD-2338

1962-1964

Audy, Ralph
Hooper Foundation

 

Endoparasites of Oriental Primates
Contract #DA-49-193-MD-2291

 

1963-1966

Beaver, Paul C.
Tulane University

Visceral Larva Migrans in Relation to Tropical Eosinophilia

1955-1956
1956-1957

$13,993
$12,974

Contract #DA-49-007-MD-633

1957-1958

$13,116

Filariasis in Relation to Tropical Eosinophilia

1958-1959

$ 6,130

Contract #DA-49-193-MD-2677

1959-1960

$ 6,837

1961-1963

$30,163

1966-1967

$37,170

1967-1968

$29,377

1968-1969

$46,193

Director's Office

1967-1968

$ 1,000

Contract #DADA-70-C-0106

1970-1972

$ 8,972

Bueding, Ernest B.
Louisiana State

Mechanism of Anthelminthic Action of Dithiazanine

1958-1959
1959-1960

$ 5,628
$ 5,628

Contract #DA-49-007-MD-975

1960-1961

$ 6,000

Burkhalter, Joseph H.

New Agents for Parasitic Infections

No period

No amount

No contract number

 

Cabrera, Benjamin D.

Filariasis Studies in the Phillipines

No period

No amount

No contract number

1963-1965

No amount

Dunn, Frederick L.
San Francisco Med.

Endoparasites of Oriental Primates. Investigations in Malaysia and San Fransisco

 

Contract #DA-49-193-MD-2291

Entner, Nathan
New York University

Enzymatic aspects of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Ascaris lumbricoides


1955-1956
1958-1959

$ 6,450
$ 6,011

Contract #DA-49-007-MD-692

1959-1960

$ 1,667

Hanson, William L.
University of Georgia

 

Immunity to Chagas' Disease

1970-1972

$25,403

Contract #DADA17-69-C-9167

 

Hunter, George W.

Screening Potential Protective Ointments Against Schistosomiasis

1954-1955

 

Contract #DA-49-007-MD-468

 


491

Investigator/Institute


Title of Project and Contract Number

Period

Amount

Janovy, John, Jr.
University of Nebraska

 

Effects of Temperature on Leshmania Metabolism

1969-1972

Contract #DADA 17-69-C-9122

Kemp, Hardy A.
Baylor University

Screening Potential Protective Ointments
Against Schistosomiasis

1954-1955

Contract #DA-49-007-MD-468

Kent, Niam H.

Isolation of Specific Antigens From Larval and Adult Stages of Schistosomes

1962-1964

Contract #DA-49-193-MD-2276

Kessel, John F.

The Correlation of Serologic Tests for Amebiasis with Clinical and Pathological Findings

No contract number

Lewert, Robert M.
University of Chicago

Studies on Schistosome Japonicum in Man and Schistosome Cercariae with Special Reference to Inhibition of Penetration of Various Agents

1954-1955
1955-1956
1958-1959
1959-1960


$ 8,000
$11,600
$13,850

Contract #DA-49-007-MD-516

1960-1068

$14,000

Immunity to Schistosoma Japonicum in Man

1962-1963

 

Contract #DA-49-193-MD-2320

1962-1963

 

Most, Harry
New York University

Biological Studies in Malaria (P. berghei)

1958-1959

$22,000

Contract #DA-49-007-MD-964

1959-1960

$22,000

1960-1966

$22,000

Ragozzino, Patrick W.
University of Connecticut

Serotonin and Histamine Production in Ascariasis

1962-1963

 

Contract #DA-49-007-MD-2338

Rozeboom, Lloyd E. Johns Hopkins University

Epidemiology of Filariasis Among Mountain Tribes in Northern Luzon, Philippine Islands

1958-1959

$13,220

Contract #DA-49-007-MD-2370

Factors Influencing Susceptibility and Immunity of the Mosquito to Infection by the Malaria Parasite

1963-1964

 

Contract #DA-49-007-MD-1023

Sanchez, Gilbert
New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology

 

Mechanisms of Biochemical and Antigenic Changes in Parasitic Trypanosomes

1971-1972

 

Contract #DADA17-72-C-2020

Seed, John R.
Tulane University

Active Immunization Against Trypanosoma gambiense with a Partially Purified Protective Antigen

1971-1972

 

Contract #DADA17-72-C-2058

Stucki, William P.
Parke, Davis & Co.

 

Parasite Antigens

1966-1972

 

Contract #DA-49-193-MD-2927

Thompson, Paul E.
Parke, Davis & Co.

 

Parasite Antigens

1966-1968

 

Contract #DA-49-193-MD-2927

Twohy, Donald W.
Michigan State University

 

 

The Nature of Immunity to Leishmaniasis

1968-1969

 

Contract #DADA17-67-7142

Contract #DADA17-69-C-9135

1969-1972

$44,202


492

Investigator/Institute

Title of Project and Contract Number

Period

Amount

van der Schalie, Henry University of Michigan

Studies of American Pomatiopsis Snails with Biological Relationships Almost Identical to Oncomelania, the Vector of Oriental Schistosomiasis

1955-1956
1958-1959
1959-1960
1960-1961

 

$ 5,000
$15,480
$11,550
$14,000

 

Contract #DA-49-007-MD-604

1968-1972

Contract #DA-49-007-MD-2651

von Lichtenberg, Franz
Harvard Medical
School

Protective Mechanisms in Schistosome Infections (previous title: Host parasite Relationship in Normal and Abnormal Hosts of Schistosomidae)

1966-1971

 

 

$11,846

Contract #DA-49-007-MD-2253

Protective Mechanisms in Schistosome Infection

1971-1972

Contract #DADA17-72-C-2056

Wagner, Edward D.
College of Medical Evangelists

Study of the Biology of Oncomelania. A Study of the Biology, Feeding Habits, and Nutritional Requirements of the Snail Hosts of Schistosoma japonicum

 

1954-1955

Contract #DA-49-007-MD-307

Warren, Kenneth S.
Western Reserve University

Pathophysiology of Schistomsmiasis

1965-1967

Contract #DA-49-193-MD-2639

Weller, Thomas H.
Harvard School of Public Health

Contract #DA-49-007-MD-530

1958-1959

$ 2,520

Summary of Research Funds for AFEB-Reviewed Research for the Periods 1 July 1958-30 June 1959, 1 July 1959-30 June 1960, and 1 July 1960-30 June 1961

1 July 1958-30 June 1959

1 July 1959-30 June 1960

1 July 1960-30 June 1961

$82,592

$61,532

$63,000


493

SECTION 6―APPENDIX 2

COMMISSION ON PARASITIC DISEASES-DATES AND LOCATIONS OF MEETINGS

2 October 1953

Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, D.C.

2 November 1954

Hotel Peabody, Memphis, Tennessee

4 April 1955

Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, D.C.

1 November 1955

Hotel Somerset, Boston, Massachusetts

5 April 1956

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.

30 October 1956

Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana

15-16 March 1957

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.

29 October 1957

Hotel Benjamin Franklin, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

7-8 March 1958

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.

4 November 1958

Hotel Deauville, Miami Beach, Florida

9-10 March 1959

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.

27 October 1959

Claypool Hotel, Indianapolis, Indiana

7-8 April 1960

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.

Fall 1960

Records not available

Spring 1961

Records not available

31 October 1961

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.

6-7 March 1962

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.

30 October 1962

Communicable Disease Center, Atlanta, Georgia

5-6 March 1963

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.

5 November 1963

Center for Continuing Education, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois

12 March 1964

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.

3 November 1964

New York University School of Medicine, New York City

1 March 1965

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.

6 November 1965

Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana

14 March 1966

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.

18 November 1966

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.

13-14 March 1967

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.

31 October 1967

Benjamin Franklin Hotel, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

25 March 1968

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.

2-3 December 1968

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.

24 March 1969

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.

16-17 October 1969

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.

23 March 1970

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.

26-27 October 1970

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.

22 March 1971

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.

27 October 1971

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.

30 March 1972

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.

26 October 1972

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.


494

SECTION 6―APPENDIX 3

AGENDA OR OUTLINE OF MEETINGS

Outlines of meetings without available agenda are based on director's summaries in annual reports.

Outline of Meeting
Commission on Parasitic Diseases
Walter Reed Army Medical Center
4 April 1955

0930 Introductory Remarks by Commission DirectorThomas H. Weller
StatementColonel Adam J. Rapalski, Executive Secretary, AFEB

Remarks by:

Lieutenant J. F. Egan of the Navy
Lieutenant Colonel H. G. Tousignant of the Air Force
Colonel T. F. Whayne of the Army
Colonel F. H. Mowrey of the Army

Progress report on work done under Contract
DA-49-007-MD-307Dr. Edward D. Wagner

Summary of research activities on schistosomiasis at the National Microbiological Institute, NIH
Progress report on work done under Contract
DA-49-007-MD-468Dr. Hardy A. Kemp

Progress report on parasitological studies on rhesus and cynomolgus monkeysDr. Gustave J. Dammin

Executive Session

Review of status of action taken on previous recommendations
Consideration of contract proposals
Discussion of Contract DA-49-007-MD-468
Recommendations regarding financing of contracts not subject to review at current meeting

Consideration of application by:
Dr. R. S. Diaz-Rivera of the University of Puerto Rico Medical School

Meeting adjourned


495

Outline of Meeting
Commission on Parasitic Diseases
Hotel Somerset, Boston, MA
1 November 1955

0930 Introductory remarks by Commission DirectorThomas H. Weller

StatementDr. Floyd Denny, speaking for Dr. John Dingle
StatementCaptain R. W Babione, Executive Secretary, AFEB

Comments by:

Colonel Tousignant, Department of the Air Force
Major H. L. Ley, Department of the Army

Progress report on contract DA-49-007-MD-516, "Studies Dr. Robert M. Lewert
on schistosome cercariae with special reference
to inhibition of penetration of various agents"

Progress report on contract DA-49-007-MD-604 on Dr. Henry van der Schalie
"Studies of American Pomatiopsis snails with
biological relationships almost identical to
Oncomelania"

Review of hydatid situation in Alaska Major Ley and Colonel Toussignant

Summary of activities of parasitological interest Dr. L. E. Rozeboom
in the Philippines

Report on trip under AFEB auspices to advise on and Dr. van der Schalie
to observe research on Oncomelania in Japan
and the Philippines

Liaison report on recovery of viral agents from cases of Dr. G. Dammin
Shigella infection

Executive Session

Consideration of nominations for associate membership
Recommendations concerning contract renewals
Consideration of application of Dr. Nathan Entner
Follow-up on Kemp-Hunter project, "Screening protective ointments against schistosomiasis"

Outline of Meeting
Commission on Parasitic Diseases
Walter Reed Army Institute for Research
5 April 1956

0940 Introductory remarks by Commission Director Thomas H. Weller

Comments by:

Dr. John J. Dingle, AFEB
Captain J. R. Seal, Department of the Navy
Colonel H. G. Toussignant, Department of the Air Force
Major A. M. Reeve, Department of the Army

Progress reports on:

Contract DA-49-007-MD-307, "A study of the biology,
feeding habits, and nutritional requirements of the
snail hosts of Schistosoma japonicum" Dr. E. D. Wagner


496

Contract DA-49-007-MD-633, "Visceral larva migrans
in relation to tropical eosinophilia" Dr. Paul C. Beaver

Interim report of Ad Hoc Committee on Hydatid Disease
General comments on the program of the Commission
Executive Session

Considerations of proposals for contract extension
Discussion of possible new applications
Consideration of the action of the Ad Hoc Committee on Hydatid Disease
Discussion of status of Kemp-Hunter report.

Outline of Meeting
Commission on Parasitic Diseases
Louisiana State University School of Medicine
30 October 1956

0910 Meeting called to order by Commission Director Thomas H. Weller

Introductory remarks by:

Dr. Floyd W. Denny
Captain R. W. Babione

Comments by:

Colonel H. E. Griffin, Department of the Army
Colonel G. A. Fair, Department of the Air Force
Dr. C. G. Huff, Department of the Navy

Progress reports:

Contract DA-49-007-MD-516, "Studies on
schistosome cercariae with special reference
to inhibition of penetration by various agents" Dr. R. M. Lewert

Contract DA-49-007-MD-604, "Some comparative
studies of American Pomatiopsis with species
of Oncomelania, the vector of Oriental
schistosomiasis" Dr. H. van der Schalie

Contract DA-49-007-MD-692, "Enzymatic aspects
of carbohydrate metabolism in Ascaris
lumbricoides"
Dr. N. Entner

Report of Ad Hoc Committee on Hydatid Disease

Comment on 6th International Congress on Hydatid Disease Dr. Weller

Presentation of current investigations in the field of parasitology at Louisiana State University School of Medicine

Tour of Louisiana State University Medical School

Executive Session

Consideration of proposals for contract extensions
Old business:

Kemp-Hunter contract
Conditions for infectivity experiments with snails

New business:

African Regional WHO Conference on schistosomiasis
Interest of the Air Force in studies on canine filariasis
Recommendations regarding Alaskan hydatid disease problem


497

Outline of Meeting
Commission on Parasitic Diseases
Walter Reed Army Institute for Research
15-16 March 1957

15 March

0940 Meeting called to order by Commission Director Thomas H. Weller

Introductory remarks by:

Dr. Floyd W. Denny, AFEB, for Dr. Dingle
Captain R. W. Babione, Executive Secretary, AFEB

Comments by:

Major Benjamin Hammers, Department of the Air Force
Captain J. R. Seal, Department of the Navy
Captain J. R. Kingston, Department of the Navy
Lieutenant Colonel H. E. Griffin, Department of the Army

Discussion of reports by Armed Forces representatives

Progress reports and applications for contract support:

Final report on Contract DA-49-007-MD-307,
"A study of the biology, feeding habits, and
nutritional requirement of the snail host of
Schistosoma japonicum" Dr. E. D. Wagner

Application for contract entitled, "Basic biologic studies on Oncomelania"

Annual report and request for 12 months' extension of Contract
DA-40-007-MD-633," Visceral larva migrans in relation to
tropical eosinophilia" Dr. Paul C. Beaver

Interim report and request for 12 months' extension of
contract DA-49-007-MD-692, "Enzymatic aspects of
carbohydrate metabolism in Ascaris lumbricoides" Dr. N. Entner

Interim report and request for 7 months' extension of contract
DA-49-MD-516, "Studies on schistosome cercariae with
special reference to inhibition of penetration by
various agents" Dr. R. M. Lewert

Interim report and request for 7 months' extension of contract
DA-49-007-MD-604, "Some comparative studies of
American Pomatiopsis with species of Oncomelania, the vector
of Oriental schistosomiasis" Dr. H. van der Schalie

Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Hydatid Disease

Report on the WHO schistosomiasis conference at Brazzaville

17:45 Session adjourned

March 16

0900 Executive Session

Discussion of activities and responsibilities of the Commission on Parasitic Diseases
Discussion of malaria and filariasis, possible new fields of interest
Consideration of report of the Ad Hoc Committee on Hydatid Disease
Action on requests for contract support

1255 Meeting adjourned


498

Outline of Meeting
Commission on Parasitic Diseases
Hotel Benjamin Franklin, Philadelphia
29 October 1957

1400 Introductory remarks by Commission Director Thomas H. Weller

Status of research on malaria Dr. Paul F. Russell
Dr. Clay Huff
Dr. Lloyd Roseboom | Dr. Robert Coatney
Dr. Willard Wright
Dr. D. McMullen

Consideration of the role of the Commission on Parasitic Diseases in relation to the status of research on malaria

1715 Meeting adjourned

1910 Meeting reconvened

Remarks by:

Dr. Floyd W. Denny, AFEB, for Dr. Dingle
Lieutenant Colonel H. E. Griffin, Department of the Army
Lieutenant Colonel C. N. Moss, Department of the Air Force

Discussion of the problem of training in the Armed Forces

Report of Committee on Experimental Conditions to be Considered in Studies on Schistosomes

Report on the 8th Alaskan Science Conference Dr. Gilbert Otto

Comment on experiences in Durban, South Africa Dr. Paul C. Beaver

2055 Meeting adjourned

Outline of Meeting
Commission on Parasitic Diseases
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research
7-8 March 1958

March 7

1005 Introductory remarks by Commission Director Dr. Thomas Weller

Comments by:

Dr. Thomas Francis, President, AFEB
Captain R. W. Babione, Executive Secretary, AFEB

Reports on parasitological problems by:

Captain S. A. Britten, Department of the Navy
Colonel G. K. Fair, Department of the Air Force
Colonel H. E. Griffin, Department of the Army

Reports of contract research

Contract DA-49-007-MD-633, "Visceral larva migrans
in relation to tropical eosinophilia" Dr. Paul C. Beaver

Contract DA-49-007-MD-692, "Enzymatic aspects
of carbohydrate metabolism in Ascaris l
umbricoides"
Dr. Nathan Entner

Contract DA-49-007-MD-516, "Studies on schistosome
cercariae with special reference to inhibition
of penetration by various agents" Dr. Robert Lewert


499

Contract DA-49-007-MD-604, "Some comparative
studies of American Pomatiopsis with species
of Oncomelania, the vector of Oriental
schistosomiasis" Dr. Henry van der Schalie

Summary prepared by the Ad Hoc Committee on Experimental
Conditions to be Considered in Studies on
Schistosomes and Their Hosts Dr. H. van der Schalie

Report by Dr. G. J. Dammin concerning his visit to
Guatemala City in connection with the activities of the
Commission on Enteric Infections

Presentation of data on origin of cases of schistosomiasis
occurring in Navy personnel Captain John R. Seal

Comments on investigations on eosinophilic bowel
infiltrates Drs. Beaver and Dammin

1745 Regular session adjourned

March 8

0935 Executive Session

Introductory remarks by Commission Director Dr. T. H. Weller

Review of applications for extension of contracts:

"Visceral larva migrans and its relation to
tropical eosinophilia" Dr. Paul Beaver

"Further studies on carbohydrate metabolism
of Ascaris lumbricoides" Dr. Nathan Entner

"Studies on schistosome cercariae with special
reference to inhibition of penetration by various
agents" Dr. Robert M. Lewert

"Studies of American Pomatiopsis snails with biological
relationship almost identical to Oncomelania, the
vector of Oriental schistosomiasis" Dr. Henry van der Schalie

Consideration of application for new contract Dr. Ernest Bueding

Report on status of Alaskan hydatid problem

Consideration of status of program of the Commission on Parasitic Diseases

Old business

New business

1403 Meeting adjourned


500

Outline of Meeting
Commission on Parasitic Diseases
Hotel Deauville, Miami Beach, Florida
4 November 1958

1000 Meeting called to order by Commission Director Dr. Thomas Weller

Introductory remarks Dr. Thomas Francis, Jr., President of
AFEB
Captain R. W. Babione, Executive
Secretary

Reports by:

Colonel G. K. Fair, Department of the Air Force
Lieutenant Colonel J. W. Cooch, Department of the Army
Commander B. Gundelfinger, Department of the Navy

Comment by Dr. Weller on his visit to Lebanon
Report of Ad hoc Committee on Malaria Research
Review of status of research on vector repellents
Report on activity of alkyldibenzylamines on Schistosoma
mansoni in vitro Dr. Ernest Bueding

Executive session

Consideration of contract applications by:
Dr. L. Rozeboom
Dr. F. B. Bang
Dr. Marion Brooke on behalf of Dr. Irving Kagan

Action on membership of the Commission
Reports on other activities of members
Other business
Memorandum concerning use of human volunteers

Meeting adjourned

Tentative Agenda
Commission on Parasitic Diseases
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research
9-10 March 1959

March 9

GENERAL SESSION

1000
1. Introductory remarks Dr. Thomas Francis, Jr., President, AFEB

1015
2. Comments on administrative matters Captain R. W. Babione, MC, USN,
Executive Secretary, AFEB

1030
3. Presentation on status of parasitic diseases in the Armed Forces

1030 Department of the Air Force

1045 Department of the Army

1100 Department of the Navy

1115 Intermission


501

1130
4. Report on work under contract DA-49-007-MD-633, Dr. Paul Beaver, Tulane University
"Visceral larva migrans in relation to tropical eosinophilia" School of Medicine
a. Clinical, therapeutic, and etiologic studies on tropical Dr. T. J. Danaraj, Lecturer in
Medicine, University of Malaya
b. Parasitological studies (15 min) Mr. J. F. Schacher, Research Associate
c. Summary (15 min) Dr. Paul Beaver
d. Discussion

1230-1345
RECESS FOR LUNCH

1345
5. Progress report on contract DA-49-007-MD-975 of Dr. Emil Kmetec, Research Associate,
Dr. Ernest Bueding, "Study on the mechanism of Department of Pharmacology,
anthelminthic action of dithiazanine"            School of Medicine, Louisiana State
                                                                                                     University

1405
Discussion of Dr. Kmetec's Report 

1415
6. Report and request for extension of contract                           Dr. Nathan Entner, New York University
DA-49-007-MD-692, "Enzymatic aspects of carbohydrate 
metabolism in Ascaris lumbricoides"

1445
Discussion of Dr. Entner's Report 

1500
7. Progress report on contract of Dr. Lloyd Rozeboom,             Dr. Lee M. Howard, Research 
DA-49-007-MD-1023, "Factors influencing                               Associate, Johns Hopkins University
susceptibility and immunity of the mosquito to 
infection by the malaria parasite"

1520
Discussion of Dr. Howard's Report 

1530
Intermission 

1540
8. Report on contract, DA-49-007-MD-516, "Studies on        Dr. Robert M. Lewert, University 
schistosome cercariae with special reference to                             of Chicago
inhibition of penetration by various agents"

1615
Discussion of Dr. Lewert's Report 

1625
9. Progress report on Dr. Harry Most's contract,                      Dr. Meir Yoeli, Department of
DA-49-007-MD-964, "Biological studies in malaria                      Preventive Medicine, New York
(P. berghei)"                                                                                University College of Medicine

1645
Discussion of Dr. Yoeli's report 

1655
10. Report on contract DA-49-007-MD-604, "Some                Dr. Henry van der Schalie, 
comparative studies of American Pomatiopsis with                      University of Michigan
species of Oncomelania, the vector of oriental
schistosomiasis"


502

1725
Discussion of Dr. van der Schalie's Report 
Adjournment

March 10 
EXECUTIVE SESSION 
0930

1. Remarks regarding membership
2. Consideration of proposals by contractors. 
    a. Dr. Beaver
    b. Dr. Bueding 
    c. Dr. Entner
    d. Dr. Rozeboom 
    e. Dr. Lewert
    f. Dr. Most
    g. Dr. van der Schalie
3. Matter of priorities on research contracts and of "advance financing" 
4. Discussion of AFEB policy on "consultantships"
5. Consideration of response from Department of Agriculture on easing of restrictions on strains of malaria
6. Statement from Department of Agriculture on support of research on repellents 
7. Other business

Agenda
Commission on Parasitic Diseases 
Claypool Hotel, Indianapolis, Indiana 
27 October 1959

GENERAL SESSION

0930    Introductory remarks                                     Dr. Thomas Francis, Jr., President, AFEB 
                                                                                 Colonel John Rizzolo, USAF (MC), 
                                                                                        Executive Secretary, AFEB
                                                                                  Dr. Gustave J. Dammin, Director, CPD 

1000    Reports of Preventive Medicine Officers of the Armed Forces
1030    Coffee Break
1045    Current work on the treatment of malaria         Dr. Alf S. Alving
1145    Discussion: Commission Members and Guests 
1215    Lunch
1330    Malaria and other research in parasitology at the Naval Medical Research Institute 
                                                                                    Dr. Clay G. Huff
1400    Recent work of AFPCB on control of insect vectors Colonel Ralph W. Bunn, MSC 
1420    General discussion-Malaria
1440    Informal reports and discussion of training,         Dr. Ernest Bueding
            therapy, research and travel                               Dr. Franz von Lichtenberg


503

                                                                                    Dr. Donald McMullen 
                                                                                    Dr. Harry Most
                                                                                    Dr. Henry van der Schalie 
                                                                                    Dr. Thomas H. Weller

1540    Coffee
1600    Executive Session

Agenda 
Commission on Parasitic Diseases 
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research 
7-8 April 1960

General Session-7 April

0930    Introductory Remarks                                         Dr. Gustave J. Dammin, Director 
                                                                                      Colonel John Rizzolo, USAF, MC, 
                                                                                            Executive Secretary, AFEB
                                                                                       Major Thomas B. Dunne, MC, R & D 
                                                                                            Command

1000    Reports of Preventive Medicine Officers of the Army, Navy and Air Force 
1030    Intermission
1045    Requirements for personnel and training for work in tropical areas 
            Subject to be introduced by Dr. Sadun
            Discussion by representatives of the Military, Public Health Service and Commission 
                Members
1130    Dr. Henry van der Schalie: "Studies of American Pomatiopsis snails"
1200    Film describing work of the 406th Med. Gen. Lab., Zama, Japan 
1230    Recess for lunch
1400    Dr. Harry Most and Dr. Meir Yoeli: "Biological Studies in Malaria"
1445    Dr. Lloyd Rozeboom and Dr. L. M. Howard: "Factors Influencing the Susceptibility and 
                Immunity of the Mosquito to Infection by the Malaria Parasite"
1530 Work of the Military in Malaria Chemoprophylaxis 
MALARIA: GENERAL DISCUSSION
1700 Adjournment 
General Session-8 April 
0900 "Visceral Larva Migrans in Relation to Tropical
       Eosinophilia"                                                                       Dr. Paul Beaver, Dr. John Schacher,
                                                                                                        and Dr. T. J. Danaraj
0945 "Studies on Schistosome Cercariae with Special Reference
        to Inhibition of Penetration by Various Agents"                   Dr. Robert Lewert, Dr. S. 
                                                                                                    Mandlowitz, and Dr. D. Dusanic 
1030    Intermission
1045    "Mechanisms of Anthelminthic Action"                            Dr. Ernest Bueding
1130 "Enzymatic Aspects of Carbohydrate Metabolism
        in Ascaris lumbricoides"                                                   Dr. Nathan Entner

1200    Informal Reports on Research and Travel
1300    Recess for Lunch
1400    EXECUTIVE SESSION
            Meeting of full members of the Commission on Parasitic Diseases for consideration of 
            contract proposals, financing and membership


504

Records of meetings were not available 
for fall of 1960 and spring of 1961

Outline of Joint Meeting 
AFEB Commission on Parasitic Diseases and 
Commission on Enteric Diseases 
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research 
31 October 1961

0900    Meeting called to order by the Director                                       Dr. Harry Most
Comments of AFEB President                                                                Dr. G. J. Dammin 
Reports of military representatives:
        Lieutenant Colonel J. W. Cooch, Army 
        Commander J. W. Miller, Navy 
        Lieutenant Colonel F. L. Bowling, Air Force 
        Lieutenant Colonel H. J. Donnelly, R & D Command 
        Brigadier General J. H. Forsee, R & D Command 
Comments by Commission on Enteric Disease's Director                         Dr. F. S. Cheever
Review of WRAIR research program on parasitic diseases                      Dr. Elvio Sadun 
Lunch
Laboratory demonstration, WRAIR Department of Medical Zoology 
Brief reviews of:
        Schistosomiasis research program in Puerto Rico                             Lieutenant Colonel L. P. Frick 
        Research on schistosomiasis at 406th Laboratory in Japan               Mr. J. E. Williams 
        Research on T. cruzi infection at 3rd Army Area Laboratory           Major B. Walton 
        Research and other activities of U.S. Army in East Africa (Uganda) Major D. Price 
Executive Session
1740    Meeting adjourned


505

Agenda 
Commission on Parasitic Diseases 
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research 
6-7 March 1962

6 March 1962
Joint Meeting-Commission on Enteric Infections and Parasitic Diseases 
0930-1000    Remarks                                                             President, AFEB, Directors of
                                                                                                    Commissions and Executive Secretary,
                                                                                                    AFEB
1000-1045    Comments by Service Representatives 
                      Division of Army
                      Division of Navy 
                      Division of Air Force 
1045-1115    Coffee and informal reports by Commission Members
1115-1300    Presentations by Commission on Enteric Infections     Dr. Cheever presiding 
1300-1400    Lunch
1400-1700    Presentation of progress reports and consideration of proposal for extension of contracts 
                        and new contracts
1700-1800 Executive Session 
1800 Adjournment

7 March 1962
0930-1230    Meeting-Ad Hoc Committee on Malaria

Agenda 
Commission on Parasitic Diseases 
Communicable Disease Center 
30 October 1962 
Dr. Harry Most-Presiding

0930-1000 Welcome                                                                Dr. James Goddard, Chief, CDC 
                   Remarks                                                                President, AFEB, Executive Secretary,
                                                                                                        AFEB and Commission Director 
1000-1100    Comments by Service Representatives covering: 
                    a. Disease problems in Vietnam and Thailand, etc. 
                    b. Current status of drugs for parasitic infections
                    c. Status of revision of all TB-MEDS related to our Commission 
                    Division of Army
                    Division of Navy 
                    Division of Air Force 

1100-1130    Coffee and informal reports by Commission 
                        Members and miscellaneous additional 
                        Commission business                                         Executive Secretary
1130-1200    Report on Malaria                                                Drs. G. Robert Coatney and Martin 
                                                                                                    D. Young

Discussion
1200-1230    Organization and Program of the CDC                 Dr. Alan Donaldson,Deputy Chief, CDC 
1230-1300 Lunch


506

1300-1400    Conducted Tour of CDC Facilities (Meet in
                        laboratory of auditorium, Building 2)                 Mr. Wallace Richter, Information Office

1400-1430    Continuation of Report on Malaria                      Drs. Coatney and Young 
1430-1445    Coffee
1445-1645    Parasitological Activities of CDC
                      a. Dr. Marion Brook, Chief, Laboratory Consultation & Development Section 
                      b. Dr. Mae Melvin, Chief, Parasitology Training Unit
                      c. Dr. Harry Pratt, Chief, Vector Control Services Training Section 
                      d. Dr. Irving Kagan, Chief, Parasitology Unit

Agenda 
Joint Meeting of Commissions on Environmental Hygiene 
Enteric Infections 
Parasitic Diseases 
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research 
Wednesday, 6 March 1963

0900-1000    Concluding Presentations                                         Dr. Geiman
                      Commission on Enteric Infections                            Dr. Reeves 
1000-1015    Recess, Coffee

Commission on Parasitic Diseases, Dr. Most, Director

1015    Opening Remarks                                                             President, AFEB, Executive Secretary, 
                                                                                                        Commission Director
Reports by Responsible Investigators
1045    Visceral Larva Migrans in Relation to Tropical
                Eosinophilia                                                                 Dr. Beaver
1105    Isolation of Specific Antigens from Larval and
                Adult Stages of Schistosomes                                       Dr. Kent

1125    a) Studies on Schistosome Cercariae with Special Reference to Inhibition of 
                Penetration by Various Agents
            b) Immunity to Schistosoma japonicum in Man              Dr. Lewert 
1200    Recess, Lunch
1330    Serotonin and Histamine Production in
                Ascariasis                                                                    Dr. Rogozzino
1350    Studies of American Pomatiopsis Snails with 
                Biological Relationships Almost Identical to 
                Oncomelania,
the Intermediate Host to Oriental 
                Schistosomiasis                                                             Dr. van der Schalie
1410    Host-parasite Relationship in Normal and
                Abnormal Hosts of Schistosomidae                                Dr. von Lichtenberg
1430    Biological Studies in Malaria (P. berghei)                          Dr. Harry Most 
1450    Recess, Coffee
1500    Executive Session
            Commission on Parasitic Diseases                                     Dr. Most 
            1. Personnel Recommendations
             2. Contract Recommendations 
            3. General Recommendations 
            4. Future Meetings


507

Agenda 
Commission on Parasitic Diseases, AFEB 
Center for Continuing Education 
University of Chicago 
5 November 1963

0930-1000    Remarks                                                                        President, AFEB; 
                            Executive Secretary, AFEB;
                            Commission Director
1000-1100    Comments by Service Representatives 
                     Army
                     Navy 
                     Air Force 
1100-1130    Coffee and miscellaneous additions relative to
                            Commission business                                                 Executive Secretary
                     Research Program in Illinois Area                                     Chairman-Dr. Lewert 
1130-1200    Presentation "Detection of Soluble Antigen-
                     Antibody Complexes in Helminth Infections"                     Mr. Donald G. Dusanic
1200-1230    Film covering the endemic area of schistoso-
                            miasis on Leyte                                                         Dr. Lewert 
1230-1400    Lunch
1400-1530    DISCUSSION RELATIVE TO MALARIA 
                      Dr. Alving's Program in Statesville 
                      Current Status of CI-501                                                 Dr. Coatney 
                      General discussion
1530-1600    Consideration of grant applications and new business 
1600              Adjournment
Tour of laboratories-optional

Agenda 
Commission on Parasitic Diseases 
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research 
12-13 March 1964

12 March 1964
0900    Opening Remarks                                                 President, AFEB-Dr. Dammin 
                                                                                        Executive Secretary-Captain Britten 
                                                                                        Commission Director-Dr. Most 
0915    Reports by Service Representatives
            Army 
            Navy 
            Air Force 
1045    Coffee break and informal reports by Commission Members 
PRESENTATION OF PROGRESS REPORTS
1100    Dr. R. Audy
1130    Dr. P Beaver
1200    Dr. N. Kent (by Dr. E. Bueding) 
1230    Lunch


508

1400    Dr. R. Lewert
1430    Dr. H. Most
1500    Dr. van der Schalie
1530    Dr. von Lichtenberg
1600    Coffee Recess
1630    New Contracts: 
            Dr. J. Burckhalter 
            Dr. K. Warren
1730    Supper
1930    Executive Session 
Personnel Recommendations 
Contract Recommendations 
General Recommendations 
Future Meetings

13 March 1964 
0930    Malaria 
1100    Coffee Recess
1230    Lunch
1400    A possible meeting of Malaria Committee:
            Recommendations

Agenda 
Committee on Malaria 
Parasitic Diseases Commission 
Armed Forces Epidemiology Board 
13 March 1964, WRAIR, Washington, D.C.

Dr. A. Alving 
Dr. R. Coatney 
Dr. R. Elderfield 
Dr. C. Huff
Dr. L. Rozeboom
Dr. E. Sadun 
Dr. L. Schmidt 
Dr. L. Stauber 
Dr. W. Trager 
Dr. T. Weller 
Dr. H. Most 
Chairman

1. Current Malaria Research 
A.
1. Biology                                                                                                Dr. C. Huff 
2. Physiology and Metabolism                                                                  Dr. W. Trager 
3. Immunology                                                                                         Dr. L. Stauber 
4. Chemotherapy                                                                                     Dr. R. Elderfield 
5. Entomology                                                                                         Dr. L. Rozeboom 
                                                                                                               Lieutenant Colonel J. Geary     
    Army                                                                                                  Colonel W. Tigertt  
                                                                                                               Dr. E. Sadun
    NIH                                                                                                    Dr. A. Alving
                                                                                                               Dr. J. Andrews 
    Navy                                                                                                   Dr. J. Jeffery 
                                                                                                                Dr. J. Millar


509

    Air Force                                                                                             General F. Duff
    State Department                                                                                  Dr. P Lee
    National Academy of Sciences                                                              Dr. K. Cannon

Agenda 
Commission on Parasitic Diseases 
New York University Medical Center 
3 November 1964

Opening remarks and welcome                                                                 Commission Director 
Comments                                                                                                President, Armed Forces 
                                                                                                                    Epidemiological Board, and 
                                                                                                                    report of travel abroad   Executive Secretary Report 
Coffee
Reports of Preventive Medicine officers and discussion 
Report-Pest Control Board
Luncheon
Summary report of first meeting, Commission on Malaria 
Status of TB-MEDS
New applications 
Personnel and membership

Agenda 
Commission on Parasitic Diseases 
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research 
1 March 1965

0900-0920    Call to order and introductory remarks                             Commission Director and President 
                                                                                                                    of AFEB
0920-0940    Report of Executive Secretary
0940-1030    Reports from preventive medicine officers                         Departments of the Army, Navy, 
                                                                                                                Air Force, and R & D Command 
1030-1100    Coffee Break
1100-1200    Report on status of drugs for treatment of parasitic diseases 
                      Report on status of TB-MEDS
                      Discussion of potential problems for research in the parasitic diseases area of 
                        military importance 
1200-1300    Lunch
1300-1500    Presentation of progress reports of responsible investigators: 
                     "Endoparasites of Oriental Primates" Contract No.
                            DA-49-193-MD-2291                             Dr. J. Ralph Audy 
                       "Visceral Larva Migrans in Relation to Tropical
                            Eosinophilia" Contract No. DA-49-007-MD-633
                            and DA-49-193-MD-2677                      Dr. Paul C. Beaver 
                        "Immunity to Schistosoma japonicum in man"
                            Contract No. DA-49-193-MD-2320        Dr. Robert M. Lewert


510

                        "Epidemiology of Filariasis in the Philippine
                            Islands" Contract No. DA-49-193-MD-2370     Dr. Lloyd Rozeboom
1500-1515    Coffee Break
1515-1630    Presentation of progress reports continued: 
                      "Studies of American Pomatiopsis snails with 
                            Biological Relationships Almost Identical to 
                            Oncomelania,
the Vector of Oriental 
                            Schistosomiasis" Contract No. DA-49-007-
                            MD-604                                                               Dr. Henry van der Schalie 
                      "Host-Parasite Relationship in Normal and
                            Abnormal Hosts of Schistosomide" Contract
                            No. DA-49-193-MD-2253                                  Dr. Franz von Lichtenberg 
                      "Pathophysiology of Schistosomiasis" Contract
                            No. DA-49-193-MD-2639                                  Dr. Kenneth S. Warren 
1700    Executive Session
Consideration of renewal applications, personnel action, reappointments and appointments 
Date of next meeting: November 6, 1965 in New Orleans

Agenda 
Commission on Parasitic Diseases 
Tulane University School of Medicine 
6 November 1965

Opening remarks and welcome                                                           Dr. Paul C. Beaver 
Comments                                                                                          President, AFEB; Director, 
                                                                                                             Commission on Parasitic Diseases; 
                                                                                                             and Executive Secretary

Reports by Preventive Medicine Officers, Armed Services; discussion by military and R&D 
    representatives; report by Major Legters
Luncheon and after-luncheon scientific presentations: Research activities in parasitic and tropical 
    diseases, Tulane University, Dr. Beaver presiding
Reports relative to drugs and TB-MEDS
Summary of attendance at foreign meetings and foreign travel 
Business matters relative to contracts and funds 
Adjournment


* In compliance with directive of the President, AFEB, to permit review of current military situation and         needs, priorities in the research program, etc.


511

Agenda 
Commission on Parasitic Diseases 
Walter Reed Army Institute for Research 
14 March 1966

0900-0920    Call to order and introductory remarks                         Commission Director and President 
                                                                                                            of AFEB
0920-0940    Report of the Executive Secretary
0940-1040    Reports from Preventive Medicine officers                     Departments of the Army, Navy, and 
                                                                                                               Air Force
1045 Coffee break
1100-1130    Reports: Status of TB-MEDS: Status of drugs for treatment of parasitic diseases; 
                        discussion of potential problems for research in the parasitic disease area of 
                        military importance

1300-1400    Lunch
01400-1530  Presentation of progress reports of responsible investigators 
                     "Filariasis in Relation to Tropical Eosinophilia"
                         Contract No. DA-49-193-MD-2677                             Dr. Paul C. Beaver 
                      "Immunity to Schistosoma japonicum in Man"
                         Contract No. DA-49-193-MD-2320                             Dr. Robert M. Lewert 
                      "Studies of American Pomatiopsis snails with
                          Biological Relationships Almost Identical to 
                          Oncomelania,
the Vector of Oriental Schisto-
                          somiasis" Contract No. DA-49-MD-604                       Dr. Henry van der Schalie 
1530             Coffee break
1545-1645    Presentation of progress reports continued 
                     "Protective Mechanisms in Schistosome Infections"
                          Contract No. DA-49-193-MD-2253                            Dr. Franz von Lichtenberg
                      "Pathophysiology of Schistosomiasis" Contract
                           No. DA-49-193-MD-2639                                         Dr. Kenneth S. Warren 
1645-1700    Special report                                                                    Dr. Ernest Bueding 
1700 Executive Session
         Consideration of renewal applications
         Personnel actions, reappointments, and appointments 
         Date of next meeting


512

Agenda 
Commission on Parasitic Diseases 
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research 
18 November 1966

SCHISTOSOMIASIS CONFERENCE
I.    Current Status of Schistosomiasis in Southeast Asia              Dr. Donald McMullen, WRAIR,
       1. "Report on a Recent Visit to Thailand"                                Washington, D.C.

       2. "Report on a Recent Visit to the Philippines,                     Dr. Steve Pan, Harvard School of 
           Thailand, Taiwan, and Japan"                                                 Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts

       3. "Report on Several Cases Apparently                              Dr. Harry Most, New York Univer-
            Contracted in Laos"                                                           sity School of Medicine 
Discussion of Part I

II.    Quantitative and Comparative Pathology of Human Schistosomiasis
        1. "Autopsy Studies in Bahia, Brazil"                                   Dr. Allen Cheever, National Institutes 
                                                                                                    of Health, Bethesda, Maryland

         2. "S. haematobium Pathology in Ibadan, Nigeria-            Dr. Franz von Lichtenberg, Harvard
                 Impressions and Projected Studies"                               School of Public Health 

Discussion of Part II

III.    Treatment of Schistosomiasis
         1. "Studies on Treatment of Schistosomiasis in Egypt            Dr. William DeWitt, NIH 
              and Puerto Rico"

2. "Preliminary Observations on the Biochemical                 Dr. Ernest Bueding, Johns Hopkins 
Actions of CIBA 32, 644-Ba (Ambilhar)"                              School of Hygiene and Public 
                                                                                             Health, Baltimore, Maryland

3. Informal Reports on Ambilhar 
        Dr. Thomas Weller
        Dr. Harry Most 
Discussion of Part III

IV.    Recent Immunological Developments Concerning Human Schistosomiasis
         1. "Anaphylactic (Reaginic) Antibodies in                                 Dr. Elvio Sadun, WRAIR 
             Schistosomiasis"


513

Agenda 
Commission on Parasitic Diseases 
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research 
13-14 March 1967

13 March 1967
Call to order and introductory remarks                                         Commission Director and President 
                                                                                                        of AFEB

Report of Executive Secretary
Reports from Preventive Medicine officers                                     Departments of the Army, Navy, and 
                                                                                                        Air Force

Coffee Break
Presentation and discussion by R & D representatives 
Reports
        Status of TB-MEDS
        Status of drugs for treatment of parasitic diseases
        Discussion of potential problems for research in the parasitic diseases area of military importance

Lunch
Presentation of progress reports of responsible investigators
        "Filariasis in Relation to Tropical Eosinophilia"                                 Dr. P C. Beaver 
            Contract No. DA-49-193-MD-2677
        "Immunity to Schistosoma japonicum in man"                                Dr. R. M. Lewert 
            Contract No. DA-49-193-MD-2320
        "Studies of American Pomatiopsis Snails with                                 Dr. H. van der Schalie 
            Biological Relationships Almost Identical to
             Oncomelania, the Vector of Oriental Schistosomiasis" 
            Contract No. DA-49-193-MD-2651

Coffee Break
Presentation of progress reports continued
        "Protective Mechanisms in Schistosome Infections"                           Dr. F. von Lichtenberg 
            Contract No. DA-49-193-MD-2253
        "Pathophysiology of Schistosomiasis" Contract                                 Dr. K. S. Warren 
            No. DA-49-193-MD-2639
        "Parasitic Antigens"                                                                          Dr. P E. Thompson 
Executive Session
        Consideration of new and renewal applications 
        Personnel actions, reappointments, and appointments 
        Date of next meeting

14 March 1967

Conference on Hemoflagellates-Dr. Leslie Stauber, Presiding

General
        Fine Structure and Differentiation                                             William Trager, Rockefeller University 
Trypanosomes
        Highlights of Current Status of Chagas' Disease                         Frank Neva, Harvard Medical 
                                                                                                            School
        Chemotherapy                                                                          Frans Goble, Ciba Pharmaceutical 
        Immunology                                                                              Nathan Entner, New York University 
                                                                                                            Medical Center


514

Leishmaniasis
        Clinical Aspects and Epidemiology in Africa                                 Kevin Cahill, St. Clare's Hospital 
        Chemotherapy of Cutaneous in the Americas                                Bryce Walton, U.S. Army 
                                                                                                                Research Unit, Panama
Reservoir Hosts-Identification and Evaluation                                        Leslie Stauber
Other participants and discussants
    Armed Forces Institute of Pathology                                                  H. Hopps 
                                                                                                             D. Price
                                                                                                             D. Winslow

Walter Reed Army Institute of Research                                                 E. Sadun 
                                                                                                              E. Fife    

Naval Medical Research Institute                                                            A. Pipkin

Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, NIAID                                                T. von Brand

Gorgas Memorial Laboratory                                                                  Martin Young

Agenda 
Commission on Parasitic Diseases 
Benjamin Franklin Hotel, Philadelphia 
31 October 1967

0900 Introductory Remarks                                                                 Dr. Thomas Gill for Dr. 
                                                                                                                Gustave Dammin, President
                                                                                                            Dr. Paul C. Beaver, Director
                                                                                                            Captain Sidney Britten, Executive  
                                                                                                                Secretary
0915 Reports, Preventive Medicine Officers: 
         Department of the Army                                                              Lieutenant Colonel John Einarson
         Department of the Navy
         Department of the Air Force                                                        Major Amos Townsend 
         Representative, USA Med R&D Command                                 Lieutenant Colonel Robert Cutting|
         Report on Niridazole Conference                                                 Dr. Ernest Bueding
                                                                                                            Dr. Elvio Sadun

0945 Recess-Coffee

SPECIAL REPORTS-Organized mostly by Elvio Sadun 
1000    WRAIR: Parasitologic Investigations in Uganda                     Lieutenant Colonel Norman E. Wilks
            WRAIR: Problems in the Laboratory Diagnosis of                 Major Duane G. Erickson
                Malaria and Amebiasis in Vietnam
            SEATO: Scope of Present Effort and Plans for                       Dr. Robert S. Desowitz
                Immediate Future of the SEATO 
                Parasitological Program
            WRAIR: Overseas Components of WRAIR                           Colonel Stefano Vivona 
            WRAIR: Parasitology as Presented in the WRAIR                  Lieutenant Colonel James C. Burke
                Global Medicine Course
            WRAIR: Filariasis and Schistosomiasis in Vietnam                  Lieutenant Colonel L. J. Legters 
            NAMRU-2: Capillariasis in the Philippines                              Dr. John Cross


515

1130    Executive Session
1330    LEPOSPIROSIS CONFERENCE
Introductory Remarks                                                                 Dr. Frank Neva, Program Chairman

I.    Clinical and Epidemiological Features of                                Dr. Fred McCrumb, University of
            Leptospirosis in S.E. Asia                                                    Maryland School of Medicine
      Clinical Varieties of Leptospirosis in S.E. Asia
      WRAIR: Epidemiology of Leptospirosis with                         Dr. A. D. Alexander
            Particular Reference to S.E. Asia

II.    Recent Experience with Leptospirosis in S.E. Asia
       WRAIR: Known and Suspected Incidence of                      Lieutenant Colonel L. J. Legters
            Leptospirosis in U.S. Military Personnel
            WRAIR: Management of Renal Failure                           Captain Andrew Whelton
            Criteria for Diagnosis of Leptospirosis                             Dr. A. D. Alexander

III.    Approaches to Leptospirosis Control for the                      Dr. Lyle E. Hanson, University of Il-
            Military Experience with Leptospiral Vaccines                 linois, College of Veterinary Medicine
            in Veterinary Medicine, and Considerations
            for their Use in Man
        Treatment of Leptospirosis and Possibilities of                     Dr. Fred McCrumb 
            Chemoprophylaxis

IV.    Summing-up and Open Discussion
        1. Feasibility of Environmental Control of Leptospirosis
        2. New Information Having Important Implications for Pathogenesis, Control, Treatment, 
                and Diagnosis of Leptospirosis


 

 

Other Participants and Discussants                                                 Dr. Charles D. Cox, University of 
                                                                                                            Massachusetts
                                                                                                      Dr. Victor M. Arean, University of 
                                                                                                            Florida
                                                                                                       Dr. Russell C. Johnson, University of 
                                                                                                            Minnesota


516

Agenda 
Commission on Parasitic Diseases 
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research 
25 March 1968

0900    Introductory Remarks                                                             Dr. Paul C. Beaver, Director
                                                                                                          Dr. Gustave Dammin, President 
                                                                                                          Captain Sidney A. Britten, Executive 
                                                                                                                Secretary

0915    Reports, Preventive Medicine Officers:
            Department of the Army                                                         Lieutenant Colonel John Einarson
            Department of the Navy                                                         Captain Charles Miller
            Department of the Air Force                                                  Major A. Townsend
            Representative, USA Med R&D Command                           Lieutenant Colonel Robert Cutting 1030    Recess-Coffee
1045    Research at Overseas Military Installations                             Dr. Elvio Sadun 
1245    Recess-Lunch
1345    Executive Session
            Status of TB-MEDS and Drugs for Parasitic Diseases 
            Discussion of Grants, Contracts, and Progress Reports 
            Personnel
            Consideration of Short- and Long-Term Plans of Commission 
            Program of Fall Meeting

Agenda 
Commission on Parasitic Diseases 
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research 
2-3 December 1968

Monday, 2 December
0930    Introductory Remarks                                                         Dr. Paul C. Beaver, Director
                                                                                                      Dr. Gustave Dammin, President
                                                                                                     Colonel Bradley Prior, Executive
                                                                                                            Secretary

SYMPOSIUM ON FILARIASIS
0945    Film on Filariasis-Introduction and Comment                     Colonel Lyman Frick
                                                                                                    Dr. Donald Price
1030    Recess-Coffee
1045    Interpretation of Microfilaremia                                         Dr. Guillermo Pacheco
1115    Immunological Aspects and Hypersensitivity                      Dr. D. J. Stechschulte
1145    Serodiagnosis                                                                   Dr. Elvio Sadun
                                                                                                    Dr. Ralph Duxbury
1215    Filariasis in Vietnam                                                          Major Edward Colwell
                                                                                                    Lieutenant Duane R. Armstrong
1245    Recess-Lunch
1400    Pulmonary Filariasis                                                          Dr. Paul C. Beaver
1430   Pathogenesis of Onchocercal Dermatitis                             Dr. Daniel Connor
1500    Recess-Coffee
1515    Prophylaxis and Treatment                                               Dr. Harry Most


517

1545    General Discussion 
1630    Adjournment

Tuesday, 3 December
0900    Introductory Remarks                                                             Dr. Paul C. Beaver, Director
                                                                                                          Dr. Gustave Dammin, President

1910    Reports of Preventive Medicine Officers:
            Department of the Army                                                          Lieutenant Colonel John R. Gauld
            Department of the Navy                                                          Commander Stephen J. Kendra     
            Department of the Air Force                                                    Major Amos Townsend
            Representative, USA Med R & D Command                           Captain Robert Edelman
1030    Defense Research in Latin America                                          Colonel Hugh Keegan
1045    Recess-Coffee
PROGRESS REPORTS OF RESPONSIBLE INVESTIGATORS
1100    Filariasis in Relation to Tropical Eosinophilia
                (Contract DA-49-193-MD-2677)                                       Dr. Paul Beaver
            Biological Relationships of Pomatiopsis and
                Oncomelania (Contract DA-449-007-MD-604)                 Dr. Henry van der Schalie
            Protective Mechanisms in Schistosomiasis
                (Contract DA-49-193-MD-2253)                                       Dr. Franz von Lichtenberg
            Parasite Antigens (Contract DA-49-193-MD-2927)                Dr. William Stucki
1300    Recess-Lunch
1400    Nature of Immunity to Leishmaniasis (Contract
                DADA-17-67-7142)                                                           Dr. Donald Twohy
            Studies on Schistosoma japonicum in the 
                Philippines (Contract DA-49-193-MF-2320)                       Drs. Robert Lewert and M. Yogore
            Biological Properties of Trypanosoma rhodesiense
                and Trypanosoma gambiense                                              Dr. John Seed
1530    Recess-Coffee
1545    Rabbit Anaphylactic Antibody                                                    Dr. Nathan Zvaifler
            Geographic Pathology in Northeast Thailand                               Dr. Sylvanus Nye
1645    Executive Session
            Consideration of new and renewal applications
            Programs and dates of future meetings
            Short- and long-term plans of the Commission
            Other business


518

Agenda 
Commission on Parasitic Diseases 
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research 
24 March 1969

0900    Introductory Remarks                                                          Dr. Paul C. Beaver, Director
                                                                                                       Dr. Gustave J. Dammin, President 
                                                                                                       Colonel Bradley W. Prior, Executive
                                                                                                                Secretary

0920    Reports of Preventive Medicine Officers
            Department of the Army                                                      Lieutenant Colonel John R. Gauld
            Department of the Navy                                                      Lieutenant J. M. Sachs
            Department of the Air Force                                                Lieutenant Colonel P. F. Nugent 
            Report of Representative of USA Med R&D
                Command                                                                       Major Robert Edelman 

1030    Recess-Coffee
1045    Special Reports on LATIN AMERICAN PARASITIC DISEASE PROBLEMS 
            The Amazon Region (Lower Amazon)                                 Dr. Howard Hopps
            The Andean Region (Upper Amazon)                                  Dr. Alfred Buck
            Leishmaniasis                                                                      Lieutenant Colonel Bryce Walton 
            Research Program at Gorgas Laboratory                             Dr. Martin Young 
1245    Recess-Lunch
1345    Executive Session 
            Contracts 
            Commission Program 
            General Recommendations 
1700    Adjournment

Agenda 
Meeting of the Commission on Parasitic Diseases and the Commission on Immunization 
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research 
16-17 October 1969

Thursday, 16 October
0830    Introductory Remarks                                                 Drs. Abram S. Benenson and Paul C.
                                                                                                     Beaver, Commission Directors 
                                                                                              Dr. Gustave Dammin, President
                                                                                              Colonel Bradley W. Prior, Executive  
                                                                                                      Secretary
0845    Reports, Preventive Medicine Officers 
            Department of the Army                                             Lieutenant Colonel Phillip Winter  
            Department of the Navy                                             Commander Stephen J. Kendra 
            Department of the Air Force                                       Lieutenant Colonel Otis W. Jones
            Report, Representative of USA Med R&D 
                Command                                                               Lieutenant Colonel Donald W.
                                                                                                         Sample
1000    Recess-Coffee
1015    Progress Reports on Research Sponsored by Commission on Parasitic Diseases 
            Filariasis in Relation to Tropical Eosinophilia                 Dr. Paul C. Beaver


519

            Intermediate Snail Hosts of Oriental and African
                    Schistosomiasis                                                         Dr. Henry van der Schalie
            Protective Mechanisms in Schistosome Infections               Dr. Franz von Lichtenberg
            Parasite Antigens                                                               Dr. William P Stucki
            Effects of Temperature on Leishmania Metabolism            Dr. John Janovy, Jr.
            The Nature of Immunity to Leishmaniasis                            Dr. Donald W. Twohy
            Biological Properties of African Trypanosomes                   Dr. Richard Seed
            Immunity to Trypanosoma cruzi Infection                          Dr. William L. Hanson 
1245    Recess-Lunch
1400    Progress Reports on Research Sponsored by Commission on Immunization 
            Factors Influencing the Pattern of the Immune
                    Response                                                                   Dr. Geoffrey Edsall 
            Effect of Dosage Interval on Response to Re-
                    immunization with Cholera Vaccine                             Dr. Willard F. Verwey 
            Studies on Immunization of Man Against Plague                  Dr. Karl F. Meyer 
            Isolation and Characterization of Lympho-
                    granuloma Venereum Agents                                      Dr. Karl F. Meyer 
1530    Recess-Coffee
1545    Mechanisms of Hypersensitivity                                          Dr. Abraham G. Osler
            Antibody Formation and Immunity                                      Dr. Jonathan W. Uhr
            Antibody Structure and Function                                        Dr. Hernan N. Eisen 
1700    Adjournment

Friday, 17 October
SYMPOSIUM ON IMMUNITY AND PARASITIC DISEASES
0900    Structure and Functions of Immunoglobulins                       H. N. Eisen
0920    Mechanisms of Allergy and Hypersensitivity                       K. E Austen 
0940    Immune Mechanisms of Resistance                                    G. B. Mackaness 
1000    General Discussion
1030    Recess-Coffee
1045    Immunoglobulins and Hypersensitivity in Toxoplasmosis     J. S. Remington
1115    Mechanisms of Histamine Release in Rabbing Schisto-       
                    somiasis                                                                    J. F. Barbaro  
1145    Cell Mediated Immune Response                                      E. J. L. Soulsby 
1215    Recess-Lunch
1330    Delayed Hypersensitivity and Lymphocyte Transfor-
                    mation in Trichinella spiralis                                    C. W. Kim
1400    Delayed Hypersensitivity and Granuloma Formation
                    in Schistosomiasis                                                      K. S. Warren 
1500    Immunization by the Use of Irradiated Parasites                  E. H. Sadun 
1535    Recess-Coffee
1545    Commission on Parasitic Diseases, Executive Session 
1700    Adjournment


520

Agenda 
Commission on Parasitic Diseases 
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research 
23 March 1970

0900    Introductory Remarks                                            Commission Director, President, and
                                                                                            Executive Secretary of the Board
0915    Reports of Preventive Medicine Officers
            Department of the Army                                            Lieutenant Colonel J. E. Ward
            Department of the Navy                                            Lieutenant J. M. Sachs
            Department of the Air Force                                     Colonel G. W. Powell
            Report from the Representative of USA Med            Colonel G. Rapmund
                R&D Command
1015    Recess-coffee
1030    Special Reports
            In vitro leukocytic and passive cutaneous anaphy-      Major E. J. Colwell
                laxis reactions in trichinosis and schistosomiasis
            Filariasis in South Vietnam                                         Captain T. J. Sullivan
            Leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis in E. Africa           Lieutenant Colonel Dale Wykoff
            American leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis               Dr. Louis Olivier
1245    Recess-Lunch
1345    Executive Session
1700    Adjournment

Agenda 
Commission on Parasitic Diseases 
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research 
26-27 October 1970

Monday, 26 October
0900    Introductory Remarks                                                 Commission Director, President, and 
                                                                                                    Executive Secretary of the Board 
0930    Reports, Preventive Medicine Officers
            Department of the Army                                             Major J. W. Cutting
            Department of the Navy                                             Commander R. D. Comer
            Department of the Air Force                                       Colonel P. F. Nugent 
            Report, Representative of USA Med R&D
                Command                                                              Colonel R. F. Barquist 
1030    Recess-Coffee
1045    PROGRESS REPORTS OF RESPONSIBLE INVESTIGATORS
            Immunity to Chagas' Disease (Contract No.                 Dr. William Hanson 
                DADA 17-69-C-9167)
            Effects of Temperature on Leishmania Metabolism      Dr. John Janovy, Jr. 
                (Contract No. DADA 17-69-C-9122)
            Immunodiagnosis and Molecular Components of          Dr. Iris Krupp 
                Entamoeba histolytica
(Contract No. DADA
                17-69-C-9122)
            Mode of Action of Halogens in Bacteria and                 Dr. Cornelius Kruse 
                Viruses and Protozoa in Water Systems
                (Contract No. DA-49-193-MD-2314)


521

1245    Lunch
1415    Nature of Immunity to Leishmaniasis (Contract                      Dr. Donald Twohy
                No. DADA 17-69-C-9135)
            Biological Relationships of Pomatiopsis and                         Dr. Henry van der Schalie
                Oncomelania
(Contract No. DA-49-007-MD-604) 
            Protective Mechanisms in Schistosomiasis                             Dr. Franz von Lichtenberg
                (Contract No. DA-49-193-MD-2253) 
            Rabbit Anaphylactic Antibody in Schistosomiasis                  Dr. Nathan Zvaifler (Dr. Zvaifler was
                (Contract No. DA-49-193-MD-2911)                               unable to attend)
1615    Recess-Coffee
1630    Executive Session

Tuesday, 27 October
0815    Introductory Remarks                                                           Commission Director and President
                                                                                                            of the Board
SYMPOSIUM ON SCHISTOSOMIASIS
0830    Second International Congress of Parasitology                        Dr. E. H. Sadun
0845    Research at WRAIR                                                              Dr. E. H. Sadun
0915    Research at 406th Medical Laboratory                                   Dr. G. M. Davis
1000    General Discussion
1030    Recess-Coffee
1045    Research at NAMRI                                                              Commander M. H. Stirewalt
1115    Research at NAMRU-3                                                         Captain D. C. Kent
1145    General Discussion
1215    Lunch
1345    Research at NIH                                                                    Dr. A. W. Cheever
1415    Research at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital                                Dr. F. von Lichtenberg
1445    Research at Harvard University                                               Dr. T. H. Weller
1515    General Discussion
1545    Recess-Coffee
1600    Research at Santa Lucia, W.I.                                                Dr. P. Jordan
1640    Research at Johns Hopkins University                                     Dr. E. Bueding
1700    General Discussion


522

Agenda 
Commission on Parasitic Diseases 
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research 
22 March 1971

0900    Introductory Remarks                                                     Commission Director, President, and
                                                                                                         Executive Secretary of the Board
0915    Reports of Preventive Medicine Officers 
            Department of the Army                                                        Major John Cutting
            Department of the Navy                                                        None
            Department of the Air Force                                                 Colonel P. F. Nugent
            Representative, USA Med R&D Command                          Colonel Donald W. Sample
1030 Recess-Coffee
1045 Discussion of Commission Objectives 
1200 Recess-Lunch
1330 Executive Session 
1700 Adjournment

Agenda 
Commission on Parasitic Diseases 
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research 
27 October 1971

0900    Introductory Remarks                                                     Commission Director, President, and
                                                                                                         Executive Secretary of the Board
0915    Reports of Preventive Medicine Officers 
            Department of the Army Major                                       C. T. Kaelber
            Department of the Navy                                                  Lieutenant Commander J. W. 
                                                                                                          Poundstone
            Department of the Air Force                                            Lieutenant Colonel O. W. Jones
            Representatives, USA Med R&D Command                   Colonel D. E. Wykoff, Colonel R. F.
                                                                                                          Barquist, and Colonel D. W.
                                                                                                          Sample            

1000    Recess-Coffee

1015    Progress Reports of Responsible Investigators 
            Biological Relationships of Pomatiopsis and                     Dr. Henry van der Schalie
                Oncomelania
(DA-49-193-MD-2651) 
            Anaphylactic Antibody in Schistosomiasis                         Dr. Nathan Zvaifler
                (DA-49-193-MD-2911)
            Nature of Immunity to Leishmaniasis                                 Dr. John Janovy
                (DADA 17-69-C-9135)
            Temperature Effects on Leishmania Metabolism 
                (DADA 17-69-C-9122)
1215    Lunch
1330    Immunity to Chagas' Disease (DADA                               Dr. William Hanson
                17-69-C-9167)
            Transmission of Entamoeba histolytica                           Dr. Richard Stringer
                                                                                                            for Dr. Cornelius Kruse


523

            Protective Mechanisms in Schistosomiasis                          Dr. Franz von Lichtenberg
                (DA-49-193-MD-2253)
            Biochemical and Antigenic Changes in Try-                        Dr. Gilbert Sanchez
                panosomes
            Immunization Against Trypanosoma gambiense                Dr. John R. Seed
1630    Recess-Coffee
1645    Executive Session 
1745    Adjournment

Agenda 
Commission on Parasitic Diseases 
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research 
20 March 1972

0900    Introductory Remarks                                                      Commission Director, President and 
                                                                                                         Executive Secretary of the Board
0915    Reports of Preventive Medicine Officers 
            Department of the Army                                                  Lieutenant Colonel P. E. Winter 
            Department of the Navy                                                   Lieutenant Commander J. W. Poundstone
            Department of the Air Force                                            Lieutenant Colonel F. T. Corker
            Representative, USA Med R&D Command                     Colonel D. W. Sample
1000    Recess-Coffee
1015    Executive Session 
1230    Recess-Lunch 
1330    Executive Session 
1700    Adjournment

Agenda 
Commission on Parasitic Diseases 
Walter Reed Army Institute of Research 
26 October 1972

0900    Introductory Remarks                                         Commission Director, President, and 
                                                                                            Executive Secretary of the Board
0915    Reports of Preventive Medicine Officers 
            Department of the Army                                            Colonel Robert Cutting 
            Department of the Navy                                            Captain C. E. Alexander 
            Department of the Air Force                                      Lieutenant Colonel F. T. Corker
            Representative, USA Med R&D Command               Colonel D. W. Sample
1000    Recess-Coffee
1015    Progress Reports of Responsible Investigators 
            Studies of the Intermediate Snail Hosts of                   Dr. Henry van der Schalie
                Oriental African Schistosomiasis Infections 
                (DA-49-193-MD-2651)
            Anaphylactic Antibody in Helminthic Infections           Dr. Nathan Zvaifler
                (DADA-17-71-C-1002)


524

            Nature of Immunity to Leishmaniasis (DADA                     Dr. Donald Twohy
                17-69-C-9135)
1215    Recess-Lunch
1330    Temperature Effects on Leishmania Metabolism                Dr. John Janovy
                (DADA 17-69-C-9122)
            Immunity to Chagas' Disease (DADA                                 Dr. William Hanson
                17-69-C-9167)
            Protective Mechanisms in Schistosomiasis                           Drs. Franz von Lichtenberg and
                (DADA 17-72-C-2056)                                                     Jerome Smith
            Biochemical and Antigenic Changes in                                 Dr. Gilbert Sanchez
                Trypanosomes (DADA 17-72-C-2020)
            Immunization Against Trypanosoma gambiense                 Dr. John R. Seed
                (DADA 17-72-C-2058)
1600    Recess-Coffee
1615    Executive Session
1800    Adjournment


525

SECTION 6-APPENDIX 4

ANNOUNCEMENT OF GOVERNMENTWIDE CHANGE 
OF POLICY REGARDING ADVISORY GROUP

MEDDH-RP                                                             11 DEC 1970

Paul C. Beaver, Ph.D. 
Director
Commission on Parasitic Diseases
Department of Tropical Medicine & Public Health 
Tulane University School of Medicine
1430 Tulane Avenue
New Orleans, Louisiana 70112

Dear Dr. Beaver:

I am writing to inform you, along with the directors or chairmen of other advisory groups to The Surgeon General, of a change in policy that has been made regarding the review of research proposals submitted to the US Army Medical Research and Development Command.

Many members of our civilian advisory groups making recommendations concerning the direction and funding of Army-sponsored medical research also conduct investigations supported by Army contracts. The dual role of these individuals has been necessary because the relatively small number of investigators engaged in studies in certain areas of military interest includes those persons best qualified to provide advice. It has been of concern that an appearance of conflict of interest has been created by this arrangement wherein advisory groups review and recommend research proposals which have been submitted by their own members.

Current government standards regarding conflict of interest demand not only that there be no bias or exercise of improper influence but that there be no appearance that such practices might arise. To satisfy these standards, the function of civilian scientists as contractors must be clearly separated from their function as scientific advisors.

To ensure this clear differentiation, research proposals, including renewal proposals, from members of advisory groups will no longer be submitted to the same advisory groups for review. For example, research proposals submitted by members of the Armed Forces Epidemiological Board or its Commissions will not be reviewed by that Board or its Commissions. Appropriate representatives of the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command will review such proposals. Research proposals from individuals who are not members of advisory groups to The Surgeon General will continue to be referred to the appropriate commission or committee. The technical portion of all research proposals pertinent to a committee's area of interest and advisory responsibility will be made available for information, even though the committee will not be asked to make recommendations regarding funding of those proposals submitted by its own members.


526

MEDDH-RP                                                                             11 DEC 1970 
Paul C. Beaver, Ph.D.

The revision of procedure is made to comply with present governmentwide standards pertaining to advisory groups. This change is not intended to discourage anyone from continuing to be a member of an advisory group, a contractor or both. The Army Medical Department continues to have a great need for the services of outstanding civilian scientists as investigators and as advisors. We solicit your continued help and understanding.

Sincerely,

/s/ Richard R. Taylor

RICHARD R. TAYLOR, M.D. Brigadier General, MC 
Special Assistant for 
Research and Development