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Contents

Books and Documents

A Decade of Progress

The United States Army Medical Department

1959-1969


A DECADE OF PROGRESS

The United States Army
Medical Department
1959-1969

Prepared and published under the direction of

Lieutenant General HAL B. JENNINGS, JR.
The Surgeon General, United States Army

Editor in Chief
Colonel WILLIAM S. MULLINS, MSC, USA

Editor for A Decade of Progress
ROSE C. ENGELMAN, Ph. D.
 

OFFICE OF THE SURGEON GENERAL

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY

WASHINGTON, D.C., 1971



The Historical Unit, United States Army MedicalDepartment

Colonel WILLIAM S. MULLINS, MSC, Director
CHARLES J. SIMPSON,Executive Officer
HAZEL G. HINE, Chief, Administrative Branch
ERNEST ELLIOTT, JR., Chief, Editorial Branch
RODERICK M. ENGERT, Chief, General Reference and Research Branch
ROSE C. ENGELMAN,Ph. D., Chief, Historians Branch
GERALDINE B. SITES, Acting Chief, Information Activities Branch
Major RALPH LADESTRO,MSC, Chief, Special Projects Branch

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 70-610424


For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office
Washington, D.C. 20402-Price $2.25
Stock Number 0823-0044


Contents

FOREWORD

STATEMENT BY THE SECRETARY OF THE ARMY

PREFACE

Chapter

    I.    The Beginning of an Era
                Change of Command
                Magnitude of the Task
                The Role of The Surgeon General
                Concept of Operations: The Five Pillars of Military Medicine
                The Office of The Surgeon General
                History and Tradition
                    Medical Historical Program
                    A Proud Name Restored

    II.    Professional Care and Related Activities
               Standards of Patient Care
               Army Health Experiences and Trends
                    Admissions
                   Noneffective Rates
                   Hospitalization Rates
                   Medical Workloads
                   Dental Workloads
               Hospital Clinic Care
                   Changing Concepts
                   Solving the Outpatient Problem
               General Medicine
                   Teaching Hospitals
                   Visits to Medical Facilities
               Surgery
                   Open-Heart Surgery
                   Visits and Missions
               Preventive Medicine
                   Communicable Diseases
                       Common respiratory diseases and influenza
                       Malaria
                       Enteric diseases
                       Meningococcal meningitis
                       Melioidosis
                       Immunization activities
                   Army Health Nursing
                    Environmental Medicine and Engineering
                   Occupational Health
                   Entomology
               Nursing Service
               Dental Service
                   Preventive Dentistry
                   Dental Resources
               Radiology
               Psychiatry and Neurology
               Support Activities
                   Pathology and Laboratory Activities
                   Pharmacy
               Physical Standards
                   One Directive for Medical Fitness
                   Medical and Physical Evaluation Boards
                   Armed Forces Examining Stations
                   The Medically Remedial Enlistment Program
               The Military Blood Program Agency
                    Donor Motivation
                   Conferences and Meetings
                   Whole-Blood Support in Emergencies and Crises
                           Dominican Republic
                           Southeast Asia
                   Dependents' Medical Care Program
                   From Medicare to CHAMPUS
                   Administration and Financing

    III.    Modernization of Facilities and Equipment
               A New Generation of Hospitals
                   Early Plans
                   Cutting the Redtape
                   Army Health Facility Concept
                   Status of Army Hospitals in Mid-1959
                   Hospital Construction
                       Fiscal year 1960
                       Fiscal year 1961
                       Fiscal year 1962
                       Fiscal year 1963
                       Fiscal year 1964
                       Fiscal year 1965
                       Fiscal year 1966
                       Fiscal year 1967
                       Fiscal year 1968
                       Fiscal year 1969
                   Equipment Planning
                   Hospital Equipment Program
                   Accreditation of Army Hospitals
               Membership in the American Hospital Association
               Research and Development Command
                    Minor Construction
                       Funding problems
                       Master Planning Board
                   Major Construction
                       Walter Reed Army Institute of Research
                       Consolidation and centralization plans
                   Other Major Construction or Projects
                       Brooke General Hospital
                       Walter Reed Army Medical Center
                       William Beaumont General Hospital
                       Fitzsimons General Hospital
                    Minor Facilities
                   Expansion of Continental U.S. Army Hospitals

    IV.     Personnel
                The Surgeon General's Personnel Policy
                Military Personnel
                   Authorization and Strength
                   Measures To Overcome Critical Shortages
                       Walter Reed Army Institute of Nursing
                       Recruitment program of the Army Medical Specialist Corps
                   Career Planning
                       Medical Corps
                       Dental Corps
                       Army Nurse Corps
                       Medical Service Corps
                       Veterinary Corps
                       Army Medical Specialist Corps
                    Measures To Retain Career Military Personnel
                Civilian Personnel
                   Recruitment Policies
                   Career Management Programs
                   Support of Federal Employment Policies and Programs

    V.     Education and Training
               Professional Training
                   The Army Residency Program
                   The Army Internship Program
                   The Army Fellowship Training Program
                   Military Postgraduate Courses
                   Postgraduate Courses at Civilian Institutions
                   On-The-Job Training
               Service School Courses
                   Military Training
                   Training of Foreign Nationals
                   Training Aids
                    Training Guidance
               Enlisted Training

    VI.     Administration and Management
               Management Improvement Programs
                   Hospital Command Management System
                   "Find-it, Fix-it"-A New Approach to Internal Review
                   Hospital Methods Improvement Program
                   Administrative and Professional Management Improvement Program
               Management Information Systems
                   Mechanized Financial Accounting
                   Automatic Data Processing Systems

    VII.     Medical Supply
               The Medical Supply Function
               Reorganization Within The Surgeon General's Jurisdiction
               Mobilization Reserve, Prestockage, and Medical Assemblage and Replacement Programs
               Spectacle Fabrication
               NBC (Nuclear, Biological, Chemical) Medical Materiel Programs
               Procurement Activities
               Funding and Accounting
               The Military Assistance Program
               Medical Supply Support of Emergency Operations

    VIII.     Army Medical Research and Development
                    Objectives
                       Management of the Program
                       Highlights of Progress
                           Malaria program
                           Other infectious diseases
                           Parasitic infections
                           Burn research
                           Combat surgery
                           Blood preservation
                           Dental research
                            Medical material
                           Environmental medicine
                           Skin diseases
                       Goals in Sight

    IX.     Meeting the Challenge in War and Peace
               Combat Readiness
               Emergency Missions
                   Lebanon Operation, July 1958
                   The Cuban Crisis, October 1962
                   The Dominican Republic Crisis, April 1965
               Mercy Missions
                   Chile Disaster Relief Operations
                    Earthquake Disaster, Skopje, Yugoslavia
                   Earthquake and Flood Disasters, Alaska
               Medical Support in South Vietnam
                   Field Medicine
                   Civic Action

Tables

Number

    1.    Trends in daily average workloads in Army Medical Department facilities, worldwide, for specified fourth quarter fiscal periods, 1960, 1963, 1966, and 1968.

    2.    Authorized and actual strengths of Army Medical Department officers, worldwide, by corps,fiscal years 1959-68.

Illustrations

Figure

    1.    Lieutenant General Leonard Dudley Heaton, The Surgeon General, United States Army, 1959-1969.

    2.    President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Major General Leonard D. Heaton leave Walter ReedGeneral Hospital after a visit to Secretary ofState John Foster Dulles, then a patient, 13April 1959.

    3.    General Heaton received the Distinguished ServiceMedal from General Earle G. Wheeler, Chief of Staff, U.S. Army, 15 May 1964.

    4.    Dr. George P. Berry, Dean of Faculty and Dean,Harvard University Medical School, Boston, Mass., with actress Helen Hayes and LieutenantGeneral Leonard D. Heaton at the ThirteenthCommencement of Brandeis University, Waltham, Mass., 7 June 1964.

    5.    Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington,D.C.

    6.    Munson Army Hospital, Fort Leavenworth, Kans.

    7.    Kirk Army Hospital, Aberdeen Proving Ground,Md.

    8.    Letterman General Hospital, Presidio of SanFrancisco, Calif.

    9.    Lieutenant General Leonard D. Heaton, The Surgeon General; Major General Charles H.Gingles, Commanding General, Letterman General Hospital; and Major General George E.Armstrong, former Surgeon General, attendeddedication ceremonies at Letterman GeneralHospital.

   10.    Medical Field Service School, Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, Tex.

   11.    A 60-bed surgical hospital displayed the use of MUST (Medical Unit, Self-contained Transportable) equipment in a demonstration atCamp Bullis, Tex., in September 1968.

   12.    Hypodermic jet injection gun, developed by theU.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command, being used to administer an inoculation.

    13.    A civil aid team dentist administers an anesthetic preparatory to extracting a tooth,Dominican Republic, 1965.

    14.    Part of the 15th Field Hospital, located on anabandoned airstrip near Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, early June 1965.

    15.    The 15th Field Hospital at Puerto Montt, Chile,May 1960.

    16.    Personnel of the 15th Field Hospital assist earthquake victims in Puerto Montt, Chile, May 1960.

    17.    Members of the 8th Evacuation Hospital inSkopje, Yugoslavia, following the earthquake in 1963.

    18.    South Vietnamese and American soldiers load a casualty into an HU-1B helicopter ambulance.

    19.    Specialist Lawrence Joel, first medical aidman to be awarded the Medal of Honor for service in Vietnam.

    20.    8th Field Hospital, Nha Trang, South Vietnam,17 March 1966.

    21.    General Heaton during a visit to South Vietnam November 1967.

    22.    Aerial view of the 45th Surgical Hospital, South Vietnam.

    23.    General Heaton observed patient care at an Army hospital in South Vietnam during a visit in November 1967.