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Chapter V

Medical Statistics of the United States Army, Calendar Year 1954

CHAPTER V

Other Army Medical Service Activities

DENTAL ACTIVITIES

Dental Care

The objective of the Dental Service in 1954, as in previous years, was to conduct the operation of its facilities and to utilize its personnel and resources in a manner which would insure maximum treatment of acute and disabling diseases, injuries, and deficiencies, and optimum treatment of static, non-disabling conditions and deficiencies—on an equitable priority basis.

Dental standards for enlistment and induction in 1954 remained at the levels prevailing in 1953. Previously established first priorities for other than acute conditions were continued for military personnel having insufficient serviceable masticating teeth and who were destined for duty outside the continental United States.

In many military areas the numbers of personnel requiring first priority care were so great, in proportion to existing facilities, that care of personnel requiring treatment of minor and nondisabling conditions of necessity was deferred for indefinite periods. Due to the heavy and rapid turnover of personnel at many military installations, such deferred treatment cases frequently received only minimal care.

In general, it can be stated that the authorized and available facilities of the Dental Service in 1954 were such as to permit maximum effort and care in the treatment of those diseases and deficiencies which were capable of rendering personnel noneffective in their military duties, and to insure an adequate level of military efficiency. Available facilities did not permit the total required and desired care for all personnel authorized to receive treatment; however, it is felt that a reasonably satisfactory degree of dental health was realized for the Army as a whole.

Table XLV indicates the scope of dental care during 1954 with a distribution of total procedures by category of personnel, worldwide. In table XLVI,

 TABLE XLV.—DENTAL PROCEDURES, BY CATEGORY OF PERSONNEL, 1954

Category of personnel

Worldwide

Continental U.S.

Overseas

Total procedures

16,262,703

11,350,435

4,912,268

    

Army

13,795,595

9,896,806

3,898,789

    

Navy and Marine Corps

51,168

19,777

31,391

    

Air Force

127,291

77,137

50,154

    

Dependents of military

2,070,067

1,253,664

816,403

    

All other

218,582

103,051

115,531

SOURCE: Dental Service Report, DD Form 447.


105

TABLE XLVI.—SELECTED DENTAL PROCEDURES PERFORMED FOR U. S. ARMY AND TOTAL PERSONNEL, 1954

Dental procedure

For all personnel

For Army personnel

Worldwide

Continental U.S.

Overseas

Worldwide

Continental U.S.

Overseas

Operative, crown, and bridge

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amalgam (one surface)

1,806,841

1,057,665

749,176

1,482,502

887,535

594,967

Amalgam (two or more surfaces)

1,243,167

746,097

497,070

1,017,517

622,547

394,970

Resin

46,054

27,646

18,408

36,952

22,543

14,409

Root canal filling (teeth)

19,710

13,170

6,540

15,897

11,096

4,801

Silicate

688,867

416,355

272,512

585,198

357,937

227,261

Gold (inlay, foil)

10,011

5,862

4,149

8,143

4,751

3,392

Bridge

21,160

11,801

9,359

18,561

10,510

8,051

Gold crown (all types)

8,614

4,572

4,042

7,432

3,944

3,488

Resin crown

5,908

3,015

2,893

4,976

2,598

2,378

Resin crown with metal

1,846

1,373

473

1,567

1,192

375

Other crowns

1,681

1,325

356

1,222

953

269

Prosthodontics

 

 

 

 

 

 

Denture, reconstructed, reline, repair

60,270

32,386

27,884

50,155

26,398

23,751

Full denture

44,336

31,282

13,054

36,132

25,852

10,280

Partial denture

106,388

67,894

38,494

94,819

61,666

33,153

Other maxillofacial appliances

1,566

975

591

1,135

714

421

Oral surgery

 

 

 

 

 

 

Alveolectomy

50,729

41,676

9,053

43,768

36,981

6,787

Apicoectomy

9,715

7,146

2,569

8,320

6,198

2,122

Root, residual, removal

20,214

11,960

8,254

16,109

9,731

6,378

Tooth, removal

1,188,023

869,477

318,546

976,859

728,381

248,541

Periodontics

 

 

 

 

 

 

Equilibration

19,175

11,489

7,686

15,035

9,091

5,944

Gingivectomy

7,006

3,857

3,149

5,349

3,095

2,254

Prophylaxis

427,855

214,077

213,778

351,452

179,738

171,714

Sealing (periodontal)

180,755

95,922

84,833

150,888

79,332

71,556

Caries-prevention treatment

17,251

6,603

10,648

7,876

2,248

5,628

Radiodontics

 

 

 

 

 

 

Intraoral roentgenogram

3,644,504

3,087,261

557,243

3,153,625

2,742,776

410,849

Other

 

 

 

 

 

 

Examinations

3,378,061

2,652,104

725,957

2,969,288

2,403,444

565,844

Orthodontic treatment

31,949

17,876

14,073

5,695

3,821

1,874

NOTE: Since only selected procedures are shown, subtotals are not derivable (e. g. for all oral surgery, for all radiodontics, etc.). Total procedures are shown in table XLV.
SOURCE: Dental Service Report, DD Form 477.


106

certain selected procedures are shown by type of procedure. Since the Dental Service Report, DD Form 477, was revised during 1954, the current term “procedure” is applicable only to data for the months April-December For the period January-March 1954, the closest approximation—"operations"— was used as the corresponding index. Included in the latter are the “miscellaneous treatments” (Part I-G) of the previous report form.

The source tables in Part Two of this volume show by diagnosis the number of personnel admitted to hospital and quarters for dental conditions, the degree of noneffectiveness the duration of stay, and other morbidity indices. However, the dental data that appear in the source tables relate to excused-from-duty cases only. Since by far the largest segment of dental care is provided on an outpatient (duty) status, the statistics presented in Part Two reflect a small portion of the total dental workload. In the main, these excused-from-duty cases represent the more serious disorders—the disorders of occlusion, the abscesses and inflammatory diseases of supporting structures, etc. In fact, many of the cases reported as admissions to hospital or quarters for “dental caries” actually require multiple extractions in addition to minor fillings.

 Central Dental Laboratory Facilities

Central Dental Laboratories in continental United States and in Europe played the major role in the fabrication of prosthetic appliances during 1954. Geographically located to best serve dental installations on a worldwide basis, these laboratories produced numbers of appliances, as indicated in table XLVII.

 TABLE XLVII.—.PROSTHETIC APPLIANCES FABRICATED IN CENTRAL DENTAL LABORATORIES, U. S. ARMY, 1954

Laboratory

Number of appliances

Brooke Army Medical Center

13,159

Walter Reed Army Medical Center

13,605

Third Army Central Dental Laboratory

14,267

Fifth Army Central Dental Laboratory

10,351

Sixth Army Central Dental Laboratory

13,223

Europe Central Laboratory

22,603

    

Total

87,208

Personnel

The major source of officer personnel authorized for the year was the Army Medical Service procurement activity, operating in conjunction with the National Selective Service System under the provisions of Public Law 779, as amended, as well as the regular induction program. Approximately 68 percent of the total officer strength for the year were considered to be


107

involuntary-type active duty personnel who applied for commissions after being declared eligible and available for induction. Approximately 15 percent of active duty officer personnel consisted of Reserve officers on voluntary extended active duty

TABLE XLVIII.—ACTUAL WORLDWIDE DENTAL CORPS STRENGTH, BY COMMAND AND QUARTER, U. S. ARMY, 1954

Commanda

Actual strength as of:

31 March

30 June

30 September

31 December

Total Army

2,665

2,457

2,305

2,203

Overseas

861

771

720

651

    

U.S. Army, Europe

380

361

373

368

    

U.S. Forces, Austria

20

17

19

25

    

U.S. Army Forces, Far East

368

310

244

168

    

U.S. Army, Pacific

16

14

16

29

    

U.S. Army, Caribbean

40

35

34

32

    

U.S. Army, Alaska

30

28

28

27

    

Joint Task Force 7

2

2

2

2

    

Trieste U.S. Troops

5

4

4

-

Continental United States

1,664

1,537

1,423

1,416

    

First Army Area

170

155

150

154

     

Second Army Area

256

230

201

191

    

Third Army Area

335

284

288

292

    

Fourth Army Area

234

211

200

206

    

Fifth Army Area

241

233

203

187

    

Sixth Army Area

193

193

161

169

    

Military District of Washington

76

66

63

62

Department of the Army Administrative Area

31

29

24

25

    

The Surgeon General

124

130

126

122

    

Chief Chemical Officer

2

2

3

3

    

Chief of Ordnance

-

3

3

3

    

The Provost Marshal General

-

-

-

1

    

Chief Signal Officer

-

-

-

1

    

Chief of Transportation

2

1

1

-

Other

140

149

162

136

aTotals are extracted from STM-30 for the dates indicated. Command distribution is extracted from the GSDA-45 reports for dates indicated.

The active duty strength of Regular Army Dental officers, representing approximately 17 percent of the total strength, decreased during the year from a total of 431 on 31 December 1953, to a total of 387 on 31 December 1954, as indicated in source table 26. Resignations continued to be the prevailing cause of these losses, and procurement efforts to attract eligible dentists to a Regular Army career, in order to increase the Corps to its authorized strength of 545, were not fruitful.


108

The average number of dental officers on active duty during the year in relation to the mean strength of military population served was approximately l.76 dental officers per 1,000 troop strength. Worldwide distributions of authorized and actual strengths of dental officers by command, and by temporary and permanent grade distribution, are indicated in source tables 24-26.

Military ancillary personnel authorized and required to support operating Dental Service personnel were not available in sufficient numbers throughout 1954, and augmentation requirements were met by utilizing civilian dental assistants and laboratory technicians.

Strengths of military technical support personnel, i. e., dental chair assistants and prosthetic laboratory personnel, available during the year are indicated in table XLIX. On-the-job training programs, as well as formal training courses of instruction, were utilized in an attempt to meet authorized strengths of military dental assistants. Requirements for military dental laboratory technicians were met by using inductees with civilian dental laboratory training, and additional technicians were obtained from formal military training sources. The numbers of enlisted personnel completing training in dental assistant and laboratory courses are indicated in table LIV.

TABLE XLIX.—MILITARY DENTAL ASSISTANTS AND DENTAL LABORATORY TECHNICIANS, U. S. ARMY, 1954

Actual strength as of—

Dental assistants

Dental laboratory technicians

31 March 1954

1,478

945

30 June 1954

1,718

996

30 September 1954

1,847

883

31 December 1954

1,900

837

Civilian dentists were utilized during the year to the extent indicated in table L. These dentists were for the most part indigenous personnel employed in Europe and Japan.

TABLE L.—NUMBER OF CIVILIAN DENTISTS ON DUTY WITH U. S. ARMY, 1954

Area

Actual strength as of—

31 March

30 June

30 September

31 December

Worldwide

166

196

206

227

    

Continental United States

11

18

18

36

    

Overseasa

155

178

188

191

aPrincipally indigenous personnel.


109

Education and Training

Education and training activities, embracing courses in military and dental sciences for officer personnel and technical courses for enlisted personnel, were conducted during the year at a rate which made efficient utilization of available military and civilian training facilities

The number of commissioned and enlisted personnel who completed scheduled formal courses of training is shown in tables LI through LIV.

TABLE LI.—DENTAL OFFICERS COMPLETING TRAINING COURSES IN ARMY FACILITIES, 1954

Officer

Length of course

Number of officers

Army Medical Service company officer, 8-0-1

22 weeks

12

Associates Army Medical Service company officer, 8-0-2

15 weeks

151

Army Medical Service officer, advanced, 8-0-3

34 weeks

8

Associate Army Medical Service officer, advanced, 8-0-4

15 weeks

2

Dentistry, advanced, 8-0-21

16 weeks

17

Army Medical Service officer, orientation, 8-0-31

5 weeks

200

Command and staff procedures, refresher, 8-0-40

2 weeks

5

Command and general staff officer, 250-0-1

10 months

1

TABLE LII.—DENTAL OFFICERS COMPLETING INTERNSHIPS AND RESIDENCIES IN ARMY  FACILITIES, 1954

Training

Type

Number of officers

Internship

Rotating

24

Residency

Oral surgery

2

Residency

Prosthodontics

1

    

Total

 

27

TABLE LIII.—DENTAL OFFICERS COMPLETING TRAINING IN CIVILIAN INSTITUTIONS, 1954

Training

Number of officers

Oral surgery

5

Prosthodontics

4

Orthodontics

1

Periodontics

1

    

Total

11


110

TABLE LIV.—ENLISTED PERSONNEL COMPLETING TRAINING IN ARMY FACILITIES, 1954

Course

Length of course

Number of personnel

Dental Assistant, 8-E-21

8 weeks

515

Dental Laboratory Technician, 8-E-1

16 weeks

189

    

Total

 

704

VETERINARY ACTIVITIES

Commissioned Personnel

In May of 1954, the Regular Army Veterinary Corps was authorized an increase of 10 officers, bringing the authorized permanent grade strength to 171. Accordingly, the allocation of Regular Army officer spaces was revised to reflect this change, as shown below:

Brigadier General

Colonel

Lieutenant Colonel

Major

Captains

First Lieutenant

1

14

24

32

39

61

This allocation also reflects, in part, the implementing of Public Law 459, 83rd Congress, which authorized veterinarians three years of constructive service credit upon appointment, thus abolishing the grade of 2nd lieutenant.

At the end of the calendar year 1953, 501 Veterinary Corps officers were on active duty. During 1954, 102 Reserve officers entered on active duty under the following status:

 

Total

Voluntary

Involuntary

Priority I and II

16

11

a5

Priority III

72

72

-

Priority IV

14

14

-

    

Total

102

97

a5

aFour officers entered as a result of the March special call, and one under the 7th involuntary call.

These 102 accessions were more than offset by the 160 officer losses that occurred during the year due to termination of category, death, or transfer.


111

TABLE LV.—VETERINARY CORPS OFFICERS SEPARATED FROM U. S. ARMY, 1 JANUARY-31 DECEMBER 1954

 

Separations

 

Separations

Regular Army

4

Priority III:

 

Retired

1

    

Voluntary

21

Career Reservista

7

    

Involuntary

-

Priority I and II:

 

Priority IV:

 

    

Voluntary

35

    

Voluntary

14

    

Involuntary

78b

    

Involuntary

-

 

 

         

Total

160

aIn service prior to July 1950.
bPriority status under which officer entered service: Unnumbered involuntary call (1); 1st involuntary call (13); 2nd involuntary call (11); 3rd involuntary call (8); 2nd July involuntary call (5); 4th involuntary call (10); 5th involuntary call (9); 6th involuntary call (11); 7th involuntary call (7); special call no. 10 (2); enlisted status (1).
NOTE: Two Priority I volunteers, 3 Priority IV volunteers, and 2 Career Reservists transferred to Regular Army are not included in the above table.

The net result of these accessions and losses was that 443 veterinary officers were on duty as of 31 December 1954, distributed as follows:

Reserve

a245

Regular Army

154

Career Reservist

44

    

Total

443

aVoluntary (206); involuntary (39).

Training

An original course of training in the Pathology of Diseases of Laboratory Animals was established at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, D. C., for military and civilian personnel. The first class was conducted between the 6th and 10th of December 1954, with 10 Veterinary Corps officers attending.

A 2-week course of training in Veterinary Radiological Health for veterinary officers of the Army and Air Force was established at the Oak Ridge Institute of Nuclear Studies, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, with approval of the Atomic Energy Commission. The first class began in September 1954. Ten Army Veterinary Corps officers completed this course during the year.


112

In addition, the following number of veterinary officers completed training courses during the calendar year 1954:

Course

Total

Army

Air Force

Foreign
nationals

Army Medical Service Meat and Dairy Hygiene School, Chicago, Ill.a

110

90

19

1

Veterinary Medicine, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington, D.C.b

13

7

4

2

Army Medical Service Orientation, Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, Texasc

46

46

-

-

Public Health Course, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md.

1

1

-

-

    

Total

170

144

23

3

aCourse 8-0-8 (10 weeks), 84th-87th classes, inclusive.
bCourse 8-0-25 (17 weeks)
cCourse 8-0-31 (5 weeks)

Two hundred and fifty-seven enlisted men completed the Meat and Dairy Hygiene Course 8-E-2 at Chicago, and 21 at the Medical Field Service School, Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, Texas.

Meat and Dairy Hygiene

In discharging the responsibility of The Surgeon General to protect the health of troops from unwholesome and substandard food products, the Veterinary Corps continued its efforts to maintain the highest possible standards for the veterinary food inspection service.

In addition to specific food inspection, Veterinary officers also function in an administrative and technical advisory capacity to Quartermaster Purchasing and Contracting Officers in the procurement of food supplies for the Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps as well as the Army. They also perform important duties with the Quartermaster Inspection Service and the Quartermaster Food and Container Institute for the Armed Forces in the development and formulation of new and revised specifications for food items and operational rations.

Tables LVI, LVII, and LVIII show the results of food inspection by the Veterinary Corps. In table LVI, seven classes of inspection are indicated (classes 3 through 9). Classes 1 and 2, antemortem and postmortem inspections of animals, are shown in table LVIII Thus, there are nine classes of inspection, beginning with the inspection of food from the time of its earliest processing prior to procurement and continuing until its disposition for use in mess hails

Classes 3 and 4 veterinary inspections of foods of animal origin insure the procurement of safe, wholesome foods of prescribed quality. Class 3 inspection is conducted prior to purchase to determine compliance with contract requirements and the sanitary condition of the product at time of preparation or manufacture, and class 4 at the time the Government accepts ownership of the product, whether it be at the processing plant or at a military


113

TABLE LVI.—PROCUREMENT AND SURVEILLANCE INSPECTIONS OF FOODS OF ANIMAL AND NONANIMAL ORIGIN, BY CLASS, 1954

Class

Pounds passed

Pounds rejected

Not type, class, or grade

Insanitary or unsound

Total (3-9)

13,455,578,887

112,195,993

10,012,261

    

Class 3: Prior to purchase

1,393,768,435

104,841,715

4,188,947

    

Class 4: On delivery at purchase

1,343,800,758

6,200,151

2,039,200

    

Class 5: Receipt except purchase

2,088,125,417

...

512,944

    

Class 6: Prior to shipment

2,344,878,823

...

8,086

    

Class 7: At issue or sale

1,297,909,086

...

378,579

    

Class 8: Purchases by Army and Air Force exchanges

214,199,735

1,154,127

737,402

    

Class 9: In storage

4,722,896,633

...

2,147,103

Inspections of foods of nonanimal origin

Class

Pounds passed

Pounds rejected

Not type, class, or grade

Insanitary or unsound

Total (3-9)

12,021,608,574

9,748,969

19,807,945

    

Class 3: Prior to purchase

104,071,859

1,850,899

812,321

    

Class 4: On delivery at purchase

891,299,204

7,894,540

1,726,785

    

Class 5: Receipt except purchase

3,288,333,047

...

1,509,708

    

Class 6: Prior to shipment

3,003,020,003

...

11,013

    

Class 7: At issue or sale

1,450,462,800

...

1,621,537

    

Class 8: Purchases by Army and Air Force exchanges

136,989,205

3,530

231,430

    

Class 9: In storage

3,147,432,456

...

13,895,151

NOTE: Causes for rejections shown under “Not type, class, or grade” include artificial color; bruised, bloody, or abraded; dirty; damaged cans or cases; rusty cans; emaciated; excessive moisture; improper containers or wrappers; improperly trimmed; insufficient smoke; mutilated; not packed as specified; not properly frozen; overweight; seedy; soft and oily; storage deterioration; undercured; underweight.
Causes for rejections shown under “Insanitary or unsound” include broken eggs; contaminated; decomposed putrid, rotten; moldy; not Bureau of Animal Industry inspected; off flavor; parasitic infestation; rancid; short vacuum; slimy; sour; stale or deteriorated; swellers and leakers; tubercular.

installation. Foods found acceptable on class 3 inspection are reinspected at time of actual purchase (class 4), in which case the latter inspection is conducted to determine the sound or sanitary condition only. Not all foods are inspected during manufacture or preparation, but all foods are inspected when delivered to and accepted by the Army. If the food was not inspected at origin (class 3), then the class 4 inspection includes examination for type, class, and grade, as well as for sanitary condition. Classes 3 and 4 are thus referred to as “procurement inspection,” i. e., inspection conducted prior to and at the time of procurement


114

Classes 5, 6, 7, and 9 comprise “surveillance inspection,” that is, inspection of Government-owned subsistence subsequent to procurement. (Class 8, purchases by Army and Air Force exchanges, is not concerned directly with the feeding of the Army.) After its purchase, food receives frequent surveillance inspections by Army veterinary food inspectors until it is made available to troops. The term “surveillance inspection” thus includes all classes of veterinary inspection of Government-owned foods from the time they are finally accepted and purchased by the Army until and including time of issue to troops or transfer to other Government agencies, military and civilian.

During 1954, nearly 1.5 billion pounds of foods of animal origin were inspected at procurement for the armed forces, of which approximately 117 million pounds, or 8 percent, were rejected (7.6 percent for not type, class, or grade; 0.4 percent insanitary or unsound); the rejections represent a saving based on the difference in value between what was initially offered and what

TABLE LVII.—PROCUREMENT AND SURVEILLANCE INSPECTIONS OF FOODS OF ANIMAL AND NONANIMAL ORIGIN, BY AREA, 1954

Inspections of foods of animal origin

Area or agency

Total, classes 3-9

Pounds passed

Pounds rejected

 

 

Not type, class, or grade

Insanitary or unsound

Worldwide, total

13,455,578,887

112,195,993

10,012,261

    

Continental United States

6,914,749,396

94,537,074

3,953,740

         

Mil. Dist. of Washington

89,477,185

539,293

18,396

         

First Army Area

1,012,841,363

6,164,114

689,940

         

Second Army Area

644,221,907

7,171,265

545,622

         

Third Army Area

590,411,118

4,228,598

203,476

         

Fourth Army Area

587,188,560

8,867,488

331,789

         

Fifth Army Area

844,625,846

45,694,718

299,519

         

Sixth Army Area

3,145,983,417

21,871,598

1,864,998

    

Overseas

6,444,055,903

15,890,155

5,856,328

         

U.S. Army, Europe

2,310,604,456

14,951,107

3,065,413

         

U.S. Forces, Austria

117,366,247

63,340

46,320

         

Trieste U.S. Troops

9,064,133

-

-

         

U.S. Army Forces, Far East

3,663,640,113

772,205

2,605,560

         

U.S. Army, Pacific

93,790,365

94,177

31,264

         

U.S. Army, Caribbean

85,145,200

6,007

62,751

         

U.S. Army, Alaska

159,095,054

3,319

37,745

         

Greece

5,350,355

-

7,275

    

Other agencies, total

96,773,588

1,768,764

202,193

         

U.S. Navy

77,519,448

1,496,659

97,293

         

U.S. Marine Corps

667,520

75,118

-

         

Other agency

18,586,620

196,987

104,900

Inspections of foods of nonanimal origin

Area or agency

Total, classes 3-9

Pounds passed

Pounds rejected

Not type, class, or grade

Insanitary or unsound

Worldwide, total

12,021,608,574

9,748,969

19,807,945

    

Continental United States

2,806,302,242

1,620,510

982,887

         

Mil. Dist. of Washington

36,447,893

30

45,000

         

First Army Area

241,268,032

167,024

31,924

         

Second Army Area

248,187,667

68,168

289,589

         

Third Army Area

262,510,590

247,649

132,913

         

Fourth Army Area

372,249,209

67,997

259,321

         

Fifth Army Area

209,042,900

81,583

74,424

         

Sixth Army Area

1,436,595,951

988,059

149,716

    

Overseas

9,168,929,866

7,647,345

18,135,759

         

U.S. Army, Europe

2,648,319,803

2,491,787

1,954,357

         

U.S. Forces, Austria

129,190,290

-

120,612

         

Trieste U.S. Troops

11,557,600

1,520

32,826

         

U.S. Army Forces, Far East

6,241,116,339

5,127,978

15,815,696

         

U.S. Army, Pacific

1,584,952

2,530

54

         

U.S. Army, Caribbean

93,267,686

23,377

75,749

         

U.S. Army, Alaska

37,786,946

153

130,921

         

Greece

6,106,250

-

5,544

    

Other agencies, total

46,376,466

481,114

689,299

         

U.S. Navy

3,893,183

-

142,641

         

U.S. Marine Corps

50,000

-

-

         

Other agency

42,433,283

481,114

546,658

was finally accepted, of approximately $19,770,000. The foregoing procurement inspection together with the surveillance inspections totaled 13.6 billion pounds of foods of animal origin inspected. Within this total, rejections varied among the respective classes of inspection, ranging from 7.3 percent at the class 3 stage to a minute percentage (less than 0.05) at the class 6 stage.

Procurement inspection of foods of nonanimal origin totaled approximately one billion pounds during 1954, with 1.4 percent of this poundage being rejected.

The total number of class 1 antemortem inspections during 1954 was nearly 5 million (table LVIII), with about 21,000, or 0.4 percent, rejections. The corresponding class 2 postmortem total pounds inspected was about 5 million, with a higher rejection rate, 11.6 percent. (The highest rate of rejection, 32.5 percent, occurred in the Sixth Army Area.)

During 1954, a directive was sent to the Assistant Secretary of Defense (Supply and Logistics) to restudy a specific proposal, namely, to transfer to the


116

TABLE LVIII.—ANTEMORTEM AND POSTMORTEM INSPECTIONS, U. S. ARMY, 1954

Area or agency

Class 1 inspection (antemortem)

Class 2 inspection (postmortem)

Number passed

Number rejected

Number passed

Number rejected

Not type, class, or gradea

Insanitary or unsoundb

Not type, class, or gradea

Insanitary or unsoundb

Worldwide, total

4,920,594

2,031

18,909

4,348,382

30,952

543,428

    

Continental U.S.

4,715,754

2

18,813

4,156,445

24,673

536,817

         

MDW

-

-

-

-

-

-

         

First Army Area

-

-

-

-

-

-

         

Second Army Area

1,972,710

-

-

1,952,880

-

20,540

         

Third Army Area

985,101

-

9,971

911,529

-

73,572

         

Fourth Army Area

164,291

-

191

159,594

22

3,269

         

Fifth Army Area

179,620

2

43

176,777

2,109

1,046

         

Sixth Army Area

1,414,032

-

8,608

955,665

22,542

438,390

    

Overseas

203,570

2,027

91

190,774

6,236

6,547

         

Europe

192,826

1,499

81

180,456

5,998

6,356

         

Austria

7,033

520

5

7,033

-

-

         

Trieste

472

-

-

470

-

-

         

Far East

1,585

8

5

1,578

2

7

         

Pacific

5

-

-

5

-

-

         

Caribbean

1,649

-

-

1,232

236

182

         

Alaska

-

-

-

-

-

-

         

Greece

-

-

-

-

-

-

    

Other agencies

1,270

2

5

1,163

43

64

         

Navy

636

-

-

580

18

38

         

Marine Corps

-

-

-

-

-

-

         

Other agency

634

2

5

583

25

26

aIncludes bruised, bloody, abraded, mutilated, underweight.
bIncludes tuberculosis and other pathological conditions.

United States Department of Agriculture the responsibility for origin inspection of meat, meat products, and dairy products that are procured by the Army for the Armed Forces. As a result, a decision was reached to transfer responsibility for that portion of origin procurement inspection which was excess to,\ the minimum requirement of the veterinary service (1) as a basis of support for oversea operations and (2) as a training vehicle and nucleus for expansion in the event of full mobilization.

This policy was enunciated in Department of Defense Instructions No. 4155.5, Subject: “Origin Procurement Inspection of Subsistence,” dated 11 March 1954. Implementation of this directive resulted in the transfer of approximately 140 plants to the Department, of Agriculture, and further resulted in a reduction of 23 veterinary officer spaces and 98 enlisted men spaces. This was accomplished in a gradual manner starting 1 July and extending through 31 October.

During July, Instruction 4155.5 was amended to provide for the reimbursement of the Department of Agriculture for services rendered in the inspection


117

of poultry and poultry products. This action placed all inspections by that Department for the Army on a uniform reimbursement basis.

In the spring of 1954, psittacosis in turkeys occurred in processing plants which were serving as sources of supply for the Armed Forces contracts in Brady and Corsicana, Texas. In each instance, 25 to 50 of the employees working in the processing plants became ill of the disease. Prompt action was taken to disapprove the plant at Brady, Texas. The veterinary officer and the veterinary enlisted inspector who were on duty at this plant during the period 10-17 May were exposed to psittacosis and were later hospitalized with this disease. Psittacosis is said to be present in turkeys in at least five different localities in the state of Texas; in view of this fact, action was taken to issue an interim policy whereby plants in which outbreaks of the disease occurred among employees infected with psittacosis would be removed as a source of supply, and would not be reinstated until the plant had been thoroughly cleaned and disinfected and health certificates were available for all employees. This problem is considered one of importance and action has been taken to request the Armed Forces Epidemiological Board to study the problem and make recommendations to The Surgeon General for the establishment of such policies as are necessary to protect the Armed Forces against this disease.

Laboratory Service and Research

Laboratory Service

Table LIX shows the number of specimens examined by the Veterinary Division, Army Medical Service Graduate School, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, and by veterinary sections of medical laboratories in the Army areas. Food products were analyzed to determine fitness for human consumption and compliance with subsistence contract requirements. Animal tissues were examined for diagnostic purposes or to support clinical findings in the treatment of animals or the control of animal diseases transmissible to man.

Research

The Registry of Veterinary Pathology at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology received and accessioned 1,023 specimens during 1954. During the 10 years of its existence the Registry has attained considerable success, and a continuing need for its services has been demonstrated. A large collection of pathologic material is now available for study and research, and the number of individua1 requests for material received both from persons in the United States and abroad is increasing.

The Veterinary Division of the Army Medical Service Graduate School, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, inaugurated a research project during the year to develop a quick freezing process for fresh milk samples that are submitted to medical laboratories for bacteriological and chemical analysis. Since some military installations are located in isolated areas, a requirement existed whereby fresh milk samples could be quickly prepared in a frozen state for shipment to the Army area medical laboratory in that location.


118

TABLE LIX.—VETERINARY LABORATORY SPECIMENS EXAMINED IN CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES, 1954

Laboratory

Dairy products

Meat, fish, poultry products

Shortening, fats, oil

Food (nonanimal origin), nonfood items

Animal examinations

Total

56,423

32,489

2,484

3,281

12,258

    

First Army

5,682

5,206

430

514

975

    

Second Army

6,224

3,139

157

154

469

    

Third Army

7,271

1,113

466

125

2,064

    

Fourth Army

4,591

2,555

161

145

199

    

Fifth Army

9,692

7,614

618

369

346

    

Sixth Army

22,639

12,463

637

1,859

740

    

AMS Graduate School

1,324

399

15

115

7,465

Animal Service

The combined average animal strength of the Army for 1954 was 2,775. Tables LX and LXI provide a breakdown of the strength, and the number of admissions, deaths, and days lost.

TABLE LX.—MEAN STRENGTH, U.S. ARMY-OWNED ANIMALS, 1954

Area

Horses and mules

Dogs

Pigeons

Total

Horses

Mules

Worldwide

404

149

255

1,339

1,392

    

Continental U.S.

348

93

255

164

1,392

    

Territories

-

-

-

38

-

    

Europe

56

56

-

803

-

    

Far East

-

-

-

334

-

TABLE LXI.—ADMISSIONS, DEATHS, AND DAYS LOST AMONG U. S. ARMY-OWNED ANIMALS, 1954

Disease or external cause

Horses

Mules

Dogs

Admissions

Deathsa

Days lost

Admissions

Deathsa

Days lost

Admissions

Deathsa

Days lost

All causes, total

43

3

2,349

133

12

3,585

1,559

84

15,103

    

Diseases, total

18

1

917

32

10

880

988

72

9,195

    

External causes, total

25

2

1,432

101

2

2,705

571

12

5,818

aAnimals destroyed due to chronic pathological condition are included in “Deaths.”
NOTE: Pigeons are not included in above table. Reports indicate there were 55 admissions to sick report with 46 deaths and 49 days lost.


119

Communicable Diseases

Encephalomyelitis. All government-owned horses and mules were vaccinated against encephalomyelitis with bivalent vaccine prepared by the Veterinary Division, Army Medical Service Graduate School, Walter Reed Army Medical Center, Washington D. C. One case was reported during 1954.

Leptospirosis. During the year, 56 cases of leptospirosis in military dogs were reported.

Rabies. All dogs acquired for the Army were vaccinated against rabies at the time of processing. During 1954, 30,964 animals were vaccinated including Government-owned dogs as well as canine and feline pets of military perrsonnel.

PROCESSING OF SELECTIVE SERVICE REGISTRANTS

The year 1954 represents the first full peacetime year since the Korean Conflict. Total draft calls were reduced during 1954 to 251,000, a drop of 179,000 from the 1953 total. The number of registrants forwarded for preinduction examination during 1954 totaled 386,996, less than half the number examined (877,095) in 1953.

As has been the case since the enactment of the Universal Military Training and Service Act in 1948, the Office of The Surgeon General is responsible for messing the induction records and analyzing the statistical data derived from them. Among other primary purposes which they serve, these data are used in evaluating the application of physical standards for induction.

The actual examining of registrants for service is performed at the Armed Forces Examining Stations (AFES). The preinduction examination consists of the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) and a medical examination. It is followed by an induction examination which usually consists only of a physical inspection. Summary reports of these examinations, and copies of the individual examination records, “Record of Induction” (DD Form 47) and “Report of Medical Examination” (Standard Form 88), are submitted to the Office of The Surgeon General for analysis. Findings based on the summary reports for 1954 are presented briefly in this report.

Local Board Disqualifications

In certain instances, the local board may classify a registrant as mentally or physically disqualified without sending him to an AFES for preinduction processing. With the aid of the medical advisor, the local board may reject the registrant for obvious disqualifying defects and manifest conditions. Individual records of such cases are submitted by the local boards to the Office of The Surgeon General, where they are processed to determine the principal medical reasons for disqualification during this preliminary screening. The local boards may also reject a registrant for moral reasons. In 1954 the local boards classified 73,158 registrants as IV-F without a preinduction examination.


120 

Of this total, 30,924 were disqualified for mental or physical defects, and 42,234 for moral reasons.1

Standards and Procedures For Preinduction Examinations

Physical standards governing minimum qualifications for service in an enlisted status are contained in “Physical Standards and Physical Profiling for Enlistment and Induction,” AR 40-115, 20 August 1948, and subsequent changes. There were no changes in these standards during 1954.

The Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT) was administered to each individual as in prior years, and the same minimum passing score (10 percentile) was required. However, procedures for administrative acceptance of registrants who failed the AFQT changed somewhat from those prevailing in 1953. Before 18 March 1954, registrants who had completed high school but failed the AFQT were declared administratively acceptable for service. Under the new provisions, such registrants may be rejected whenever the personnel psychologist has reason to believe that failing the mental test is a true measure of their mental ability. These registrants then undergo further testing as do all other registrants who fail the AFQT.

Results of Preinduction Examinations

As has been previously mentioned, 1954 was a peacetime year. Induction calls were reduced, and Selective Service activity slackened in general. From table LXII a comparison of preinduction results for 1953 and 1954 may be made, and in chart R are shown the preinduction results by month, from the beginning of the Korean Conflict in July 1950 through December 1954. From source table 28 information can be obtained on preinduction results by states.

The increase in the proportion of disqualified registrants during 1954, as evidenced by the data referred to above, can be attributed mainly to a change in Selective Service procedure resulting from Executive Order No. 10505, issued 10

TABLE LXII.—RESULTS OF PREINDUCTION EXAMINATIONS, 1953 AND 1954

Results of examinations

Number

Percent

1953

1954

1953

1954

Total examined

877,095

386,996

100.0

100.0

    

Found acceptable

592,119

226,789

67.5

58.6

    

Found not acceptable

284,976

160,207

32.5

41.4

         

Administrative reasons

6,851

7,679

0.8

2.0

         

Mental test only

141,615

53,402

16.2

13.8

         

Mental test and medical reasons

21,378

11,215

2.4

2.9

         

Medical reasons only

115,132

87,911

13.1

22.7

SOURCE: “Summary of Registrant Examinations for Induction,” DA Form 316 (Reports Control Symbol MED-66).


1SOURCE: Monthly Statistical Digest, Statistics Section, Research and Statistics, Selective Service National Headquarters, January-December 1954.


121

CHART R.—RESULTS OF PREINDUCTION EXAMINATIONS, PERCENTAGE DISQUALIFIED BY PRINCIPAL DISQUALIFYING CAUSE, BY MONTH, JULY 1950- DECEMBER 1954

December 1953, which decreed that, with some exceptions, certain registrants separated from the Armed Services with less than 6 months of service were to be considered liable for service under the Universal Military Training and Service Act. Previously registrants with prior service had not been considered liable for further service. Local boards began sending separatees of this type back to the AFES, with the result that disqualification rates for medical reasons soared. About 23,500 of these “separatees” were processed by the AFES during 1954; of this number about 20,000 had previously been separated from service for medical reasons, and approximately 3,500 had been discharged for nonmedical reasons, such as hardship or dependency. Among this group of 23,500 separatees reprocessed, only 3,700 were found acceptable, of whom had previously been discharged for medical reasons. Thus the percentage of acceptability within the group reprocessed after previous separation for medical reasons was only 2.8 percent, whereas for all registrants processed in 4 it was 58.6 percent.

Another reason for the increase in disqualification rates for medical reasons was the issuance of two Selective Service directives aimed at curtailment of the deferred and exempt classifications. These directives, Operations Bulletin No. 104 (14 Jan. 1954) and Local Board Memorandum No. 55 (22 March 1954), instructed the local boards to review records of registrants in deferred and exempt classifications, and send back for new preinduction examinations any who might be considered acceptable on the basis of such review. Most of those returned had been previously disqualified for medical reasons.


122

Chart S presents a comparison of preinduction results by Army area, 1953 and 1954. The increase in the total disqualification rate in 1954 is manifest in every Army area within continental United States, but it may be noted that there was a decrease in the rate for areas outside the United States This was due chiefly to the introduction of the Spanish mental test, the ECFA-1 (Examen Calificación de Fuerzas Armadas), for registrants in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. This test was adopted in October 1953 for examining Spanish-speaking registrants, and later was also used for re-examining certain registrants in the area who had previously failed the mental test (AFQT), but were classified as marginal literate, or illiterate-high mental. The use of the Spanish test, and the re-examination program, yielded favorable results. The proportion found acceptable leaped from 26.3 percent for the period January-September 1953, to 49.4 percent for the period October 1953-December 1954; for the same periods, the proportion who failed the mental test dropped from 69.2 to 43.0 percent.

CHART S.—RESULTS OF PREINDUCTION EXAMINATIONS, PERCENTAGE DISQUALIFIED OF TOTAL EXAMINED, BY ARMY AREA, 1953 AND 1954

Previously and Not Previously Examined Registrants

The Summary Report of Registrants Examined (DA Form 316) distinguishes between previously and not previously examined registrants appearing for preinduction examination. In table LXIII may be seen the significant


123

aspects of the preinduction examination results for the two groups of registrants for the years 1953 and 1954.

In 1953 the group of registrants who had been previously examined comprised about 5 percent of all registrants; in 1954 this proportion had more than quadrupled, totaling 21 percent of all registrants appearing for preinduction. The rate of disqualification also increased for this group, from 48 percent in 1953 to 62 percent in 1954. The increase in the proportion of previously examined registrants and the increase in the disqualification rate were both due largely to the re-evaluation of class IV-F registrants following issuance of the two Selective Service directives mentioned above, and reexamination of separatees in accordance with Executive Order No. 10505. Reevaluation of the IV-F class also brought about an increase in the disqualification rate for registrants not previously examined, from 32 percent in 1953 to 36 percent in 1954. (Registrants who have been classified IV-F at the local board level without preinduction examination are considered not previously examined registrants when forwarded for preinduction examination.)

TABLE LXIII.—PERCENTAGE OF REGISTRANTS FOUND NOT ACCEPTABLE, BY DISQUALIFYING CAUSE AND WHETHER PREVIOUSLY OR NOT PREVIOUSLY EXAMINED AT TIME OF PREINDUCTION EXAMINATION, 1953 AND 1954

Results of examinations

Total

Previously examined

Not previously examined

1953

1954

1953

1954

1953

1954

Found not acceptable

32.5

41.4

48.2

62.0

31.6

35.9

    

Administrative reasons

0.8

2.0

2.3

3.6

0.7

1.6

    

Mental test only

16.2

13.8

6.4

7.0

16.6

15.6

    

Mental test and medical reasons

2.4

2.9

1.7

3.0

2.5

2.9

    

Medical reasons only

13.1

22.7

37.8

48.4

11.8

15.8

SOURCE: Summary of Registrant Examinations for Induction, DA Form 316 (Reports Control Symbol MED-66).

Results of Induction Examinations

The number of registrants sent up each month for induction depends upon the draft calls, the total number being set by the Department of Defense and the apportionment among the states being accomplished by Selective Service. As already stated, fewer registrants (253,017) were inducted in 1954 than in any previous year since the beginning of the Korean Conflict. Source table 28 gives the number of inductions for the year 1954, and also for August 1950 through December 1953, by state.

The type of examination given by the AFES at the time of induction depends on whether the registrant has had a preinduction examination, and if so, when it was accomplished. In general, the regulations provide that a physical inspection will be given those registrants who were found acceptable less than 120 days previously. A complete medical re-examination is given


124

to those whose preinduction examinations were performed more than 120 days previously, and to those appearing for immediate induction who have not had a preinduction examination. The latter group is also given the mental test.

Invariably a small percentage of registrants are disqualified at induction. In 1954 about 10 percent of those ordered to report for induction were disqualified, a considerable increase over the disqualification rate of 6 percent in 1953. This increase resulted for the most part from the greater proportion of complete examinations given at induction in 1954. In table LXIV the results of induction examinations for the two years are presented for comparison.

TABLE LXIV.—RESULTS OF INDUCTION EXAMINATIONS, BY TYPE OF EXAMINATION AND DISQUALIFYING CAUSE, 1953 AND 1954

Results of examinations

Total induction examinations

Physical inspection

Complete examinations

1953

1954

1953

1954

1953

1954

 

NUMBER

Total examined

499,934

281,569

367,604

139,577

132,330

141,992

    

Inducted

470,664

253,017

359,455

136,019

111,209

116,998

     

Disqualified

29,270

28,552

8,149

3,558

21,121

24,994

         

Administrative reasons

2,139

1,916

1,061

632

1,078

1,284

         

Mental test only

8,548

11,306

-

-

8,548

11,306

         

Mental test and medical reasons

966

1,303

-

-

966

1,303

         

Medical reasons only

17,617

14,027

7,088

2,926

10,529

11,101

 

PERCENT

Total examined

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

    

Inducted

94.1

89.9

97.8

97.5

84.0

82.4

    

Disqualified

5.9

10.1

2.2

2.5

16.0

17.6

         

Administrative reasons

0.4

0.7

0.3

0.5

0.8

0.9

         

Mental test only

1.7

4.0

-

-

6.5

8.0

         

Mental test and medical reasons

0.2

0.5

-

-

0.7

0.9

         

Medical reasons only

3.6

4.9

1.9

2.0

8.0

7.8

SOURCE: Summary of Registrant Examinations for Induction, DA Form 316 (Reports Control Symbol MED-66).

In 1954 over half of the induction examinations were complete examinations, either for immediate induction or because of lapse of time, whereas in 1953 only one-fourth of induction examinations were complete examinations. This increase in the proportion of complete examinations given at induction may be accounted for by the larger proportion of registrants appearing for


125

induction whose preinduction examinations had been accomplished more than 120 days previously. The pool of acceptable men had to be built up rapidly during the years of the Korean Conflict in order to meet the high level of induction calls. Due to the marked drop in induction calls during 1954, demands upon the available manpower pool were light, so that the span between preinduction and induction examinations widened, necessitating complete examinations more frequently.

Selective Service Manpower Pool

The available manpower pool (class I-A) at any particular time is determined primarily by the number of new registrants, namely, young registrants who become liable for service at 18½ years of age, and the number lost to the pool through enlistments and induction (class I-C). Because of the decrease in both inductions and enlistments the available manpower pool increased considerably in 1954. At the end of 1953, the available manpower pool was classified as follows: I-A and I-A-O, examined and acceptable, 236,000; I-A and I-A-O, not examined, 868,000. At the end of 1954, it consisted of I-A and I-A-O, examined and acceptable, 241,000; and I-A and I-A-O, not examined, 1,317,000. The total manpower pool in 1954 thus increased by approximately 450,000 registrants, in comparison with that of 1953. The reduction in withdrawals of manpower from the Selective Service manpower pool has resulted in an increase in the age level of available registrants; data available indicate that the average age of inductees has risen from the upper 19’s at the end of the Korean Conflict in 1953, to approximately 22 years about the end of 1954.1

MEDICAL CARE TO OTHER THAN ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY PERSONNEL

The categories of personnel, in addition to active duty Army personnel, who are authorized to receive nonelective medical care at Army medical treatment facilities are set forth in AR 40-108, “Persons Eligible to Receive Medical Care at Army Medical Treatment Facilities.” These categories incude dependents of extended active duty personnel, certain beneficiaries of other Federal agencies, certain nationals of foreign governments, some civilian employees of the military services, designees of the Secretary of the Army, and civilian emergency cases.

Other active duty military personnel (Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force) stationed in geographic areas adjacent to Army medical treatment facilities also obtain hospitalization and other medical care from Army-operated facilities if feasible. This article will focus attention largely on care rendered to dependents and other non-active duty Army personnel. The dependent group is by far the largest of the nonmilitary categories involved. As of December

1SOURCE: Annual Report of The Director of Selective Service, 1955.


126

1954, there were over 1 million dependents of Army personnel, consisting of some 803,000 in the United States and about 205,000 overseas.

Outpatient Care

In 1954 over 19,237,000 outpatient treatments were administered by Army medical treatment facilities worldwide. Of that number, 7,324,943 treatments, or 38.1 percent of the total outpatient workload, were rendered to other than active duty personnel. Table LXIV shows the relative stability of the total number of outpatient treatments given each year by Army medical treatment facilities during the 3-year period ending 1954. (The substantial volume of outpatient medical care rendered to Korean and Chinese Communist enemy prisoners of war and civilian internees—3,358,179 treatments in 1952 and 1,528,859 treatments in 1953—is excluded from the time series given in table LXV in order to make the data more nearly comparable.) The number of outpatient treatments given to active duty military personnel decreased from 13.2  million in 1952 to 11.9 million in 1954: this reduction of nearly 10 percent closely paralleled the 12 percent reduction in the strength of the Army. Dependents of military personnel, however, registered an increase of 31.6 percent in the number of outpatient treatments received—from 4,313,727 in 1952 to 5,675,224 in 1954. This suggests that the outpatient treatment potential in 1952 and 1953 may not have been adequate to meet the outpatient service needs for non-active duty personnel, especially dependent personnel. Three medical specialties contributed rather large proportions of the total outpatient care to dependents and other non-active duty personnel in 1954, general medicine comprising 38.6 percent, pediatrics 19.4 percent, and obstetrics and gynecology 15.8 percent. (See the pertinent table in the section of chapter II on outpatient care.)

Admissions to Army Hospitals and Infirmaries  

In each of the past three years, dependents and other non-active duty military personnel have constituted an increasing proportion of the total number of admissions to Army hospitals and infirmaries. The center portion of table LXV shows the worldwide distribution of admissions to hospitals and infirmaries for active duty and other classes of personnel. Admissions of non-active duty personnel comprised 28.1 percent of the total number of admissions in 1952; in 1953 this proportion had risen to 32.9 percent, and by 1954 it was 40.3 percent. These increasing proportions do not mean a corresponding increase in the number of admissions of non-active duty personnel. The number of admissions of non-active duty military personnel actually underwent slight decreases—from 236,702 in 1952, to 234,670 in 1953, to 221,028 in 1954. Since the number of admissions of active duty military personnel had fallen off so markedly in the period—from 604,537 in 1952 to almost one-half that number in 1954—the proportion which the non-active duty comprised of the whole increased. It is significant to note that the decrease in the number of hospital admissions among non-active duty per-


127

TABLE LXV.—MEDICAL CARE IN ARMY FACILITIES, BY CATEGORY OF PERSONNEL, 1952-1954
(Excludes prisoners of war and civilian internees)

Category of personnel

Number

Percent

1952

1953

1954

1952

1953

1954

Outpatient treatments

Total

19,417,962

19,524,782

19,237,269

100.0

100.0

100.0

    

Active duty military

13,155,173

12,904,059

11,912,326

67.7

66.1

61.9

    

Other

6,262,789

6,620,723

7,324,943

32.3

33.9

38.1

         

Dependents

4,313,727

4,782,380

5,675,224

22.3

24.5

29.5

         

Retired

85,570

91,487

109,533

0.4

0.5

0.6

         

VA beneficiaries

6,240

2,172

1,307

0.0

0.0

0.0

         

All othera

1,857,252

1,744,684

1,538,879

9.6

8.9

8.0

Admissionsb to Army hospitals and infirmaries

Total

841,239

713,347

547,891

100.0

100.0

100.0

    

Active duty military

604,537

478,677

326,863

71.9

67.1

59.7

    

Other

236,702

234,670

221,028

28.1

32.9

40.3

         

Dependents

165,809

173,170

184,749

19.8

24.3

33.6

         

Retired

4,545

5,152

6,031

0.5

0.7

1.1

         

VA beneficiaries

4,536

4,106

4,167

0.5

0.6

0.8

         

All othera c

61,812

52,242

26,081

7.3

7.3

4.8

Daily average beds occupied in Army hospitals and infirmaries

Total

40,257

31,807

22,398

100.0

100.0

100.0

    

Active duty military

33,222

25,306

17,015

82.5

79.6

76.0

    

Other

7,035

6,501

5,383

17.5

20.4

24.0

         

Dependents

3,493

3,622

3,706

8.6

11.4

16.5

         

Retired

308

325

330

0.8

1.0

1.5

         

VA beneficiaries

628

551

441

1.6

1.7

2.0

         

All othera c

2,606

2,003

906

6.5

6.3

4.0

aThis category is predominantly U. S. civil service employees.
bTotal admissions, including transfers. Cases carded for record only (CRO) and cases treated in quarters are excluded.
cThe years 1952 and 1953 include some foreign nationals hospitalized in connection with the Korean Conflict who were not prisoners of war or civilian internees.
SOURCE: Outpatient data from Outpatient Report, DD Form 444. Other data from Beds and Patients Report, DD Form 443.

sonnel did not take place among dependents but rather among the “all other” group. That group, as noted in the table, includes some foreign nationals hospitalized in connection with the Korean Conflict who were not prisoners of war or civilian internees. Substantially all of the decrease noted in con-


128

nection with the other than active duty personnel group (from 236,702 in 1952 to 221,028 in 1954) resulted from the numerical decrease in the all other group (from 61,812 in 1952 to 28,081 in 1954), with dependents registering a slight increase in numbers (from 165,809 in 1952 to 184,749 in 1954).

Daily Average Number of Beds Occupied

The daily average number of beds occupied (see table LXV) combines two factors of medical workload—number of admissions and duration of hospitalization. It indicates how many patients occupied hospital beds on the average each day in the year. In 1954 the daily average number of beds occupied was 22,398, of which number 17,015, or 76 percent, were active duty military personnel and 3,706, or 16.5 percent, were dependents. Thus in 1954, 92.5 percent of all hospital bed days were accounted for by active duty military personnel and dependents, virtually the same proportion as in 1952. However, dependents comprised only 8.6 percent of the total in 1952, but 16.5 percent in 1954. This reflects, in part, the intensive efforts to reduce the length of hospital stay, particularly the early transfer of disability cases to the Veterans Administration, which has had more effect on the average duration of active duty military cases than on that of other groups. The average durations recorded for dependent personnel, have always been relatively low and thus less amenable to reduction.

For each year of the 3-year period 1952—1954, about 40 percent of all hospital bed days attributable to dependents of military personnel were ac­counted for by cases requiring obstetrical or gynecological care, an estimated three-fourths of this proportion being hospitalization for childbirth and puerperal care.

Morbidity Among Dependents and Others

In 1954 there were 279,523 admissions of dependent and other non-active duty personnel to Army medical treatment facilities, worldwide, excluding Korea; of these, 271,157 were for disease and 8,366 for injuries. The large volume of cases in the obstetrical and gynecological class in 1954—108,339, or 34 percent of the reported incidence—shows the importance of this specialty. As pointed out above,  this class of conditions accounted for about 40 percent of all bed occupancy among non-active duty personnel in 1954 and for about 15.8 percent of their outpatient service. The large numbers shown for admissions without disease result from the reporting practice of preparing a carded for record only (CRO) report for the newborn. Even though such cases are not technically “admitted” to hospital, they have, for convenience of comparison, been included in table LXVI.


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TABLE LXVI.—MORBIDITY AMONG NON-ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY PERSONNEL: ADMISSIONS AND INCIDENCE FOR DISEASE AND INJURY, BY DIAGNOSIS, WORLDWIDE,a 1952-1954

Major cause or diagnosis

1952

1953

1954

Total admissions, nonbattle causesb

238,978

246,264

279,523

    

Disease

229,671

238,590

271,157

    

Nonbattle injury

9,307

7,674

8,366

Total incidence, nonbattle causesc

284,588

295,169

321,683

    

Tuberculosis

1,489

1,509

1,629

    

Venereal disease

483

584

560

    

Bacillary dysentery

93

268

285

    

Amebic dysentery and amebiasis

78

170

69

    

Poliomyelitis

505

246

375

    

Measles

542

427

477

    

Parotitis, epidemic (mumps)

323

205

257

    

Hepatitis, infectious

725

766

668

    

Malaria

247

116

51

    

Dermatophytosis

117

171

176

    

Other infective and parasitic diseases

1,859

1,834

1,877

    

Malignant neoplasms

1,472

1,406

1,357

    

Neoplastic conditions of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissues

303

361

352

    

Benign neoplasms

3,057

3,014

3,622

    

Psychotic disorders

710

819

892

    

Psychoneurotic disorders

1,337

1,329

1,351

    

Other psychiatric conditions

1,075

1,127

1,272

    

Diseases of the nervous system

1,562

1,766

2,061

    

Diseases of the eye, ear, nose and throat

11,507

11,282

11,326

    

Common cold and other acute respiratory conditions

11,144

10,544

9,100

    

Pneumonia, all forms

3,726

3,546

3,888

    

Other respiratory diseases

1,699

2, 045

1,594

    

Diseases of the circulatory system

7,228

7,222

7,414

    

Dental diseases and conditions

1,107

1,066

923

    

Appendicitis, acute

1,751

1,718

1,852

    

Inguinal hernia

1,655

1,783

2,151

    

Gastroenteritis

2,624

2,376

2,342

    

Other digestive system diseases

5,797

5,956

6,517

    

Diseases of urinary and male genital systems

6,551

7,755

6,977

    

Gynecological and obstetrical

92,311

100,891

108,339

    

Diseases of skin and cellular tissue

3,827

4,226

4,182

    

Observation, diagnosis undetermined, etc

30,725

26, 392

26,754

    

Other diseases

15,958

15,883

16,552

    

Accidents, violence, and poisonings

10,519

9,462

9,910

    

Admissions without disease (includes newborn)

60,482

66,904

84,531

aExcludes Korea.
bIncludes only patients admitted to medical treatment facilities as inpatients, initial admissions only (transfers are excluded). Admissions without disease, largely newborn, are included.
cIncidence includes secondary diagnoses and cases carded for record only, plus admissions without disease, largely newborn.
SOURCE: Morbidity Report, DD Form 442.