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HISTORY OF THE OFFICE OF MEDICAL HISTORY

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History of the U.S. Army Medical Service Corps

MSC History


FORWARD

PREFACE

THE AUTHOR

FRONTMATTER

Chapter:

1. EARLY MILITARY MEDICINE   

                        From Revolution to Reform

                        Establishment of a Permanent Medical Department

                        At War With Ourselves

                        Toward an Ambulance Corps

                        The Letterman Plan

                        Other Emerging Specialties

                        From Appomattox to Havana

                        Lessons From the War With Spain

                        Emerging Themes

2. WORLD WAR I: THE AMBULANCE SERVICE

                        Volunteer Ambulance Officers

                        Medical Department Organization and Doctrine

                        The U.S. Army Ambulance Service

                        Over There

                        Summary

3. WORLD WAR I: THE SANITARY CORPS

                        Administrative Specialty Officers

                        Scientific Specialty Officers

                        Summary

4. BETWEEN THE WORLD WARS

                        Formation of the Medical Administrative Corps

                        Proposals for a Pharmacy Corps

                        Administrative Specialty Officers

                        Scientific Specialty Officers

                        Summary

5. WORLD WAR II: THE ADMINISTRATIVE SPECIALTIES

                        Medical Administrative Corps Expansion

                        Officer Candidate Schools

                        Administrative Specialty Officers

                        Summary

6. WORLD WAR II: THE SCIENTIFIC SPECIALTIES

                        A Modernized Medical Team

                        A Medical Research and Development Team

                        Malaria

                        External Influences

                        Summary

7. MEDICAL SUPPORT FOR A WORLD POWER

                        Creation of the Medical Service Corps

                        The Formative Years of the New Corps

                        The Army-Baylor Program

                        Administrative Specialty Officers

                        Scientific Specialty Officers

                        Summary

8. KOREA

                        The MSC Contribution

                        Developments in the Corps

                        Developments in the Administrative Specialties

                        Developments in the Scientific Specialties

                        Summary

9. THE POST-KOREA ERA

                        Developments in the Corps

                        Opportunity

                        Developments in the Administrative Specialties

                        Developments in the Scientific Specialties

                        Summary

10. MEDICAL SERVICE CORPS OFFICERS IN VIETNAM

                        The Medical Department in Vietnam

                        MSC Officers in the Theater of Operations

                        Scientific Specialties

                        Medical Logistics

                        Dustoff

                        Summary

11. THE CORPS DURING THE VIETNAM ERA

                        Medical Department Organization

                        Developments in the Corps

                        Developments in the Administrative Specialties

                        Developments in the Scientific Specialties

                        Summary

12. THE POST-VIETNAM ERA

                        Modernization of Field Medical Support

                        Developments in the Corps

                        Opportunity

                        Developments in the Administrative Specialties

                        Developments in the Scientific Specialties

                        Summary

13. BEYOND THE COLD WAR

                        Panama

                        The Persian Gulf

                         A Time of Change

                        The Future

APPENDIXES

                        A. Milestones in the Evolution of the Medical Service Corps, 1775-1994

                        B. First Officers Appointed in the Regular Army Medical Administrative Corps

                        C. Zone of the Interior Hospital Positions Opened to Medical Administrative Corps Officers in 1941

                        D. Chiefs and Assistant Chiefs of the Medical Service Corps, 1947-1994

                        E. Specialties of the Medical Allied Sciences Section, May 1948

                        F. National Organizations Invited To Attend the Medical Allied Sciences Conference, 27-28 May 1948

                        G. Biographies of the Chiefs of the Medical Service Corps

                        H. Medical Service Corps Specialties in 1961

                        I. Principal Attempts at Writing the MSC History

                        J. Carmack Medal Winners, 1958-1996

                        K. Medical Service Corps Specialties in 1972

                        L. Medical Service Corps Specialties in 1982

                        M. Medical Service Corps Specialties in 1994

                        N. Chief, Medical Service Corps, Award of Excellence, 1982-1994

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE

ILLUSTRATION CREDITS

Tables

1. Sanitary Corps Officers by Specialty Area and Grade on Active Duty, 1 November 1918

2. Strength of the Sanitary Reserve Corps, 1921-1941

3. Strength of the Medical Administrative Officers' Reserve Corps, 1921-1941

4. MSC Command Opportunity, 1994

5. Persian Gulf Medical Command and Control

Charts

1. World War I Echelons of Medical Support

2. World War II Echelons of Medical Support

3. Organization of the Medical Administrative Corps Officer Candidate School, Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, 1942

4. Organization of the Medical Administrative Corps Officer Candidate School, Camp Barkeley, Texas 1942-43

5. Post-Vietnam Echelons of Medical Support

Illustrations

America's First Apothecary General

Surgeon General Joseph Lovell

U.S. Sanitary Commission Lodge for Invalid Soldiers

Maj. Jonathan Letterman and Staff

57th New York Ambulance Corps Wagons Remove Wounded, Battle of Fredericksburg

Confederate Army Capt. Sally Louisa Tompkins

Field Hospital at the "Bloody Ford" of San Juan Creek

Red Cross Nurse Helps Sick Soldier, Camp Wikoff, New York

Conquerors of Yellow Fever

Col. William Gorgas in Panama

Europe, 1914

Ernest Hemingway in Italy, 1919

Inspector General A. Piatt Andrew

Standard Ford Ambulance With Storm Curtains

117th Sanitary Train Officers, France, 1918

137th Ambulance Company Dressing Station, Germany, 1918

Main Gate to Camp Crane, Pennsylvania

"USAAC March" Sheet Music

Standard General Motors Ambulance Chassis

Disassembled Ambulance Boxed for Shipment

Sanitary Corps Officers in France, 1919

Capt. Henry N. Pilling

Renault Truck Outfitted With Mobile X-Ray Equipment

Lt. Jerome Jeffrey

Staff of Cornell School of Roentgenology, 1917

Bacteriological Department, Dijon, France

Field Laboratory Car, Internal and External Views

Sanitary Corps Food Expert, Dijon, France

Robert M. Yerkes

School of Military Psychology Staff, 1918

Parade Ground, Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania, 1925

Basic Course Students, Medical Field Service School, 1925

Cox-Klemin Airplane Ambulance

Maj. Gen. Merritte W. Ireland

Army Industrial College Class of 1929-30

Frederick H. Gibbs

Col. William A. Hardenbergh

Officer Candidate School Class, Carlisle Barracks, 1941

Capt. Louis F. Williams Lecturing at Medical Field Service School

2d Lt. Elliotte J. Williams With OCS Students

OCS Candidates at Camp Barkeley, Texas

Station Hospital Staff, Fort Pepperrell, Newfoundland

Medical Administration Staff, 19th Medical Service Detachment, New Guinea

Lt. David D. Norman

Douglas Transport Plane Adapted as Air Ambulance

Piper Cub Modified for Use as Air Ambulance

U.S. Army Medical Supply Depot, New Caledonia

Brig. Gen. Edward Reynolds

1945 Calendar Promoting Disease Control

Sanitary Corps Officer Tests Water Specimens, Iceland

Army Industrial Hygiene Laboratory Personnel

Capt. Donald J. Pletsch

Nutrition Officer Conducts Mess Survey in Mississippi

9th General Hospital Laboratory, New Guinea

2d Lt. Robert E. Pryor Oversees Loading of Supplies

Mobile Optical Repair Unit

Maj. George W. Hunter III

17th Malaria Survey Unit, New Guinea

Pharmacy Officer at 8th Evacuation Hospital, Italy

Army-Baylor Program Bulletin

Lt. Col. Raymond J. Karpen, Lt. Col. Charles S. Gersoni, and Maj. John V. Painter

Col. Othmar Goriup and Staff

Lt. Col. James T. Richards

Hospital Administration Course Graduates, 1953

Lt. Col. John W. Sheridan

Helicopter Landing on Deck of Haven

1st Battalion, 9th Infantry, Aid Station

Maj. Herman A. Walker With Chinese Prisoner of War

45th Mobile Army Surgical Hospital

War in the Wards Cover

Wounded United Nations POW on Evacuation Helicopter

WACs Check Blood Machine, Camp Roberts Army Hospital

Maj. Edward H. Frick at Seventh Army Commander's Preventive Maintenance Course

Medical Research Team Member Performs Laboratory Test

Col. (Ret.) and Mrs. George W. Hunter III in Japan

Students Demonstrate Vigotsky Test of Concept Formation

Health Services Trainees Arrive at Fort Sam Houston, Texas

Maj. Gen. Laurence A. Potter and Lt. Col. John W. Hammet

Col. (Ret.) Joseph Carmack Presents Award to 1st Lt. Charles B. Counselman

Corps Anniversary Celebration, Verdun, France

MSC Officers Learn To Strap Litter to H-13 Helicopter

Optical Department, Rhine Medical Depot

Lt. Col. Jack Houser

2d Lt. John L. Charlton, Jr., Examines Patient

Army Social Work Recruiting Poster

Sanitary Engineers Meeting, 1959

Optometry Officer Checks Patient

Dust Off

2d Lt. John R. Howard

Capt. George H. Kelling

32d Medical Depot Optical Laboratory

"Pee House of the August Moon"

Maj. Charles L. Kelly With Brig. Gen. Joseph W. Stilwell

CW4 Michael J. Novosel

1st Lt. Henry O. Tuell III and Capt. Howard Elliott in a Dustoff Operation

1st Lt. James McGowan

Maj. Patrick H. Brady

Lt. Col. Paul A. Bloomquist

Medical Service Corps Recruiting Bulletin, 1971

Female Officers at Medical Field Service School

Col. William C. Luehrs With Lt. Gen. Hal B. Jennings, Jr.

Military and Civilian Pharmacists Work Together

Parasitologist at 9th Medical Laboratory

Lt. Col. Dan C. Cavanaugh

Col. Frank R. Camp

Audiologist Fits Patient With Hearing Aid

Sanitary Engineer Tests Water

Army Optometrist Examines Eskimo Patient

Remains of Gander Crash Victims Arrive at Dover Air Force Base

Lt. Col. Priscilla M. Alston

Col. James G. Van Straten

Col. Donald H. Triano

Lt. Col. Scott S. Beaty

Col. Edward G. Bradshaw

Lt. Col. Michael A. Shannon and Maj. Donald Fornier

Col. Robert F. Elliott

Medical Technician Is Lowered From Black Hawk Helicopter

Capt. Millie Hughes-Fulford Aboard the Columbia

Maj. Morris R. Lattimore, Jr.

Soldiers Use Helicopter Transport During Operation DESERT SHIELD

Maj. Arthur W. Hapner in Grenada

Building Burns During Fighting in Operation JUST CAUSE

Fielding Mobile CT Scan to 86th Evacuation Hospital

 Medical Supply Officer in Saudi Arabia

Scenes From the Gulf War

Buildings Destroyed by Hurricane Andrew

Capt. Steve Horosko III in Somalia

Children's Ward at Hospital in Haiti

Col. Othmar F. Goriup

Col. Robert L. Black

Col. Bernard Aabel

Col. Roy D. Maxwell

Brig. Gen. William A. Hamrick

Brig. Gen. Manley G. Morrison

Brig. Gen. John E. Haggerty

Brig. Gen. James J. Young

Brig. Gen. France F. Jordan

Brig. Gen. Walter F. Johnson III

Brig. Gen. Bruce T. Miketinac

Brig. Gen. Jerome V. Foust

Brig. Gen. Mack C. Hill