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Chapter 9

The United States Army Medical Service Corps

THE POST-KOREA ERA

American soldiers returning from Korea were not treated to the victory parades that awaited soldiers coming home from World War II. Rather, they received at best benign neglect as they resumed lives interrupted by the war. At least Medical Service Corps officers came home to the appreciation of their senior medical leaders. Deputy Surgeon General Maj. Gen. James P. Cooney told them they were "bastions of strength," and Maj. Gen. Alvin Gorby, MC, chief surgeon of the U.S. Army, Europe, asked them to reflect on their contributions: "I wonder if you fully appreciate the gains you have made in this short span of years."1

The Army shrank from a Korean War peak of over 1.5 million to under 860,000 by 1961.This was partly accomplished through a reduction in force (RIF) as the Eisenhower administration forced down the strength of the Army by involuntarily separating soldiers from active duty. The reductions were painful, but the number remaining on active duty was considerably more than after World War II due to the continuing Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union.

Tactical doctrine in the period between the Korean and Vietnam Wars was briefly hinged to nuclear weapons. The Army created a five-sided "pentomic" division consisting of five battle groups armed with tactical nuclear weapons. The idea was that divisions spread out in this formation over a large area could face the enemy simultaneously in all directions, much like a circled wagon train in the Old West. However, no one could eliminate the chance that tactical use of nuclear weapons would lead to all-out nuclear war. Three senior leaders, Generals Matthew Ridgway and Maxwell Taylor and Lt. Gen. James M. Gavin, argued unsuccessfully for flexible deterrence, a strategy that, unlike nuclear massive retaliation, would depend upon an ability to modulate military response to meet varying levels of threat. But the administration of President Dwight D. Eisenhower had committed itself for budgetary reasons to a policy of massive retaliation, or "more bang for the buck," emphasizing nuclear weapons.

Flexible response was adopted by President John F. Kennedy's administration, a change that generated a balance of forces, caused a resurgence of Army fortunes in the 1960s, and renewed attention to conventional weapons and tactics. There were eleven divisions in the active Army when Kennedy took the oath of office in 1961; when he was assassinated almost three years later there were sixteen. The changed climate prompted interest in irregular warfare, and the Special Warfare School at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, flourished when the Kennedy administration greatly increased the size of the Green Berets.

Future health services officers arrive at Fort Sam Houston, Texas, for training


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Other changes also affected the Medical Department. A significant milestone had occurred in 1954 when the last black unit was fully integrated. By 1956, 100 of the 500 MSC officers commissioned from the Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC) were black.2 The Medical Department also continued to be affected by changes occurring in American health care, by now a sophisticated industry.3 Technologically advanced medicine required a modern plant, and the Army undertook an ambitious program of hospital construction. The need to keep current with contemporary medical practice kept the emphasis on clinical medicine and gave the Class II teaching hospitals favored status. That reinforced a perception that the combat medical force took a second seat, and a polarity emerged between fixed facility and field unit proponents. Col. Robert S. Peyton, MC, headed a board that examined the command and control of Army hospitals in 1952. The Peyton Report described a "schism in the household" between "the white-coat group on one hand and the field-jacket group on the other."4

The surgeon general's personnel management authority twice survived reorganizations of the Army Staff in the interwar period. The first, in 1954, consolidated personnel management authority under the deputy chief of staff for personnel (DCSPER). The second, in 1962, completed the earlier effort by abolishing the technical services. The Surgeon General, Lt. Gen. Leonard D. Heaton, was convinced the loss of chiefs of the technical services to serve as proponents for those officers "broke their morale." He noted with some pride that the medics and the engineers were the only technical services that did not lose their identity.5

The principal development in field medical service was that of an aeromedical evacuation doctrine. Its flavor was captured in an article by Lt. Col. Spurgeon H. Neel, MC, who wrote that the Korean War had taught the necessity of medical control of evacuation and the need for pilots and aircraft dedicated to that mission alone. Field maneuvers after Korea included use of aeromedical evacuation. The department based its doctrine on an air ambulance company of 170 personnel, organized into a headquarters platoon, a maintenance platoon, and three evacuation platoons. Each evacuation platoon supported a corps. The doctrine achieved medical control by placing the company directly under the theater surgeon, and it firmly identified MSC pilots as integral to the system. It established a requirement for medical training of aeromedical aviators, because they were required to supervise the handling of casualties and the medical care provided en route.6

The Medical Department needed a suitable helicopter; the H-13 and the later H-19 models were both inadequate. The department was persistent in seeing that the Army develop a new aircraft that would be sufficiently large to carry patients internally and to accommodate their in-flight treatment. This led to a formal requirement in 1952 for a general utility helicopter that would also be suitable for medical evacuation. The effort paid off in a 1955 design competition, won by Bell Corporation's XH-40, which joined the Army as the UH-1 Iroquois. Nicknamed the Huey, the aircraft featured a turbine engine and a first-generation capability of carrying two litter patients, a medical attendant, a crew chief, and two pilots. Lt. Col. John W. Hammet, MSC, who served at the U.S. Army Aviation Board during the Huey's development and accepted the


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Maj. Gen. Laurence A. Potter (left) and Colonel Hammet with the last H-19 helicopter in Army Medical Department service, February 1969

first aircraft for the Army, said that without the department's efforts (much of it the hard work of MSC officers) there would not have been an aeromedically capable helicopter.7

Developments in the Corps

Colonel Black retired as chief of the Medical Service Corps in 1955. He was succeeded by Col. Bernard Aabel, MSC, who as a major had testified at the hearings on the formation of the corps (see Appendix G). Aabel was followed in 1959 by Col. Roy D. Maxwell, MSC, the nuclear medicine pioneer. While chief, Colonel Maxwell was also appointed to an Atomic Energy Commission special project. Those duties occupied him fully beginning in August 1962, and Col. Dale Thompson, MSC, executive officer of the Personnel Division, served as the acting chief in Maxwell's absence. Col. William A. Hamrick, MSC, took office in March 1963 and served as chief of the corps for the next six years.

The job of tying together the "Austro-Hungarian empire" (as Colonel Peyton called the corps) was facilitated in 1962 by increasing the MSC chief's authority over assignments of his officers. A Medical Service Corps and Warrant Officer Branch was established in the 1950s as part of the Surgeon General's Personnel and Training Division. The MSC chief influenced the activities of that office, commonly referred to as "Branch," but had limited authority since it was independent of the chief's office.8 The chief's influence was enhanced when the sur-


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geon general transferred career management functions for MSC officers from the director of personnel to the MSC chief, who was also designated as chief of the Medical Service Corps and Warrant Officer Branch.9

An Army policy change in 1956 eliminated the two MSC warrant officer specialties of field medical assistant and medical supply officer because those were the same titles held by commissioned officers. Warrant officers in those specialties would eventually have to be reclassified into other Army fields, a process that would proceed slowly. The department's request to replace the specialties with two others, medical administrative assistant and medical supply assistant, was turned down. However, an opportunity to create new specialties occurred in 1959, and the department submitted a proposal for 366 MSC warrant officers in five fields: clinical laboratory, dental laboratory, medical equipment repair, optician, and sanitarian. Of that number, only the medical equipment repair technician was adopted. It joined the MSC as the only warrant officer specialty in 1961, replacing the commissioned medical equipment maintenance officer. CWO W. B. "Foxy" King, a medical supply officer, was one of the officers affected by this change. He returned from Korea in 1960 to attend the medical maintenance officer's course in Saint Louis, Missouri, and was reclassified the following year. By the end of 1961 the corps counted eleven warrant officers in the new field and by 1964 there were ninety-six.10

MSC quality remained an issue, and Branch sent a few "buck-up" letters each month to officers who had a declining Officer Efficiency Index (OEI). The OEI was calculated from annual efficiency reports in which officers were rated from 0 (unsatisfactory) to 5 (outstanding) in a variety of categories. The reports were the basic document used by promotion boards, and some observers were convinced that MSCs were not treated as generously as they should have been. A comparison of MSC scores with overall Army scores concluded that "medical raters are pikers compared with raters of the combat arms."11

The corps declined from a peak of 4,719 officers during the Korean War to a low of 3,499 in June 1959 (including 7 medical and dental students occupying MSC spaces). The number began rebounding (it was 3,832 at the end of 1961-see Appendix H), and by 30 September 1964 it had risen to 4,363 as the U.S. involvement in Vietnam increased. In 1961 MSCs served in fifty-eight specialties in eighteen career fields. At that point, 81 percent of the corps was in the Pharmacy, Supply, and Administration Section, an increase from 60 percent in 1947. The Medical Allied Sciences Section dropped from 30 to 12 percent of the corps during the same period. The Sanitary Engineering Section increased slightly from 2 to 3 percent, while the Optometry Section increased its share from 2 to 4 percent.12

The Army RIF board listed ninety MSC officers among those it eliminated from active duty in 1953. Over seven hundred MSCs separated during the six-month period beginning in October 1953, 100 of those leaving active duty involuntarily. A RIF that would have separated another 139 in 1958 was canceled when it was apparent that the earlier reductions had created shortages in the MSC.13 RIF actions were tough on morale, but Colonel Black believed it was to the corps' advantage to remove "weak or blight-tainted individuals." He supported "house­cleaning" actions throughout his tenure as chief.14


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The RIF did not help retention, which was affected by other factors as well. One was frequent moves. The corps found in the spring of 1960 that 97 percent of all MSCs had moved in the previous 24 months. Another was dependence on ROTC as the principal source of officers, because only 2 percent of ROTC graduates remained on active duty beyond their two-year obligation. Few were inclined toward a career in the military, partly due to the uncertainty of military careers.15

An accordion effect set in as attempts to reduce and then expand the corps followed in quick succession. The growing peacetime health care mission needed MSCs. Demand was also driven by the need to substitute or replace Medical Corps officers in administrative positions, a pressure heightened by shortages of physicians. From 1953 to 1955, 76 percent of the Medical Corps captains who could leave active duty did, as did 66 percent of the majors. The Army curtailed assignment of physicians to garrisoned field medical units in order to meet the burgeoning health care demand, but that was not enough. The insufficient number of physicians was one of the most pressing problems of Maj. Gen. George E. Armstrong as surgeon general from 1951 to 1955, but he was dismayed that only two-thirds of the Medical Corps was in direct patient care. In fact, there were complaints about the number of physicians in the Surgeon General's Office, a view hardly helped by an embarrassing incident in which one officer, while at home, rushed to assist a neighbor in distress only to discover that his stethoscope wouldn't work.16

The loss of veteran MSC officers through RIF, resignation, or retirement had other consequences for the Medical Department. The MSC's "hard core" of reserve officers, a pool of experience gained in two wars, retired as they hit their mandatory twenty-year retirement date. The MSC was becoming an inexperienced corps with slight prospect of the situation's improving. Half of the corps was in the grade of lieutenant in 1954, but only 7 percent of those officers were careerists. This improved by 1959 when 37 percent of the corps was lieutenants, 25 percent of whom were careerists, but was still a discouraging figure.17

The double jeopardy of MSC and Medical Corps shortages became so pronounced that the Army filled forty-three Medical Department positions, including medical battalion commanders, with line officers. The shortages of MSCs stiffened the department's resolve to retain MSC officers in medical assignments, and proposals to assign MSCs to nonmedical duties were resisted. The situation was further aggravated by the 1961 Berlin Crisis that created additional demands for MSC officers, especially in the optometry, laboratory sciences, comptroller, operations, sanitary engineering, and pharmacy fields.18

Consequently, recruiting followed on the heels of the RIF. Military pensions were a selling point, including the ability to retire after twenty years of active duty service. The Army transferred some officers to the MSC from other branches. For example, 2d Lt. Ernest M. Irons, MSC, was commissioned in the Artillery in 1954, but when he received his Regular Army commission it was in the MSC. He went from a gun platoon to a medical platoon. The department resorted to selecting individuals for direct appointment to the MSC in order to fill the gap. Four hundred were selected from thirteen hundred applicants in 1957. A special pro­


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gram was established for commissioning scientific specialty officers; they incurred a three-year active duty obligation (two years if they held a Ph.D.). Another incentive was a higher entry grade for some specialties. Beginning in 1962 officers who entered active duty with doctoral degrees in the allied sciences, sanitary engineering, optometry, pharmacy, and hospital administration were granted eighteen months' credit for promotion to captain. Colonel Aabel suggested commissioning West Point graduates, but that did not come to pass during this period. However, Colonel Hamrick was pleased with the accession of sixty-one ROTC distinguished military graduates in 1964, and each year more ROTC cadets listed the MSC as their first choice for a branch.19

The Medical Service Corps and Warrant Officer Branch, in a project headed by Lt. Col. William J. Clegg, Jr., MSC, refined the career plans initially formulated in 1948, this time including reserve component officers who could now remain on active duty for a twenty-year career. The plans represented a compromise between the specialist and generalist philosophies. Junior officers would concentrate initially on developing a thorough grounding in their basic specialty, and as they matured through the ranks they would develop the broader-based perspectives necessary for senior positions. By 1960 Branch had published plans for eleven specialties and five more were in preparation.20

Colonel Aabel was an enthusiastic promotor of ways to enhance esprit de corps. The corps made it to the movies in 1955 with a half-hour show filmed at Fort Sam Houston for the television series "The Big Picture." Aabel instituted a corps newsletter and threw an MSC birthday party in 1958 that impressed the surgeon general's staff with its camaraderie.21 Colonel Aabel asked the director of the U.S. Army Band to compose a march for the corps. That did not materialize, so John Philip Sousa's "U.S. Army Ambulance Corps March" remained the closest thing. He also sought recommendations for a motto and submitted ten to the U.S. Army Institute of Heraldry for consideration. "Medicine, Service, Country" led the list, its acronym having a nice symmetry to it, followed by "Service Before Self." Other suggestions were equally ponderous and a motto never materialized. Neither did a corps flag, even though Aabel invited several companies to submit proposals.22

The gold versus silver controversy continued. This time Colonel Aabel kicked up a storm by suggesting use of the same basic insignia for all corps as a means of promoting teamwork. Aabel regretted the stir he caused. He wrote Capt. Knute A. Tofte-Nielsen, MSC, a junior officer who had recommended a new design, that he shared Tofte-Nielsen's desire for a new insignia and conceded there was agreement that it should be gold. However, Aabel said the subject had become far too controversial and he had dropped the matter.23

An effort to designate an official birth date for the corps backfired. A committee recommended 11 March 1864, the date of the law that established the Ambulance Corps. The surgeon general's chief historian agreed, and Colonel Aabel submitted it for approval. However, Maj. Gen. James P. Cooney, the deputy surgeon general, did not agree. Cooney argued that there was not an unbroken continuity between the Civil War Ambulance Corps and the World War I Sanitary Corps, and he convinced the surgeon general to use the formation of the


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Sanitary Corps as the birth date. Cooney picked 18 May 1917, the date of the emergency war powers legislation that gave President Wilson the authority for mobilization, rather than the more precise 30 June 1917 date of the general orders that established the Sanitary Corps.24

The energy expended in picking a birth date reflected an interest in the MSC heritage, but the effort to write a history of the corps, which began in 1953, did not succeed.25 Colonel Aabel requested establishment of a formal history project. That was acted upon when the surgeon general appointed the Advisory Editorial Board for the Medical Service Corps History. The board met in November 1958 and organized the book as a multiauthor effort in which thirty-nine officers were designated to write specific sections. Publication was projected for 1962. Col. John B. Coates, Jr., MC, editor-in-chief of the department's series on World War II, advised the board that they were undertaking a very difficult project. It was "not something you can push a button and call a secretary in and get done as you would write a memorandum, or a staff study, or a course directive."26 Time would certainly prove him right. The multiauthor effort failed, and by the end of the decade the project was adrift (see Appendix 1).

Opportunity

The existence of a corps chief gave the Medical Department's administrative and scientific specialty officers an accessible spokesman for their aspirations, beginning with their next assignment. In his travels, Colonel Hamrick interviewed officers for that purpose. Capt. Lloyd A. Schlaeppi, MSC, a medical company commander, met the chief in Germany. Schlaeppi told Hamrick that he wanted to go to San Francisco, "because I hear it's a nice place to be." "Well, you're the first person who's been honest today," General Hamrick responded. Schlaeppi got his orders, much to the amazement of his fellow officers.27

The chance for a Regular Army career improved. In 1956 only 18 percent of the active duty MSC was in the Regular Army. Congressional increases in the size of the Regular Army expanded the Regular Army MSC from 950 officers in 1956 to 2,000 in 1963. In March 1957 there were 950 applications for 250 openings.28

Education and Training

Colonel Aabel was especially proud of improvements in opportunity for education, which "set the pace for the entire Army and has brought about an upsurge in the prestige and status of the corps." Its effect on retention was significant as the department had to compete with the expanding civilian health care industry for MSC officers.29

The first task was to improve the number of college graduates. In 1956, 53 percent of Army officers held at least a baccalaureate degree, but only 44 percent of the Medical Service Corps. Aabel believed that all MSCs should be college graduates. He pressured them to complete at least two years of college by enrolling in off-duty programs and encouraged those at the two-year mark to complete their degrees. A final semester plan provided an opportunity for completing degrees in residence, and twelve officers were enrolled by November 1958.30


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Aabel put teeth in his suggestions by including off-duty education as a criterion for Regular Army selection boards. Branch wrote nearly six hundred letters to officers who fell behind. Capt. Roy S. Church, MSC, stationed in Germany, received one. He had failed to keep off-duty course work posted on his records, and the letter from Branch got his attention. Aabel's pressure worked; by 1959 one-third of all MSCs were enrolled in civilian education courses, and the percentage of baccalaureate degree holders had increased to 53 percent. By 1962, 2,116 of the 3,674 officers on active duty were college graduates.31

The corps continued to emphasize graduate training. In 1957 it set a goal of placing up to fifty officers each year in graduate school in order to meet its requirements for officers trained at the master's level or higher. The range of schooling was impressive. Thirty-seven officers were selected in 1958 for graduate training in eight fields. Four years later MSC officers could compete for ten doctoral programs and twenty-six master's degree programs. Educational opportunities expanded to the extent that there were grumbles about MSC officers pursuing education "of no benefit to the military"; in fact, a study some years later found no correlation of advanced degrees with efficiency reports. By 1961, 100 MSCs had doctoral degrees and another 480 were at the master's level; the corps had ten times as many Ph.D.s and two times as many master's degrees as the rest of the Army. Most scientific specialty officers held graduate degrees, and this accounted for much of the exceptional educational level.32

The Army-Baylor Program continued to be an important opportunity, and by 1954 it enrolled one class of sixty students annually. In 1956 Colonel Hamrick completed the course and replaced Col. Frederick H. Gibbs as its director. "I guess it's only in the Army that you could be a student one year and the director the next."33 The average student was thirty-five years old. Eight of the faculty held Baylor appointments.

The program underwent close scrutiny during this period, not all of it favorable. The statistics tell the tale. There were 412 graduates from 1951 to 1959. Of that number, only 184 were able to matriculate in the Baylor Graduate School, and only 145 of those had received the master's degree. In 1952 only 35 percent of the students had a college degree; 5 percent had not graduated from high school.34

The Association of University Programs in Hospital Administration periodically surveyed the program as a condition of accreditation. The first survey occurred in 1952. The report said the program was "an eminently practical approach" that had the advantage of older, more experienced students who were motivated toward remaining on active duty. But there was stinging criticism. It was "not truly a graduate level program," and it had students who could not matriculate in the Baylor Graduate School. The surveyors believed Baylor "rubber stamped" actions by the course director. They questioned locating the program in San Antonio, Texas, rather than at the Waco, Texas, campus of Baylor University because that created a remoteness from university life and research facilities. They concluded that the course should cease as a graduate program if it could not bring its standards up to graduate school level.35


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This was not a happy time for supporters of the course. Colonel Gibbs, while acting on some recommendations, contested others. He cautioned that the accreditation findings had to be taken in context; the surveyors had found weaknesses in all thirteen programs they visited in the United States. He actually believed that the Army-Baylor Program was one of the stronger programs.36 Unfortunately, the report came at a time when some of the department's senior leaders were having their doubts. The question in Washington was whether they were embarked on a fruitless quest, because it was "doubtful that the majority of the past and present student body are capable of absorbing the hospital administration course."37

In the long run, the scrutiny had salutary effects. It concentrated the Medical Department's attention on improving the program, raising standards for admission, and increasing its difficulty. Prerequisites were tightened to include a minimum of a baccalaureate degree and undergraduate courses in statistics, financial management, and management methods, although Baylor Graduate School remained lenient with its 2.5 grade point average requirement for admission. The program set an enrollment age limit of forty because there were complaints that the students were either "old colonels" or "frisky majors."38 Gibbs, while he believed the students were "a studious, hard-working and serious group," kept the pressure on students who completed the course but failed to write their theses.39 A faculty committee conducted an oral examination of each student at the end of the academic year, and in February 1955 the option for an undergraduate degree ended, and so did the option for a master of science in hospital administration (MSHA). The only degree offered from then on was the MHA, a step taken to bring the program up to the standard practice of accredited graduate programs in the United States.40

The next accreditation survey, in 1955, praised the program for its improvements and congratulated Gibbs for doing "an unusually fine job." The report ranked the course in the upper half of all programs.41

Another challenge came in 1962 when an Army study of military schools recommended using civilian programs in hospital administration. The Medical Department successfully defended the Army-Baylor Program by arguing that it was tailored to the needs of the military and could not be replicated by civilian programs.42

University education was important, but so was military training conducted at the Medical Field Service School. The department considered the Basic Officer Course sufficiently important for MSCs that it increased the length to fourteen weeks (later sixteen) for them while simultaneously decreasing the length for the other corps. Attendance for MSCs was, with few exceptions, mandatory. The Advanced Course, also a mandatory requirement for MSCs, increased from twenty-two to thirty-three weeks in 1963. The full-length version was required for Regular Army officers, but reserve component officers on active duty had the option of either a sixteen-week associate course or a correspondence course. Another option was attendance at the advanced course of other branches, including the Infantry School Advanced Course. In 1958 Col. Joseph Carmack, MAC, Ret., established the Carmack Medal, awarded to the top MSC graduate of the Advanced Course. In June of that year he presented the first award to 1st Lt. Charles B. Counselman, MSC (see Appendix J).43


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Colonel Carmack (second from left) presents award to Lieutenant Counselman, June 1958

Other courses provided junior officers with their initial training in various administrative specialties. In addition, many of the specialty groups kept their members current with annual institutes (short courses). These were generally five-day meetings held at Walter Reed or Brooke Army Medical Center. Longer courses-for example, preventive medicine-provided training in new skills. In addition, there were meetings of a general nature for all MSCs, and an annual MSC conference in Germany became a tradition.44

Colonel Aabel believed there was insufficient opportunity to attend the Regular (resident) Course of the Command and General Staff College at Fort Leavenworth. In 1956 there were seven MSCs selected, but by comparison the comparably sized Signal Corps had twenty-seven. Aabel asked for twenty slots, but lost ground when only three were selected in 1957. The number bounced up to nine the following year, but was still less than half the number desired. By 1961 only sixty-six MSCs were graduates of the Regular Course. Another seventeen were graduates of the Armed Forces Staff College at Norfolk, Virginia, the shorter, tri-service version of military staff college. An additional sixty-nine officers had completed the Associate (correspondence) Course.45

Senior service school opportunity was also limited. The corps identified a requirement for seventeen graduates a year in order to fill senior-level positions, but that figure was not reached. In 1956, a typical year, only three MSCs were


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Lt. Col. John Mikuluk cuts the corps anniversary cake in Verdun, France, January 1957

selected: two for the Army War College and one for the Industrial College of the Armed Forces. By 1961 the corps had only fourteen senior service school graduates on active duty.46

Positions

There was a feeling of general pessimism over the prospect of opening the top jobs in the Medical Department to MSCs, Colonel Goriup for one being convinced that there was little potential for this.47 Some MSC officers found opportunity outside the department in branch-immaterial assignments (positions not requiring a specific branch), especially assignments on the Army Staff. Those appointments opened new doors for talented MSCs and new channels of communication for the department. By 1956 thirty officers were in "prestige assignments" with DCSPER, the deputy chief of staff for logistics (DCSLOG), and others.48

MSCs had some command opportunities in the Medical Department. By 1962 MSCs commanded medical research units in Malaya and Panama, the Medical Equipment Development Laboratory at Fort Totten, New York, and the Prosthetics Research Laboratory in Washington, D.C. MSCs commanded the medical supply support activity in Brooklyn, New York, and the Medical Optical and Maintenance Activity, St. Louis, Missouri, as well as medical depots in


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Louisville, Kentucky, and overseas in Germany, France, and Korea. MSC officers continued to command medical battalions in a garrison status, and in 1955 Lt. Col. John A. Mikuluk, MSC, assumed command of the 1st Medical Group in Verdun, France, an MSC first. In fact, there were discussions of "responsibility pay" for MSCs in selected positions.49

Yet a tension continued to exist in the Army Medical Department over the use of MSCs in command positions beyond a carefully circumscribed few. This was set out in a 1958 change to Army regulations that ratified the policy of allowing MSCs to command medical units only when they were not actively engaged in patient care. When the units assumed patient care responsibilities, the senior Medical Corps officer had to assume command. Any movement toward MSC command of operational medical units was firmly rebuffed. That included command of installations (such as posts) that housed medical activities, in order to avoid situations in which a Medical Corps officer would report to an MSC. Colonel Black was not sanguine about using MSCs to replace Medical Corps officers in administrative positions because he believed physicians were the best candidates for the top jobs. "An M.D. degree unquestionably is a preferential academic background for any medical management or ancillary position in the field of medicine." His view was not unlike that held by some of the department's senior leaders.50

The heart of the matter was command of hospitals. General Heaton had strong feelings. "I don't care how large it is or how small it is. The man that can run it and run it well is the physician."51 In fact, some senior MSCs agreed-Colonel Black for one. "We believe that the command function of medical units and facilities wherein patient care occurs should never be other than Medical or Dental Corps, as the case may be."52 One MSC colonel insisted that "any aspiring MSC administrator who thinks otherwise should, in my judgment, get his jollies elsewhere than in the Army Medical Department."53 On the other hand, some senior leaders understood that the real problem was finding MSCs willing to seek the responsibility of command. One senior medical officer believed that MSCs would inevitably command hospitals, but he had great difficulty in finding any eager to assume that burden.54

The surgeon general forced the Medical Department's command policy upon the National Guard Bureau, in spite of the Guard's protests that it could not find enough physicians interested in administration to meet its needs. The policy was so firmly held that in 1955 the department chose not to participate in an American Hospital Association (AHA) test of a Civil Defense Emergency Hospital. The AHA had asked the Army to place a trained hospital administrator in command of the test unit and that would have meant use of an MSC commander.55

The department's policy came up in the 1952 accreditation survey of the Army-Baylor Program. The report was very critical of the practice of assigning physicians to senior hospital administrator positions-that is, as hospital commanders-but failing to require their training in hospital administration. "Optimal administration of military units is not achieved when subordinate officers are prepared in administration more effectively than superiors whose work is, after all, also administrative in nature."56 Maj. Gen. Joseph Martin, MC, com­


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mander of Brooke Army Medical Center, agreed. "It has always been my contention that we were failing utterly to prepare medical officers for command of hospitals without requiring formal training in hospital administration."57 The problem remained unresolved. A few physicians attended the Baylor course, but they were an inconsequential minority of those who commanded Army hospitals and none reached the top positions in the department during this period.

The surgeon general would, however, support opening command opportunities for MSCs in nonmedical assignments. By 1960 the law that prohibited Medical Department officers from commanding nonmedical units was interfering with MSC assignments to logistical organizations. General Heaton forwarded a legislative proposal drafted by Maj. Leo Benade, MSC, to allow MSCs to command outside the department. Benade based his rationale on the use of MSCs for branch-immaterial duties in research and development, logistics, intelligence, military assistance advisory groups, military missions, Army aviation, and the Army Staff. Benade's argument was that MSCs, like other Army officers, were qualified for a variety of duties and should have the opportunity for command. The effort succeeded. In August 1961 the law was changed, making MSCs the only Medical Department officers authorized to command nonmedical units.58

The Army sent a message that amplified this to an astonishing degree. Not only were MSCs authorized to command outside the Medical Department, but the secretary of the Army could appoint them as commanders of major commands, army groups, armies, corps, divisions, chiefs of service, and heads of Department of the Army staff agencies. Officially, at least, the sky was the limit.59

Promotions

Promotions to colonel remained constrained by the 2 percent ceiling. Colonel Black complained that the corps could not survive with such a bottleneck, which formed a detriment to recruitment and a serious morale problem. The Surgeon General's Personnel Division assisted his campaign to remove the cap by identifying MSC positions that should call for a colonel based upon their level of responsibility, and Black used that to support his testimony in hearings on H.R. 5509. The bill, which passed in March 1954, removed the 2 percent limitation on the MSC, allowing the promotion of colonels up to 8 percent of the Regular Army strength of the corps, the same as other branches of the Army. The problem did not end there, because the ability to promote ultimately depended upon the number of positions in the Army for MSC colonels. That number did not expand quickly. In 1961 the Army selected only four of eighty-five lieutenant colonels eligible for promotion to colonel, partly due to the lack of slots.60

Not only was there a problem in promotion to colonel, but all promotions slowed so much that Aabel described the outlook as "very ominous."61 MSCs promoted to captain and major were a year and a half behind their contemporaries, and some MSCs sought transfers to other Army branches where they believed they would have better opportunity for promotion. One alternative was the integration of MSC officers with the Army Promotion List (APL), the promotion list for line officers, in which the much larger aggregate number would provide greater


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opportunity than considering MSC officers for promotion by themselves. Supporters of this solution argued that the issue was equality.62

Colonel Aabel actively considered that option. Integration would have ensured promotion equity with line officers, but the surgeon general would lose independence in MSC personnel management, including the ability to "borrow" MSC authorizations for use by other corps, principally the Medical Corps. It would have made MSCs eligible for assignment to an additional range of positions-including command-available only to APL officers, thereby allowing MSCs to venture where other Medical Department officers could not go. Further, it would have made MSCs eligible for promotion to general at the same potential rate as other Army officers.

The department was not willing to accept those consequences, and so MSC officers continued to compete for promotion in separate Medical Department boards. Aabel managed to convince the Army Staff to provide temporary equity with the line by establishing new zones of consideration (eligibility periods) for MSC promotions. As a result, 850 MSC officers of all grades were promoted in fiscal year 1957, including 92 majors promoted to lieutenant colonel in one month alone.

There was not complete agreement on the need for promotion opportunity. General Hays, in a parting shot before retiring as the surgeon general, recommended that the Army transfer MSC colonels out of the Medical Department to positions that genuinely required that grade. He believed that MSCs performed ancillary functions, few of which supported the rank of colonel. Col. Vernon McKenzie, MSC, took Hays to task over this. He told the general that he would have to decide whether he wanted a first- or second-class Medical Service Corps. "If you want the latter then, yes, get rid of all those God-damned uppity colonels MSC and cut it off even lower than that."63

General officer stars are the ultimate promise of the Army's promotion system. Unfortunately, the MSC remained the only male corps without general officers, and this nettled its members. As one put it, "to be worth a damn, a person must be ambitious to achieve greater heights, to 'reach for a star.'"64 A path to stars was available for officers filling branch-immaterial general officer positions, but no MSC was able to capitalize on that approach.65

General Armstrong believed the corps should have three generals, and actively pursued that objective with Colonel Black. Black told the surgeon general there were two ways to proceed. One was to seek Army-sponsored legislation, but that would be very slow. The other was to encourage the civilian specialty associations to use their political clout. They chose that route, and in 1955 optometry, pharmacy, and sanitary engineering organizations introduced resolutions for MSC general officers.66 Colonel Aabel continued the effort as chief of the corps when he replaced Colonel Black. As a result, in 1957 Congressman Carl T. Durham, a pharmacist, introduced H.R. 6801, which proposed establishing one major general and two brigadier generals in the MSC. The Durham bill failed to carry, as did two other bills the following year, because of Army opposition.

The Army did not want to see the number of general officers or specific positions prescribed by law. Its objection was not to MSC generals, but to the secretary


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of the Army's loss of flexibility in distributing general officer allocations. Benade devised a way around that problem by restating the proposal as a request to include the MSC among those Army branches authorized to have Regular Army general officer rank. Benade's approach obviated linking a star to a specific position, the provision which had been objectionable to the Army Staff. Further, by removing any reference to a specific number, Benade's solution would also have provided the corps the same potential for general officers as any other branch of the Army.67

General Heaton chose not to adopt that approach when he placed the corps chief first on the list of general officer requirements he submitted in 1961. Members of the Army Staff still objected to tying the star to a position. In addition, they were convinced that the Medical Department's constraints on MSCs held them to duties of "limited scope and responsibility," something that Heaton said was "simply not true."68 At least the numbers supported the department's request. The Regular Army MSC of 2,000 officers in 1963 would have supported fifteen generals if the customary Army pattern were applied, but the corps was not included in the Army's computation of general officer allotments. None of the arguments worked, and the corps ended the interwar period without opportunity for promotion to general officer.69

Developments in the Administrative Specialties

In 1961, 3,018 MSC administrative specialty officers served in thirty-nine military occupational specialties. Those were aligned within nine career fields: supply, comptroller, personnel, registrar, hospital administration, medical intelligence, operations and training, aviation, warrant officer, and a noncareer field that grouped various specialties together (see Appendix K). The three largest career fields were operations and training with 1,343 officers, supply with 428, and personnel with 328. Operations and training included 1,070 officers in the entry-level specialty of field medical assistant, the title for officers assigned as battalion surgeon's assistants and in similar field medical positions. The comptroller field included automated data processing, a specialty added in 1961.70

Operations and training officers filled positions at all levels, although the top jobs-for example, chief of the Surgeon General's Medical Plans and Operations Division-remained the province of physicians.71 Much of the Pentagon battle for aeromedical doctrine was waged by operations officers such as Majs. Kenneth K. Wheatley, MSC, and Robert O. Brumley, MSC, who were able to incorporate the air ambulance company into the force structure. Wheatly exemplified the dedication of "iron major" MSC action officers. "Nothing else mattered-not even family when he locked in on a project. Day, night, dawn, dusk were all the same; bring in something to eat and leave him be-time stands still until the job is done with that man."72

Maj. Elliotte J. Williams, MSC, and Capt. Joseph P. Jacobs, MSC, assumed duties in 1959 as staff officers for a new position, special assistant to the surgeon general for combat developments. Another six MSCs formed the initial staff for a Combat Developments Group at Forest Glen, Maryland. In addition, seven officers were serving as assistant professors of military science and tactics at universi­


284

A class of Medical Service Corps officers learns how properly to strap a patient and litter on an H-13 helicopter, October 1954

ty ROTC programs. There was discussion of a training course for operations officers, but nothing materialized.73

Some operations and training officers, along with other MSCs, had the opportunity for overseas assignments with military assistance programs. There were twenty-four MSCs serving with the U.S. advisory effort in Vietnam in 1956. That year Majs. F. W. Sitton, MSC, and Leigh F. Wheeler, MSC, were assigned to a medical troop training team in Germany. By 1959 sixty MSCs were serving with advisory groups in Greece, Turkey, Vietnam, the Ryukyu Islands, Thailand, Iran, Formosa, Peru, Paraguay, Bolivia, Colombia, El Salvador, and Nicaragua.74

Lt. Col. Paul F. Austin, MSC, and Maj. Earl Reynolds, MSC, helped the Thai Army organize three medical battalions and three 100-bed field hospitals. They cautioned that officers and their families posted to that part of the world had to be able to cope with poor sanitation as well as an abundance of mosquitos, ants, lizards, and snakes. Lt. Col. Vincent P. Verfuerth, MSC, assisted the Peruvian military plan for a 960-bed military hospital, a job he assumed from Lt. Col. Seth H. Linthicum, MSC.

Maj. James R. Kenney, MSC, found meaningful rewards in his posting to Iran. "Just about the time you're ready to throw in the towel, one of these wonderful Iranians will come up with something that makes you feel like you're sit-


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Optical Department, Rhine Medical Depot, Kaiserslautern, Germany, January 1956

ting on top of the world." Kenney also encountered quite the opposite at times. On one trip he encountered a group of naked men standing near a unit command post in a chilly, remote area. The recently discharged conscripts were being punished for failing to buy any civilian clothes when they were paid.75

Opportunities opened for medical intelligence officers, a field closely associated with operations. A medical intelligence training program began in 1956, and teams of one MSC officer and two enlisted soldiers were dispatched to Korea and Germany. The same year the department consolidated four intelligence elements into a single activity, the Medical Information and Intelligence Agency, and Lt. Col. James W. Dean, MSC, became its first director.76

Aviation was a new MSC field. In 1954 there were 98 MSC pilots and another 21 MSCs were in flight school. By 1959 there were 112 MSC aviators, a number that climbed to 181 in 1964 as the United States increased its involvement in Vietnam.77 The corps needed to provide attractive career opportunities for MSC aviators, but most flying duties called for junior officers. In 1963, 80 percent of the authorized positions were for lieutenants, but 85 percent of MSC aviators were in the grade of captain or higher. This greatly concerned Colonel Hamrick, who assumed the establishment of field grade positions for aviators, either in flying or nonflying duties, as one of his major tasks.78

Medical logisticians passed another milestone in 1960 when Col. Renaldo G. Belanger, MSC, became chief of the Surgeon General's Supply Division. He was the first administrative specialty officer to hold that position since Brig. Gen. Edward Reynolds, MAC, seventeen years earlier.79 By 1961 forty MSCs were in the Army Logistics Program, a specialized program for selected Army logisticians. MSC medical logisticians had a reputation for well-run organizations. In 1955 Col. Louis F. Williams, MSC, assumed command of the Louisville Medical Depot where he installed an IBM data processing system and reduced the staffing from 850 to 450 personnel. General Lyman L. Lemnitzer, the Army Chief of Staff, on a swing through Germany in 1958, said the medical depot at Kaiserslautern was the best organized unit he had seen.80 DOD established the Defense Supply Agency in 1959, and medical items became the responsibility of a subordinate agency, the Defense Medical Supply Center. MSC officers were in


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Lt. Col. Jack Houser (right), Comptroller, Tokyo Army Hospital, during his promotion ceremony, July 1956

demand to fill key positions within that joint service organization.81

Nepthune Fogelberg was appointed in 1952 as the first comptroller for the surgeon general. Fogelberg, a Sanitary Corps major in World War II, had continued as chief of the Surgeon General's Fiscal Division after his release from active duty in 1946. He was a leader in promoting resources management as a career field for Medical Service Corps officers.82

An important step was establishment of a graduate training program for MSC comptrollers. The formation of DOD had been accompanied by new requirements for financial management that created a need for comptrollers throughout the armed services. The Army established the Army Comptrollership Program at Syracuse University, Syracuse, New York, to meet that need. It combined both business and public administration courses in an accelerated program designed to prepare officers and civilian employees for comptroller positions. Capt. David W. Jones attended in 1953 as the first MSC. After 1954 there were an average of three MSCs in each class.83

The Peyton Board, while casting a jaundiced eye on "comptrollership," had nevertheless conceded its inevitability and recommended training some officers in the specialty, including physicians. Fogelberg asked the Medical Field Service School to create a course, but the department chose to use other Army courses and civilian graduate programs instead. General Heaton, acting on the Peyton Board recommendation, encouraged physicians to apply for training as comptrollers. Little came of that effort, other than to irritate senior MSCs who understood financial management as an academic field mastered through graduate study in business administration and believed it to be within the province of the MSC. Fogelberg chaired the first meeting of medical comptrollers in 1958, at which time there were 113 MSC positions.84

MSCs in the registrar specialty dealt with a more complex environment, for their specialty was complicated by federal, local, and state laws and regulations. They administered medical boards that determined whether soldiers should be retained or released for medical reasons. Accreditation surveys by external agencies kept pressure on the medical records function, along with the associated tasks of transcription and release of medical information.85

Lt. Col. Robert G. McCall, MSC, desired to create a medical facilities engineering specialty within his Sanitary Engineering Section because that was the


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only Medical Department component that required an engineering degree. McCall envisioned a need for eleven officers. Others favored creating the specialty as part of the Pharmacy, Supply, and Administration Section. They believed that making it a sanitary engineering field would block candidates from other equally valid backgrounds. Neither suggestion was acted upon, and health facility planning tasks continued to be handled by MSCs in a variety of specialties.86

The changes to the key management team of Army hospitals solidified. A Medical Corps deputy commander headed the clinical services as chief of professional services, and a Medical Service Corps executive officer was chief of administrative services. Both reported to the commander (the hospital administrator). New hospital administration positions for MSCs emerged in both outpatient and inpatient settings. Dispensary administrative officers were an example of the former. Maj. Gen. Silas B. Hays, on a trip to Europe while he was surgeon general, observed that dispensaries with an MSC were performing well but those without had problems. Opportunity in the inpatient side expanded with the use of MSCs as administrative assistants for the chiefs of the larger departments in hospitals. Brig. Gen. Carl W. Tempel, MC, the surgeon general's director of professional services, championed this as a means of freeing physicians for clinical duties.87

Not everyone was ecstatic. One physician said MSC hospital administrators were his reason for leaving the Army. He complained that they "gave birth to new positions, new jobs, new offices, new departments, more typewriters, more forms, and these in turn begat more of their kind." Surgeon General Hays called the letter a masterpiece, read it to his staff, and had it distributed throughout the Medical Department.88 An external advisory committee chaired by Dean A. Clark, M.D., of Massachusetts General Hospital, recommended keeping MSCs at lower-level positions. General Heaton shared that view, and for a while he attempted to block the assignment of MSCs as executive officers of the general hospitals.89

Many MSCs continued to contribute to the profession after their retirement from the Army. Col. Anthony J. Zolenas, Jr., retired in 1961 and became the administrator of the Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland. Colonel Gibbs became the first full-time director of the Interagency Institute for Federal Health Care Executives in 1956. He continued in that position upon his retirement in 1957. He also completed his baccalaureate and master's degrees and started the George Washington University program in hospital administration, which became one of the country's largest.90

Developments in the Scientific Specialties

Tension between the administrative and scientific specialties91 prompted Colonel Black to suggest reorganizing the corps into an administrative specialties section and a scientific specialties section. Each group would have its own promotion lists, to avoid competing directly against the other. Administrative specialty officers would have primary skill identifiers in just two subspecialties-junior and senior administrative officers. General Armstrong carried this idea a


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step farther, proposing to create two separate corps, as in the Air Force. Neither proposal gained the momentum necessary for congressional action. There were also unsuccessful proposals to commission chiropractors in the MSC.92

Pharmacy became a separate service in the larger hospitals, on a par with other clinical services-a reflection of the sophistication of pharmaceutical technology and the dependence of the clinical staff on pharmacy consultation. In September 1955 Lt. Col. William L. Austin, MSC, became the first full-time pharmacy consultant to the surgeon general. He was responsible for publishing a formulary that provided Army physicians with a pocket-size reference listing all drugs in the medical supply system. Austin followed the example of William Brown, who published the first formulary, the Lititz Pharmacopoeia, during the American Revolution.93

Organized pharmacy kept an eye on the department because of its continued use of enlisted and officer graduate pharmacists at a ratio of ten to one. There were 330 enlisted and 36 officer pharmacists on active duty in 1955, the year in which the pharmacy ROTC programs ended.94 In 1959, 110 graduate pharmacists were still serving as officers in other Army branches in duties unrelated to pharmacy, a carryover of earlier times. Robert P. Fischelis, Pharm.D., of the American Pharmaceutical Association, met with General Hays to discuss commissioning. After his intervention the number of pharmacists serving as MSC officers gradually increased to eighty-nine by 1961.

Very few pharmacists, however, applied for Regular Army status. Colonel Aabel chided them for letting that opportunity go begging after all their long struggle.95 Those who did pursue a career were encouraged to go to graduate school. Capt. Lewis C. Miner, MSC, and 1st Lt. Douglas J. Silvernale, MSC, in 1959 were the first pharmacy officers to complete master's degrees in hospital pharmacy, and in 1965 Miner was the first to complete a doctoral degree. Graduate training was supplemented in 1960 by establishment of a residency program in the general practice of pharmacy at Brooke Army Medical Center.96

In 1961 the Medical Allied Sciences Section had 472 officers on active duty. Two specialties-nuclear medical science and podiatry-had joined the disciplines of psychology, social work, entomology, and laboratory science. Audiology would be added in 1965. In turn, laboratory science encompassed six specialties: bacteriology, biochemistry, parasitology, immunology (virology), physiology, and clinical laboratory officer. The extensive training required for scientific specialties prompted a recommendation, not adopted, for a distinctive insignia to identify officers holding doctorate degrees. Recognition of another sort was afforded when the Medical Department established a system in 1961 for recognizing professional attainment in a series of prefixes added to the specialty codes of officers. Award of the "A" prefix to scientific specialty officers signified the highest level of achievement in their fields. Indeed, the expanding range of medical expertise provided by scientific specialty officers prompted a cautionary note by General Heaton: "We must be very cautious or the fringe people will take over the medical profession."97

An Army survey of scientifically trained officers showed that MSCs desired diversification in their assignments. Overall, they believed they were treated as well as or better by the Army than by civilian institutions. Interestingly, the


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approach of MSCs to education differed from their compatriots in other Army branches. MSCs viewed graduate training as a means for overall growth rather than as a way of enhancing their military careers through "ticket punching." A DOD study concluded that the Medical Service Corps managed scientists better than anyone else in DOD. The study also revealed that MSCs strongly desired to receive the same military training as other Army officers.98

Col. Harvey W. Coddington, MSC, was appointed chief of the Medical Allied Sciences Section in 1959. Coddington set a policy that officers in his section would perform only in their specialty, except for courts, boards, duty officer, or similar necessary military duties. He emphasized graduate training and professional certification, for example, encouraging microbiologists to affiliate with the American Board of Microbiology.99 However, perceptions of second-class treatment persisted. Col. Charles S. Gersoni, MSC, ran into an "undercurrent of bitterness" from senior scientific specialty officers assigned to write articles for the 1958 MSC History Project. Gersoni attributed this to the department's clumsiness in handling MSC scientists and poor relationships between the scientists and military physicians. Not all MSC scientists shared that pessimism. Col. Ludwig R. Kuhn, MSC, a bacteriologist and the first chief of the Medical Allied Sciences Section, praised the research opportunities for MSCs and what he viewed as equitable treatment in promotions. Col. Monroe E. Freeman, MSC, a biochemist, was also optimistic, pointing to improvements in professional status and opportunities for training and research.100

Yet the proper utilization of uniformed scientists within the Army's medical research and development program continued to be a vexsome problem. As Lt. Col. John P. Ransom, MSC, a microbiologist, put it, "a completely satisfactory solution to the proper utilization of this group of scientists is yet to be found." Ransom believed that scientific competence demanded a degree of specialization that ran counter to the Army's needs for well-rounded officers, especially at the higher grades. As he pointed out, an unfortunate upshot of this dichotomy could be an officer shorted on both counts, without the opportunity to achieve genuine distinction in science or to compete with other Army officers in terms of military training and experience.101 Colonel Gersoni believed this situation could be helped by establishing a separate research career program that would be controlled by the chief of the Surgeon General's Research and Development Division. That did not materialize, but a more firmly institutionalized home for MSC researchers was achieved in 1958 when the Army established the U.S. Army Medical Research and Development Command (USAMRDC) as a medical command under the surgeon general. By 1959 USAMRDC employed about one hundred MSCs as researchers and administrators in a broad research program. MSCs headed projects in the Middle East, Southeast Asia, Borneo, Africa, and Central America. Lt. Cols. John Ransom and Avery C. Sanders, MSC, served as staff officers with the Army's chief of research and development. Colonel Freeman headed the European Research Office in Frankfurt, Germany, and Colonel Gersoni headed a similar unit in the Far East.102

Capt. Donald L. Price, MSC, completed his Ph.D. in parasitology in June 1959. That August, Price and his wife were assigned to the Belgian Congo where


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they joined about thirty-five other families of different nationalities at the Institut Pour La Recherche Scientifique en Afrique Centrale (the Institute for Scientific Research in Central Africa). The institute was located about thirty-five miles north of Bukavu within reasonable travel distance of rain forest, savannah, bush country, and the volcanic Mountains of the Moon. Unfortunately, while research opportunities were magnificent, the political situation was unstable. Belgium granted the country its independence in June 1960, much sooner than anticipated, and fighting immediately broke out among competing tribal factions. The situation became perilous, and Mrs. Price left on 15 June. Captain Price departed in the early morning of 22 June after he was warned to leave the night before by the local Belgian commander. He got across the border one hour before it closed driving a truck without any brakes. He made it to Uganda where he continued his research for the next two years at the medical school of the University of Makerere in Kampala.103

MSCs contributed to medical advances. Maj. Trygve O. Berge, MSC, and Harvey Kempe, M.D., demonstrated in studies beginning in 1953 that gamma globulin was an effective vaccine against smallpox. Berge headed a team at Fort Ord, California, that in 1954 identified type 7 adenovirus as a new etiologic agent for acute respiratory illness. Col. Warren C. Eveland, MSC, advanced the fluorescent antibody technique for rapid identification of infectious agents. Maj. Harold L. Williams, MSC, conducted early studies in 1959 on the physiological and psychological impact of prolonged sleep deprivation. The expertise of the Prosthetics Research Laboratory under the command of Lt. Col. Maurice J. Fletcher, MSC, enabled over 160 Korean War amputees to be retained on active duty. Lt. Cols. Dan C. Cavanaugh and John D. Marshall, MSC, began a series of studies in 1960 that over the next decade provided major advances in plague research, including its ecology, relation of outbreaks to the impact of weather on the flea vector, and development of a serological test. And in 1960 Berge, then a colonel, headed a research team that fielded a vaccine for Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE).104

The nuclear age had created requirements for experts in the medical effects of nuclear weapons, the medical management of mass casualties, and the use of nuclear medical techniques in diagnosis and treatment. The development of expertise to meet those requirements that had been marked by the pioneering work of Lt. Col. Roy W. Maxwell, MSC, and others, led to the establishment in 1957 of nuclear medical science as a specialty that encompassed radiation biology, biophysics, and radiological and health physics. It had an initial requirement for thirty-one officers, including ten at the doctoral level. This opportunity for graduate training had produced its first two doctorates by 1960: Majs. Charles R. Angel, MSC, and Ernest D. Jones, MSC. By December 1961 there were twenty officers in the specialty, and Colonel Maxwell, then the assistant for atomic nuclear warfare and casualty studies at the Medical Field Service School, represented their interests as a specialty group.105

The chiropody debate was resolved in 1956 with the establishment of nine positions for doctors of surgical chiropody at general hospitals and basic training centers.106 In 1957 2d Lt. John L. Charlton, Jr., MSC, became the first chiropodist commissioned in the Army in his specialty. Previously, Charlton had been assigned


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Lieutenant Charlton (right) with patient at Walter Reed Army Hospital

as a noncommissioned officer to the Pentagon dispensary where he established a practice that was popular with a number of general officers. He counted President and Mrs. Eisenhower among his patients. Podiatry became the preferred name for the specialty during this period, and in 1957 the American Podiatry Association cited Lieutenant Charlton for his contributions.107

Hearing loss associated with military service had begun to be a concern in World War II. The Army gradually took an interest in this problem, initially with the clinical needs for audiometric testing, the fitting of hearing aids, and the provision of aural rehabilitation services. That interest assumed a more concrete shape when audiology, another emerging specialty, joined the MSC in 1965 as a career field within the Medical Allied Sciences Section. By December 1966 the Army had commissioned five trained audiologists who were replacing a variety of military personnel in meeting the evolving demands for audiological and hearing preservation services.108

In 1954 there were 77 entomologists on active duty, which number dropped to 49 in 1961, a number that included 9 officers with doctorates and 2 enrolled in doctoral programs. DOD established the Armed Forces Pest Control Board in 1956, and entomologists served as its executive secretary on a rotating basis among the Services. There were efforts to move entomology into the Sanitary Engineering Section, the argument being that while entomologists had been at loggerheads previously with sanitary engineers, they were now closely associated in their professional interests. The organization of the preventive medicine company was evidence of that relationship. If the company's mission was mainly entomology, then an entomologist commanded, but if it was principally a sanitary engineering mission, then a sanitary engineer commanded. Those who would realign entomologists argued that as members of a field practice specialty, they were "found more in the mud than in the laboratory." However, entomology remained part of the Medical Allied Sciences Section.109

Progress slowed in Army psychology. The scope of practice remained limited, retention was poor, and most psychologists on active duty were junior officers with a two-year military obligation. The graduate student program expired in 1954, but restarted in 1957, and the situation was further helped by a Regular Army augmentation in 1958. One of those officers, 2d Lt. Jimmy L. Hatfield, MSC, became the department's liaison with Project Adam, an Army project at Huntsville,


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Social work recruiting poster, January 1960

Alabama, that was one of the earliest phases of the U.S. space program. Retention difficulties compelled the Army to commission some psychologists at the master's level, even though the doctorate had become the U.S. standard.110

There were only eighty-eight psychologists on active duty in 1961, and ten of those were in training. Lt. Col. James Hedlund, MSC, became the psychology consultant in 1963. He believed the number of psychologists was inadequate for the Army's needs, and he predicted the demise of Army psychology if it continued on the same course. Hedlund was able to get his position reinstated on a full-time basis, he expanded contacts with the civil sector, and he expanded the student program to a three-year course of study.111

The Army authorized the addition of an MSC social worker to each division, and in 1961 there were 116 social workers on active duty. Lt. Col. William S. Rooney, MSC, the social work consultant to the surgeon general from 1962 to 1965, was able to negotiate the establishment of social work as a separate service in the larger hospitals. This removed social workers from the direct supervision of psychiatry but more important, in Rooney's view, it "enabled social workers to provide services to all patients in the hospital on an equal."112

Conflict between sanitary engineering and the Medical Department ended, and Lt. Col. Stanley J. Weidenkopf, MSC, chief of the section, gave an upbeat assessment in 1954 to a National Academy of Sciences panel. There were 99 sanitary engineers on active duty in 1961, with another 175 officers in the active reserves. They were expanding their expertise into industrial hygiene, radiation protection, and research and development, and eight officers became founding members of the American Academy of Sanitary Engineers. Another accomplishment was fielding new equipment, including a portable kit for rapid bacterial testing of water.113

In 1954 some of the worst floods in the history of East Pakistan drove ten million people from their homes. Cholera was endemic, and the potential for epidemics of typhoid and cholera was very high. In August the 37th Medical Company (Preventive Medicine), commanded by a sanitary engineer, 1st Lt. Alfred D. Kneessy, MSC, boarded five U.S. Air Force C-124s in Dacca thirty­three hours after being alerted. When they left Pakistan thirty-nine days later, they had administered nearly one million inoculations, a mission complicated by cultural prohibitions against women being touched by strange men. The governor of East Bengal cabled the U.S. secretary of state that their efficiency had been


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Sanitary engineers meet at Walter Reed in 1959

an "eye opener." Kneessy's company had used every conceivable conveyance to reach the population, including river steamers and small boats. Shots were sometimes given by medics in one boat to people in another.114

The issue of scientific duties versus Army officer duties surfaced at a meeting of sanitary engineers in 1959. Lt. Col. Marlo E. Smith, MSC, argued that they should concentrate on their specialty and not seek positions typically held by administrative specialty officers. There was agreement with his point, but that did not mean scientific specialty officers were excused from learning how to be Army officers. Col. Floyd Berry, MSC, "probably the oldest sanitary engineer present," counseled that they had to be proficient both as engineers and as officers. "If we are going to become prima donnas and go around in a sloppy butcher's coat and cry that we need recognition like the Ph.D.s, then we are not improving our status." Capt. Hunter G. Taft, Jr., MSC, seconded Colonel Berry. He said they were Army officers first, MSCs second, and sanitary engineers third. "We are either 'on the team' or we get off it."115

The Medical Department continued to use enlisted optometrists. One was Sgt. David Johnson, assigned to Fort Sill, Oklahoma, where he found his enlisted status galling when he was required to perform the medic's nemesis, bedpan drill. Lt. Col. John W. Sheridan, MSC, chief of the Optometry Section from 1951 to 1960, said it was tantamount to employing enlisted and officer dentists for neighboring chairs in a dental clinic.116 The American Optometric Association cried foul. It insisted that the intent of Congress was to commission optometrists. If they were not commissioned, then the Army could enlist them, but not for duty as optometrists. The practice of employing enlisted optometrists ended in 1957; from then on the Army used commissioned optometrists only.117

The Army's decision to commission optometrists encountered criticism from the American Medical Association. General Hays dismissed it as carping by a small minority. He conceded that the scope of practice for MSC optometrists surpassed that of their civilian colleagues, but he reminded critics that they worked under the supervision of ophthalmologists. He was in no way concerned about the quality of their work, and he pledged his continued support of their expanded employment.118


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Optometry officer checks a patient at the EENT Clinic, U.S. Army Hospital, Fort Campbell, Kentucky, February 1959

Demand for optometry had not abated. The department estimated that one-third of soldiers wore glasses, but because of the shortage of optometrists they were waiting up to three months for an appointment in 1954. Colonel Sheridan began visiting the ten U.S. colleges of optometry each year to recruit from the 300 members of the graduating classes. Sheridan's effort paid off as the number of Optometry Section officers on active duty went to 125 in 1958 and 154 in 1961. The first annual meeting for Army optometrists was held in 1963 under the direction of Sheridan's successor, Lt. Col. Billy C. Greene, MSC.119

Summary

The author of the Peyton Report disparaged the Medical Service Corps as an "Austro-Hungarian sort of empire" composed of heterogeneous elements.120 Colonel Peyton's characterization was apt, but not in the way he intended. The diversity of the MSC, while a weakness, was also a considerable strength for the Medical Department. If nothing else, its collection of officers in widely differing specialties made for interesting bedfellows and a synergy not otherwise possible. Administrative and scientific specialty officers were at least compelled to listen to each other.

The success of the corps chiefs in building a vision for the MSC generally shared by its members was a substantial achievement for such a diverse group.


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That was especially true given the diffuseness of the surgeon general's power, even in a period in which the Surgeon General's Office enjoyed a high degree of control over all medical personnel in the Army. Efforts to build cohesion with the various devices of group identity-insignia, music, travels by the chief, a birth date, and a history project-were not inconsequential actions. The initiative of setting up a permanent corps and improving the quality of its officers was paying off. Old-timers believed the Medical Service Corps of the 1960s was "a far cry" from the Medical Administrative Corps of the 1920s.121

The use of MSCs to substitute for and replace military physicians continued with persistent shortages of Medical Corps officers, but this remained upsetting to some. Colonel Peyton said that substituting MSCs for Medical Corps officers was an inane effort to "put all the 'doctors' in white coats and anchor them in the hospitals."122 Others shared his view.

Scientific specialty officers had to be technically proficient in a way that encouraged specialization. However, the large number of MSC administrative specialties encouraged overspecialization. Colonel Aabel cautioned against that tendency, especially as it tended to channel the experience and capabilities of administrative officers exclusively into either the fixed facility or field settings. For example, he said that hospital-based officers, particularly registrars, would be lost in field assignments if they had not kept up with field medicine. Operations and training officers, on the other hand, needed familiarity with hospital-based specialties in order to fully comprehend the nature of the department's health care mission. Scientific specialty officers also tended to become isolated in their specific areas. The tug between specialization and generalization was pretty much a draw.123

The tension described in the Peyton Report between the fixed and field facility components of the department was present as well in the MSC as a division between "house cats" and "alley cats," which was manifested to a degree in the underlying tension between the administrative and scientific specialties. Officers in field units sometimes felt themselves disadvantaged in their career aspirations. The problem was recognized by the corps leadership at the end of the decade. They realized it was important to make field assignments "so attractive that they will be sought and not shunned."124 Education and training were kept at the forefront of corps interest, and there was a general upgrading in educational levels, including the standards of the Army-Baylor Program. The assignment of MSCs to General Staff, Army logistics, and other positions outside the Medical Department represented new opportunities and was also indicative of their abilities. Promotion opportunities waxed and waned and waxed again. An initiative to create general officer opportunity did not succeed. Unfortunately, General Heaton's request for a star constrained the corps to proposals for one general officer and the greater potential in Maj. Leo Benade's proposal was lost.

Position opportunity ran up against the larger issue of command. Command of Army units demands the selection of individuals who meet the most stringent requirements for ability-personality, character, training, and experience. The department supported an array of command opportunities for MSCs, including command of nonoperational medical units or medical supporting units, as well as


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command at all levels of the Army. But it would not accept MSCs in command of its operational hospitals. Perhaps the most insidious side of that policy was the breeding of generations of MSCs who did not seek this level of responsibility or who believed they would never be tested in that way.

In 1953 Maj. Gen. James T. McGibony, MC, a retired deputy surgeon general, interjected a balanced viewpoint into the sometimes acrimonious debate. McGibony recognized the difficulty of interesting the best physicians in administration. However, unlike other nations, the United States had developed graduate programs in hospital administration, and in America some physicians were actually attracted to the specialty.125 He urged the continued search for top­flight physicians and others who had prepared themselves through a broad general background and management training to enter hospital administration. At the same time, he gave short shrift to those who would argue that only physicians could handle the top hospital administration positions. "It is as foolish to think that the non-medical man cannot develop the concept of medical care as to feel that the acquisition of an M.D. degree automatically removes all administrative ability."126

Career opportunity in the Army begins with the education and training that prepare officers for good positions. Solid performance at each level of the hierarchy results in promotions and higher-level positions, but that progression is stunted when there are constraints. Opportunities for MSCs in education, positions, and promotions improved to some degree in the period between the Korean and Vietnam Wars, but not as much as was desired. Their vistas remained limited by actions of the Medical Department.


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Notes

1Interwar period: See Weigley, History of the United States Army, pp. 525-26. Quoted words: James L. Cooney, "Some Notes on the Historical Development of the Medical Service Corps," U.S. Armed Forces Medical Journal 8 (February 1957): 254-63; Speech, Maj Gen Alvin L. Gorby, MC, sub: The MSC as a Member of the Army Medical Service Team, in Rpt, 459th Hospital Center, sub: Proceedings of the Medical Service Corps Institute, Garmisch, Germany, 2-4 April 1959, DASG-MS.

2Integration: SG Conference, 2 Apr 56.

3Changes: See Paul Starr, The Social Transformation of American Medicine (New York: Basic Books, 1982), pp. 338-78.

4Quoted words: Rpt, Col Robert E. Peyton, MC, President, Army Medical Service Board, OTSG, sub: Report of Study, 17 Sep 56, copy in DASG-MS, hereafter cited as Peyton Report.

5DCSPER: Memo, Col Harold W. Glattly, MC, Ch, Pers Div, OTSG, for Armstrong, sub: Consolidation of All Personnel Activities Within the Department of the Army, 29 Jan 54, and DF, Hayes, to G-4, same sub and date, in SG Conference, 29 Jan 54, USACMH. TSG had found "by bitter experience" the need for this authority. Memo, Glattly, 29 Jan 54. OTSG believed TSG was in charge of "all Army medical personnel, world-wide" (SG Conference, 14 Jul 59). Technical services: SG Conferences, 3 Apr, 31 Jul, and 11 Dec 64. See Hewes, From Root to McNamara, pp. 316-65. Quoted words: SG Conference, 3 Apr 64. Heaton's signature block added a capital "T" (The Surgeon General) as he took office in June 1959. This convention first appeared about March 1959 and was in regular use that summer. The historical title of the department was changed to Medical Service with an Army decree that there could be only one department, the Department of the Army. It changed back before the decade was over.

6Lessons: Spurgeon H. Neel, Jr., "Helicopter Evacuation in Korea," U.S. Armed Forces Medical Journal 6 (May 1955): 695-700. Doctrine: CMT 4, Col Bryan C. T. Fenton, MC, XO, OTSG (drafted by Maj James D. Davenport, MSC, Acting Ch, Aviation Br), to DCSLOG, sub: Branches Authorized Army Aviation, 10 Jan 58, folder 280, box 18/18, MSC-USACMH; Dorland and Nanney, Dust-Off, pp. 19-20; Ltr, Col Bernard Aabel, Ch, MSC, to senior MSCs, sub: The Army Medical Service Corps, December 1956, hereafter cited as MSC Newsletter (Colonel Aabel instituted this communication method, and it was used by all his successors). MSC newsletters from 1956 to 1961 are in RG 112, accession 64P-2161, Box 103, and 1963 is in RG 112, accession 66C-3260, Box 35, NARA-WNRC. Also see Maj William R. Knowles, MSC, Asst Ch, Avn Br, OTSG, to Capt John Temperilli, Jr., MSC (in Vietnam), 3 Oct 62, MSC-USACMH.

7Huey: Interv, Lt Col John W. Hammett, MSC, Ret., with Capt Dorland, MSC, THU, OTSG, Oct 75, interview files, USACMH; Interv, Lt Col Kenneth K. Wheatley, MSC, Ret., with Dorland, Oct 75, USACMH; Weinert, Jr., A History of Army Aviation, pp. 203-04; David M. Lam, "From Balloon to Black Hawk: Vietnam," part 4 of series, U.S. Army Aviation Digest 27 (July 1981): 45.

8MSC Branch: MSC Newsletters, December 1956 and October 1963; OTSG, DA, Special Orders 10, 23 Mar 63, DASG-MS; Col Dale E. Thompson, MSC, Actg Ch, MSC, to Deputy Surgeon General (DSG), sub: Reorganization of Medical Service Corps Functions, 27 Aug 62; Thompson, Policy no. 45, same sub, 15 Oct 62 (implementing OTSG Memo, 20 Aug 62), DASG­MS; William J. Clegg, "Medical Service Corps Career Planning," Military Medicine 125 (November 1960): 757.

9Changes: Memo, Col Dale L. Thompson, Actg Ch, MSC, for TSG, sub: Reorganization of MSC Functions, 14 Aug 62, and Col Lawrence A. Potter, MC, XO, OTSG, to Thompson, same sub: 20 Aug 62; OTSG, SO 10, 25 Mar 63, all in folder 127, box 9/18, MSC-USACMH; MSC Newsletter, October 1963, DASG-MS. The Personnel and Training (P&T) Division XO was also made an assistant to the MSC chief.

10Warrant officers: DA Cir 611-6, 14 Jun 56, PL; MSC Newsletter, January 1959; Rpt, P&T Div, OTSG, sub: The Army Medical Service Corps and Warrant Officer Career Planning Program, FY 1961, 1 Jun 60, hereafter cited as MSC Career Planning Program, FY 1961; Rpt, Manpower Control Div, OTSG, sub: Fiscal Year Reports, Medical Service Corps, FY 1959-67, hereafter cited as MSC Manpower and dates; Notes of telephone interv, CW4 W.B. King, Ret., with Ginn, 8 Feb 92, all in DASG-MS.


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11Ratings: Ch, MSC, policy, sub: Release of Information, 30 Aug 62, DASG-MS. Report scores were translated into an Officer Efficiency Index (OEI) based upon the expected statistical distribution. OEIs were averaged into an Annual Efficiency Index (AEI), and officers could compare their OEI with the AEI for an idea of how they were doing. Quoted words: Rpt, Lt Col Charles J. Cowgill, MSC, XO, Med Div 549th Hosp Ctr, USAREUR, sub: Proceedings of the MSC Institute, Berchtesgaden, Germany, June 1958, MSC-USACMH.

12Statistics: MSC Manpower, FY 1959-67; Joseph Israeloff, "The Emerging Role of the Medical Service Corps Officer in the Evolution of the Army Medical Service," Military Medicine 125 (April 1960): 273, hereafter cited as Israeloff, "The Emerging Role"; Col Leo F. Benade, MSC, Special Projects Office, OTSG, summary sheet for TSG signature, sub: Proposed Legislation for 1962 Legislative Session, DASG-MS, hereafter cited as Benade, 1962 Legislative Session. Senior medical and dental student programs were established in 1956 to increase MC and DC (and later VC) accessions by commissioning junior and senior medical and dental students as MSC second lieutenants and assigning them to U.S. Army Reserve (USAR) units where they were paid at the rate of one day per week while in school. Specialties: CMT 2, Maxwell, Ch, MSC, to Ch, Medical Plans and Operations (MP&O) Div, OTSG, sub: Consolidation of ARs and SRs, 19 Nov 59, folder 139, box 9/18, MSC-USACMH.

13RIF: SG Conferences, 1 Sep 53 and 22 Aug 55; Office Memo, OTSG, sub: Notes, October 1953, copy in JML; MSC Newsletter, February 1958. The 1958 RIF affected ninety commissioned officers and forty-nine warrant officer,.

14Quoted words: Address to USAREUR and USAF MSC officers, Col Robert L. Black, Ch, MSC, sub: Problems of the Medical Service Corps, April 1954, folder 40, box 4/18, MSC­USACMH, hereafter cited as Black, Problems of the MSC.

15Retention: MSC Newsletters, June 1959 and December 1961; SG Conferences, 28 Jan 57, 6 May 60, and 27 Mar 64.

16MC: SG Conferences, 1 Sep and 18 Dec 53, 26 Apr 54, 19 Nov 56, 10 Sep and 5 Dec 58, and 2 Jan 59; MSC Newsletters, February 1957 and February 1958; Hamrick to Ginn, 21 Sep 88, DASG-MS. Armstrong: SG Conference, 18 Dec 53. Stethoscope: SG Conference, 25 Jan 57.

17Shortages: SG Conferences, 1 Sep 53, 26 Apr 54; MSC Newsletters, February 1957 and February 1958, DASG-MS; Address, Aabel to MSC monthly meeting at Walter Reed Army Medical Center (WRAMC), sub: Today's Army Medical Service Corps, 21 Nov 56, folder 43, box 4/18, MSC-USACMH, hereafter cited as Aabel, Today's MSC. Quoted words: MSC Newsletter, November 1958; SG Conference, 18 Dec 59. Percentages: MSC Newsletter, June 1959.

18Substitution of MSCs: SG Conference, 19 Nov 56. Shortages in 1961: MSC Newsletter, December 1961.

19Accession,: SG Conferences, 3 Feb 54, 9 Jul 56, and 26 Jun 64; MSC Newsletter, November 1958; Ltr, TAGO, sub: Staffing, Authorization and Utilization of Medical Service Commissioned Personnel in TOE (General Reserve) Units, 16 Mar 56; DF, Col Laurence A. Potter, MC, XO, OTSG, to Dir, P&T Div, sub: Policy of MSC Personnel Holding Ph.D. Degrees, 24 Sep 62, MSC­USACMH. 2d Lt. Irons: OTSG, Rpt of WRAMC conference, sub: Current Trends in the Army Medical Department, 1966, MSC-USACMH.

20Career plans: Rpt, MSC&WO Sec, P&T Div, OTSG, sub: Status of Major Projects in Career Management Section, June 1960, DASG-MS; Lt Col William J. Clegg, Jr., draft section, sub: Career Planning, 1958 MSC History Project, hereafter cited as Clegg, Career Planning, 1961; Col Clegg, Ch, Pers Div, 549th Hosp Ctr, Germany, to Lt Col Matthew Ginalick, MSC, Ch, Spec Proj Br, THU, 13 Sep 61, all in folder 246, box 15/18; Lt Col Charles A. Pendlyshok, MSC, to Clegg, MSC, 15 Feb 60, box 19/18, all in MSC-USACMH.

21Movie: MSC Historical Rpt, FY 1955, file Post World War II, box 2/18, hereafter cited as MSC FY 1955 Rpt; Maj William V. Davis, MSC, TLO, MSC Historian Materials File, 1956, folder 238, box 15/18, MSC-USACMH. OTSG allocated funds for a Technicolor procurement film in 1956; the author could not locate it. Newsletter: See note 6, this chapter. Party: SG Conference, 19 May 58. The esprit transcended the Services. In 1957 Army, Navy, and Air Force MSC officers formed the MSC Association, headed by Lt. Col. John A. MacCartney, MSC, USAF. Medical Service Corps Association Newsletter, November-December 1958, MSC-USACMH.


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22March: Aabel to Capt Samuel Loboda, U.S. Army Band, Fort Myer, Va., 7 Jul 58. Follow-up with the U.S. Army Band in 1984 and 1985 revealed no record of an MSC march, and Col. Robert I. Jetland, Aabel's assistant, confirmed that none materialized. Jetland to Ginn, 7 Nov 87, DASG­MS. Motto and flag: Aabel to Ch, Heraldic Br, QMG, sub: Establishment of a Motto for the Medical Service Corps, 10 Jul 58; B.W. Dano, Technical Liaison Div, OTSG, to Ch, Heraldic Br, QMG, 11 Feb 59; OTSG, Off of Ch, MSC, file #605-02, sub: MSC Flag and Insignia File, 1963, all in RG 112, accession 64A-2161, Box 103/162, NARA-WNRC.

23Insignia: DF, Aabel to Ch, P&O Div, OTSG, sub: Questionnaire on AMEDS [Army Medical Service] Insignia, 9 Jul 56; Aabel to Capt Knute A. Tofte-Nielsen, 14 Feb 57, RG 112, accession 64A-2161, Box 103/162, NARA-WNRC. Aabel proposed a gold snake on a silver staff with letters superimposed for each corps; his alternative was to change the MSC to a gold caduceus, the same as the other corps, with a superimposed "S." Tofte-Nielsen's design was a five-pointed gold star centered on a gold caduceus.

24Birth date: Draft rpt, Capt James K. Arima, MSC, Recorder, Lt Col Robert I. Jetland, MSC, and Lt Col Charles A. Pendlyshok, MSC, Chm, sub: Staff Study on Anniversary of the Origin of the Medical Service Corps, November 1956, signed by Aabel and Col John B. Coates, MC, Dir, Historical Unit, AMEDS, 26 Nov 56, with note by Maj Gen Cooney on DD95 routing slip, approved by Maj Gen Hays, 13 Feb 57, folder 37, box 4/18, MSC-USACMH; MSC Newsletters, September 1956 and April 1957; Memo, Hays, TSG, for OTSG Officers and Society of Consultants to Armed Forces, 31 Mar 57, MSC-USACMH. Either Letterman's order of 2 August 1862 or the 11 March 1864 date would have been better. The department cannot point to an unbroken thread either, but no one seriously argues against using 1775 for its formation as "an Hospital."

25Project failure: MSC FY 1955 Rpt.

26Quoted words: THU, AEB for 1958 MSC History Project.

27Quoted words: Notes of discussion, Col Lloyd A. Schlaeppi, MSC, with Lt Col Richard V.N. Ginn, Washington, D.C., 16 May 84, DASG-MS.

28Regular Army: SG Conferences, 21 Mar and 1 Apr 56 and 28 Jan 57; MSC Newsletters, September 1956, May 1958, and June 1959; Statement, Heaton, sub: Statement Before the Committee on Armed Services, U.S. Senate, 8 September 1966, DASG-MS.

29Quoted words: MSC Newsletter, June 1959. Education: MSC Newsletter, April 1957 and May 1958.

30Baccalaureate degrees: MSC FY 1955 Rpt; MSC Newsletters, August 1958 and January 1959; SG Conferences, 25 Nov 57 and 24 Mar 58; Interv, Col Roy S. Church, MSC, Ret., with Ginn, Fort McPherson, Ga., 9-10 Nov 83, DASG-MS.

31Letters: Church said that without action his career "was almost at a standstill." Numbers: MSC Newsletter, June 1959; MSC Manpower, 31 December 1961.

32Graduate programs: MSC Newsletters, April 1957, June 1959, and July 1961 (FY 1963 programs); MSC Manpower, 31 December 1961. Quoted words: SG Conference, 4 Aug 59. Study: John W. Bullard, "A Study of the Relationship Between Graduate Civil Schooling and Career Advancement of the United States Army Medical Service Corps Officer," Ph.D. dissertation, American University, Washington, D.C., 1971, JML.

33Quoted words: Hamrick, Sylvester interv, 21 Feb 84, USAMHI. In 1958 Hamrick organized the Alumni Association of the Army-Baylor Program.

34Army-Baylor: Rpt, MFSS, Brooke Army Medical Center (BAMC), sub: Report on the Baylor Army Program in Hospital Administration, 1961, DASG-MS. There were 343 officers by June 1954: 201 MSC, 113 ANC, 8 MC, 2 WMSC, 1 WAC, and 18 foreign officers. MFSS, History of the Hospital Admin Course, undated, MSC-USACMH. Also see Rpt, Lt Col David G. Dougherty, MSC, ADJ, BAMC, sub: Proceedings of the DA Board To Review Army Officer Schools, 5 Sep 65, RG 112, accession 69A-2602, Box 40/81, NARA-WNRC.

35Report: Rpt, John M. Nicklas, and Herluf V. Olsen, Commission on University Education in Hospital Administration, sub: Report on the Program in Hospital Administration, 1952, DASG­MS, hereafter cited as Accreditation Report, 1952. The survey was sponsored by the Kellogg Foundation and the AUPHA.

36Response: DF, Gibbs, Dir, Dept of Admin, MFSS, BAMC, sub: Confidential Report-Army Program in Hospital Administration, 28 Sep 54; Brig Gen James P. Cooney, MC, Commandant,


300

MFSS, to Herluf V. Olsen, Ph.D., Dir, Committee on University Education in Hospital Administration, undated (1953), including quoted words, DASG-MS.

37Quoted words: SG Conference, 10 Dec 52.

38Quoted words: Col R. G. Prentiss, Jr., in SG Conference, 15 Feb 54. Attention to weaknesses and changes: DF, Gibbs to Col Snyder, sub: Quality of Students Sent to MFSS, 8 Oct 54; Gibbs to Hardy Kemp, M.D., 4 Feb 55, DASG-MS; Also see SG Conference, 2 Apr 53, and series of 13 memos in 1955, principally by Gibbs. For discussion of continued maturation see: MSC Newsletters, December 1956, November 1958, 1959, and December 1959; Col Glenn K. Smith, Dir, Dept of Admin, MFSS, to Col Millard C. Monnen, MSC, P&T Div, OTSG, 1 Mar 61; SG Conference, 21 Nov 61; Edwards to Hamrick, sub: Baylor-Army Program, 3 Mar 58, DASG-MS; Rpt, AUPHA, sub: The Development of the Association of University Programs of Hospital Administration, 1958, Stimson Library (SL).

39Quoted words: Gibbs to Snyder, 8 Oct 54, DASG-MS.

40MHA degree: Memo for the record (MFR), Gibbs, 17 Feb 55, DASG-MS.

41Quoted words: Olsen to Gibbs, 10 Feb 55. Olsen also noted that the program had assistance from Leonard Duce, Ph.D., of Baylor University and later dean of the Trinity University Graduate School, San Antonio, Texas. Duce maintained a lasting relationship with the program.

42Defended: CMT 2, Edwards, Dir, Dept of Admin, MFSS, to Ch, Ops Div, MFSS, sub: Army School System Study, 22 Jan 62, including Msg, USCONARC AT-SCHED 700702, 16 Jan 62, DASG-MS.

43Courses: SG Conferences, 8 Sep 54 and 7 May 58; MSC Newsletters, May 1958 and October 1963; Rpt, Army Medical Service School, BAMC, sub: Recommendations of Program of Instruction Conference, 21 Aug 57, MSC-USACMH; Ch, Education and Training Div, OTSG, 7 May 58, in SG Conference, 7 May 58. Carmack Medal: Ltr, Hays to Col Joseph Carmack, USA, Ret., 24 Feb 58, RG 112, accession 64A-2161, Box 103/162, NARA-WNRC; Press releases, Public Information Office (PIO), BAMC, 23 Mar and 9 Jun 58, SL; Carmack to Maj Gen William E. Shambora, MC, CG, BAMC, 10 Jan 58, SL. Carmack was one of the first MACs promoted to colonel.

44Courses: MSC Newsletter, November 1958 (see DA Cir 621-21, 9 Ju1 58) and October 1963. Meetings in 1958/59 included personnel, comptroller, supply, psychology, entomology, and laboratory.

45Staff college: SG Conference, Jan 56; MSC Newsletter, July 1957; Aabel, Status of MSC, 1961; Aabel, Today's MSC; Clegg, Career Planning, 1961, all MSC-USACMH.

46Senior Service College (SSC): MSC Manpower, 31 December 1961; Rpt, P&T Div, OTSG, sub: Study-Increase of Officer Quotas, AMEDS, for Military and Civilian Schools, 15 Apr 54, DASG-MS; Aabel, Today's MSC.

47Pessimism: Memo, Lt Col Robert C. Miller, MSC, sub: Minutes of Second Meeting of Ad Hoc Committee To Inquire into the Feasibility and Desirability for Integration of the Medical Service Corps Promotion List into the Army Promotion List, 10 Jul 56, MSC-USACMH, hereafter cited as 1956 Ad Hoc Committee.

48Outside assignments: SG Conference, 13 Feb 56; MSC Newsletter, December 1956; CMT 3, Col Byron L. Steger, MC, Ch, P&T Div, OTSG, sub: Utilization of Senior Medical Service Corps Officers, 6 Oct 58, to DF, Aabel, same sub, 17 Sep 58, DASG-MS, hereafter cited as Steger, 6 Oct 58 comment.

49Command assignments: SG Conference, 1 Feb 54; DF, Heaton to Asst Sec Army (Manpower and Reserve Forces), drafted by Benade, MSC, P&T Div, OTSG, sub: Legislative Proposal for Inclusion in the DOD FY 1961 Program, 10 Aug 60, DASG-MS, hereafter cited as Heaton, FY 1961 Program; Col John A. Mikuluk, MSC, Ret., to Ginn, 26 Jan 84, DASG-MS. Pay: SG Conferences, 7 Oct and 8 Nov 60.

50Command assignments: Change 1 to AR 40-2, "Army Medical Treatment Facilities," 7 Apr 58, PL; MSC Newsletter, May 1958; THU, AEB for 1958 MSC History Project; Speech, Clegg, sub: The Army Medical Service Corps and Warrant Officer Career Planning Program, Current and Projected, 1959, DASG-MS; SG Conference, 4 Aug 59. Quoted words: Black, draft section, sub: Achievement and Looking Ahead, 1958 MSC History Project, file 259, box 16/18, MSC­USACMH.


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51Quoted words: Interv, Heaton with Col Robert B. McLean, MC, Pinehurst, N.C., 7 Dec 78, Senior Officer Oral History Program, USAMHI.

52Quoted words: Black, "The Army's Medical Service Corps," Military Surgeon 115 (July 1954): 12, hereafter cited as Black, "The Army's MSC"; also see Address, Black, sub: Utilization of the Medical Service Corps, Hosp Admin Class, BAMC, 1 Dec 53, MSC-USACMH.

53Quoted words: Richards to Ginn, 28 Feb 86, DASG-MS.

54Command responsibilities: Speech, Col Joseph T. Caples, MC, Med Div, HQ, USACOMZEUR, sub: Past, Present and Future of the Medical Service Corps, undated (1964), folder 264, box 17/18, MSC-USACMH.

55National Guard: SG Conference, 7 Sep 56. Civil defense: Val Paterson, Federal Civil Defense Administrator, to Charles E. Wilson, Sec Def, sub: Civil Defense Emergency Hospital, 25 Nov 55, in SG Conference, 7 Dec 55.

56Quoted words: Accreditation Rpt, 1952.

57Quoted words: Maj Gen Joseph Martin, Cdr, BAMC, to Brig Gen James P. Cooney, Cmdt, MFSS, 27 Sep 54, DASG-MS. See also SG Conferences, 10 Sep 58, 2 Jan and 7 Jul 59, and 21 Nov 61.

58Command: SG Conference, 23 Mar 59; MSC Newsletter, December 1961; 75 Stat. 364, 17 August 1961. Heaton's request: Heaton, FY 1961 Program.

59Appointments: Msg, DA DCSPER 58203, 28 Nov 61, cited in MSC Newsletter, December 1961.

602 percent: Army-Navy Medical Service Corps Act of 1947-Per Centum of Colonels, 61 Stat. 734, 23 March 1954; Black, "The Army's MSC," p. 13; Rpt, THU, sub: Outline, the U.S. Army Medical Service Corps, 1957, folder 259, box 16/18; Black, Statement Before the Subcommittee of the Committee on Armed Services, House of Representatives, on H.R. 5509, 83d Cong., 1st sess., July 1953, folder 13, box 3/18, both in MSC-USACMH; U.S. Senate Rpt no. 1030, sub: Army-Navy Medical Service Corps Act of 1947-Per Centum of Colonels, 25 February 1954; SG Conferences, 29 Sep 52 and 22 Jun 53. The 8 percent provision allowed for 76 colonels based on the RA strength of 945 officers at the time. OTSG had identified 183 positions for MSC colonels. Follow-on problems: Steger, 6 Oct 58 comment.

61Quoted words: SG Conference, 15 Jul 57.

62APL: SG Conference, 14 May 56; 1956 Ad Hoc Committee; MFR, Lt Col Samuel A. Plemmons, MSC, Pers Div, OTSG, sub: Integration of the Medical Service Corps and Army Promotion Lists, 1956, MSC-USACMH; MSC Newsletter, September 1956.

63Hays' plan: Rpt, Hays, sub: Informal Report to General Magruder on Completion of Tour as Surgeon General, in SG Conference, 19 May 59.Quoted words: Interv, Col Vernon McKenzie, MSC, Ret., Principal Dep to Asst Sec Def (Health Affairs), with Ginn, the Pentagon, 20 Jun 84, DASG­MS. Colonel Black said Hays wanted MSC medical logisticians to move on so as to avoid "invading Medical Corps responsibility areas." Black to Coates, 11 May 60, box 19/81, MSC-USACMH.

64Quoted words: Col James T. Richards, MSC, Ret., to Ginn, 28 Feb 76, DASG-MS.

65Options: Maj William V. Davis, MSC, Historical Material File, 1956, folder 235, box 15/18, MSC-USACMH.

66Resolutions: MSC FY 1955 Rpt.

67Stars: Memo, Black, sub: Establishment by Law, on an Incumbency Basis of the Grade of Brigadier General for the Chief of the Medical Service Corps, for Armstrong, TSG, 4 Oct 54 (and annotated by Hays, DSG, 8 Oct 54), DASG-MS; MSC FY 1955 Rpt; MSC Newsletters, July 1957 and July 1961; DF, Heaton to DCSPER, sub: H.R. 10905, 'A Bill To Authorize the Grades of Maj. Gen. and Brigadier General in the Medical Service Corps of the Regular Army and for Other Purposes,' 11 Apr 62; DF, Doan to DCSPER, sub: H.R. 11649, 24 May 62; Cyrus R. Vance, Sec Army, to Rep Carl Vinson, Chm, House Armed Services Committee (HASC), 8 Aug 62; Benade, 1962 Legislative Session; Col James T. Richards to Ginn, 28 Feb 76; Benade, Ginn interv, 25 Jan 84; all documents in DASG-MS; Armstrong, Israeloff interv, 12 Mar 76.

68Quoted words: DF, Heaton to DCSPER, 11 Apr 62, MSC-USACMH; also see Benade, 1962 Legislative Session.

69General officers: Pamphlet, Clegg, "The Army Medical Service Corps and Warrant Officer Career Planning Program, Current and Projected, 1959."


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70Support: Heaton briefed the Office of Management and Budget in 1961 that the quality of administrative support made good clinical management possible. Brig Gen Manley Morrison, MSC, Ret., to Ginn, 4 Sep 88, DASG-MS. Administration: MSC Manpower, FY 1959-67; Fact Sheet, OTSG, sub: Army MSC: Knowledge of Special Advantage, 1957, both in DASG-MS.

71Operations: MSC Newsletters, December 1956 and January and June 1959; Israeloff, "The Emerging Role," p. 273; Aabel, Today's MSC.

72"Iron majors": Richard Halloran, "Of Paper Tigers Whose Joy in Life Is Red Stripes," New York Times (25 October 1984). Quoted words: Col John Lada, MSC, Dir, THU, OTSG, annotation to Wheatley, Dorland interv, Oct 75.

73Course: THU, AEB for 1958 MSC History Project.

74Overseas: MSC Newsletter, January 1959.

75Quoted words: Ibid.

76Medical Intelligence: MSC Newsletter, December 1956; Lt Col Raymond J. Creamer, MSC, draft chapter, sub: Intelligence, 1958 MSC History Project, folder 248, box 16/18, MSC­USACMH.

77Aviators: SG Conferences, 26 Jan 53, 11 Oct 54, and 1 May 57; MSC Newsletter, January 1959; MSC Manpower, FY 1959-67.

78Promotion problems: MSC Newsletter, October 1963; Rpt, OTSG, sub: Management Improvement Plan (draft) FY 63, 1963, both in RG 112, accession 66C-3260, Box 35, NARA­WNRC.

79Belanger: Col R. L. Parker, MSC, draft chapter, sub: Administrative Medical Supply Officer, 1958 MSC History Project, folder 244, box 15/18, MSC-USACMH.

80Louisville: Williams, Ginn interv, 15 Nov 84. Lemnitzer: SG Conference, 12 May 58.

81DOD: Rose C. Engelman, A Decade of Progress: The United States Army Medical Department, 1959-1969 (Washington, D.C.: Office of The Surgeon General, Department of the Army, 1971), pp. 151-54. Logistics program: MSC Newsletter, February 1961.

82Fogelberg: Rpt, OTSG, sub: Current Trends Conference, 1966, USACMH; Bio data card, THU, OTSG, undated, USACMH.

83Syracuse: Rpt, Syracuse University, sub: Army Comptrollership Program, 1991; Fact sheets, Syracuse, sub: What Is the Army Comptrollership Program? and Synopsis of the ACP (draft), 1990, all in DASG-MS.

84Comptrollers: Peyton Board; MFR, Col Manley Morrison, sub: The Medical Service Corps, 22 Mar 62, DASG-MS, hereafter cited as Morrison, The MSC; SG Conference, 19 Jun 57; MSC Newsletter, February 1958.

85Registrar: Maj John J. Ward, MSC, draft section, sub: Registrar, 1958 MSC History Project, box 15/18, MSC-USACMH.

86Facilities: Rpt, Lt Col Robert G. McCall, MSC, sub: Staff Study on Medical Facilities Engineering, 16 May 60 (result of Walter Reed Army Institute of Research [WRAIR] meeting, 30 Nov-5 Dec 59), 30 Aug 60, DASG-MS. Counter: CMT 4, Col James T. McGibony, MC, Ch, Plans and Ops Div, 30 Aug 60, in McCall, 16 May 60, DASG-MS.

87Hospital administration: File, Plans and Ops Div, OTSG, sub: Improvement of Organization Structure (change to SR 40-610-5), 5 Oct 54, Maj James W. Reiber, MSC, to Lt Col David C. Clark, MSC, Hosp Mgmt Engineering Br, OTSG, and other correspondence updating AR 40-22, in RG 112, accession 68H-3359, Box 57/75; OTSG, file 204-01, revision of ASR 40-22, final revised draft 1 Oct 63, RG 112, accession 66C-3260, Box 35, all in NARA­WNRC; SG Conference, 21 Oct 55; AR 40-27, "Organization of Class I U.S. Army Hospitals," 29 Apr 55, PL.

88Resignation: Maj Vol K. Philips, MC, to TSG, sub: Reasons for My Resignation from the Medical Corps, in SG Conference, 23 Nov 55; Office Memo, OTSG, 27 Jan 56; also see Maxwell to Col Allen Pappas, MSC, Ch, Log Div, BAMC, 10 Aug 61, MSC-USACMH. Pappas, an MSC, did not like administrative officers either.

89Keep MSCs down: Rpt, National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council (NAS­NRC), sub: Report of Committee on Army Medical Education, chaired by Dean A. Clark, M.D., Washington, D.C., Jan 56, JML. MC XOs: Heaton to Col Knox Dunlap, MC, Surg, First U.S. Army, 22 Aug 61 (refers to AR 600-20 and AR 40-2); Morrison, The MSC.


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90Zolenas: Zolenas, Milner interv, 13 Jul 66, USACMH. Gibbs: Interv, George Bugbee with Lewis E. Weeks, AHA, Chicago, 31 May and 19 Jul 78, American Hospital Association Library; SG Conference, 29 Mar 57. In 1990 James O. Hepner, Ph.D., American College of Hospital Administrators chairman, listed Gibbs as one of the ten most influential pioneers in the field. Editorial, Hepner, in Healthcare Executive 4 (March-April 1990): 5.

91MSC differences: Col. Anthony C. Tucker, MSC, surveyed 300 administrative officers with the Strong Vocational Interest questionnaire. They were strikingly different from physicians and scientific specialty MSCs, but quite similar to other Army officers. Tucker, "Vocational Interests of Medical Administrative Officers," Armed Forces Medical Journal 5 (May 1955): 685-90. Also see Edward K. Strong, Jr., and Tucker, The Use of Vocational Interest Scales in Planning a Military Career, APA monograph no. 341 (Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association, 1952).

92Separation: SG Conference, 2 Feb 53; Black, "Problems of the MSC." The AF had an MSC and a Bioscience Corps. Chiropractic: SG Conferences, 18 Mar 57 and 25 Apr 61.

93Pharmacy: SG Conferences, 16 and 19 Mar 55; Memo, Black for Ch, Plans and Ops Div, OTSG, sub: Proposed Changes to AR 40-615, 24 Sep 54, RG 112, accession 68A-3359, Box 57, NARA-WNRC; Henry D. Roth, "Utilization and Training of Pharmacists in the Army Medical Service," Military Surgeon 115 (July 1954): 43-45; Address, Aabel, sub: The Medical Service Corps, Department of the Army, 22 Jun 55, MSC-USACMH, hereafter cited as Aabel, The MSC; MSC Manpower, FY 1959-67; MSC Newsletters, November 1958, January 1959, and December 1961; Lt Col Alfred W. Gill, MSC, Pharmacy Br, Academy of Health Sciences Lesson Plan 37-365-320, sub: History and Traditions of Army Pharmacy, 1986; MSC Career Planning Program, FY 1961; MSC Newsletters, November 1958 and January 1959; MSC FY 1955 Rpt. Formulary: Edward Kremers, "The Lititz Pharmacopoeia," Badger Pharmacist (June-December 1938): 1-70.

94ROTC: The University of Wisconsin converted to an MSC ROTC. MSC FY 1955 Rpt.

95Regular Army: Speech, Aabel, sub: Utilization of Pharmacists in the Army, presented to the Idaho and Oregon state pharmacy conventions, Jun 57, folder 78, box 6/18; Rpt, Black et al., sub: Committee Study: Pharmacy in the Army, OTSG, 9 Mar 55, citing Ltr, TSG to Chm, Committee on Status of Pharmacy in Government Service, 9 May 47, folder 78, box 6/18, MSC-USACMH. Also see Aabel, The MSC.

96Residency program: Maj. Douglas J. Silvernale, MSC, was preceptor for 1st Lt. Robert P. McMahon, MSC, the first resident.

97MAS: MSC Newsletter, February 1961; MSC Manpower, 31 December 1961. Insignia: Aabel, Today's MSC. "A" prefix: Unpublished paper, Col John N. Albertson, MSC, sub: History of the Medical Service Corps Contributions to Medical Research and Development, 24 Sep 84, DASG-MS, hereafter cited as Albertson, MSCs in Research and Development. Quoted word: SG Conference, 11 Jul 61.

98Army survey: Summary of staff study, Maj Stephen E. Akers, MSC, Asst Ch, Career Planning Sec, MSC and WO Br, OTSG, sub: Utilization of Scientifically Trained Officers, 2 May 60, Clegg file, box 18/18, MSC-USACMH; 109 MSCs responded to the survey. DOD study: Rpt, Col H.A. Ferguson, MSC, P&T Div OTSG, sub: Final Report on Review of Medical and Biological Programs within the Department of Defense, 12 Oct 62, DASG-MS.

99Coddington: MSC Newsletter, October 1963. Utilization: DF, Col Harvey Coddington, MSC, Ch, MAS Sec, to Actg Ch, MSC, sub: The Utilization of Medical Service Corps Officers, 5 Oct 62, with CMT 2, Col Dale L. Thompson, MSC, 15 Oct 62, MSC-USACMH. Coddington was the first nonphysician curator of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP) Medical Museum.

100Gersoni: Col Charles S. Gersoni, MSC, Cdr, U.S. Army R&D Group (Far East), to Lt Col Matthew Ginalick, THU, 15 Dec 60, box 19/18, MSC-USACMH. Kuhn: Col Ludwig R. Kuhn, MSC, draft section, sub: Laboratory Specialties. Freeman: Col Monroe E. Freeman, draft section, sub: Biochemistry, all in 1958 MSC History Project, folder 253, box 16/18, MSC-USACMH.

101Quoted words: Lt Col John R. Ransom, MSC, draft section, sub: Microbiology, hereafter cited as Ransom, Microbiology.

102Gersoni proposal: Memo, Gersoni, Ch, Human Resources Br, R&D Div, OTSG, for Ch, R&D Div, sub: Career Patterns for Research Procurement, Selection, Classification and Management, 4 Dec 56, MSC-USACMH. USAMRDC: DAGO 31, 23 Aug 58, PL; MSC


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Newsletter, January 1959; Col Fred W. Timmerman, MC, Ret., to Col William V. Davis, MSC, XO, USAMRDC, 1 Jun 71, DASG-MS; Written interv, Col William C. Luehrs, MSC, Ret., with Ginn, 5 Nov 84, DASG-MS. Major Luehrs worked with Colonel Timmerman, Deputy Chief, R&D Division, OTSG, as the project officer. They formed the command in one day, then worked for months to sort out the details, with Luehrs serving as chief of the support division.

103Price: MSC Newsletter, April 1959; Telephone interv, Col. Donald L. Price, MSC, Ret., with Ginn, 28 Sep 91, author's notes; Price to Ginn, 31 Oct 91, DASG-MS.

104Research: Engelman and Joy, Two Hundred Years of Military Medicine; Fact sheet, THU, OTSG, sub: Chronology: U.S. Army Contributions to Civilian Medicine, 1971; Col Trygve O. Berge, MSC, draft section, sub: Virology and Immunology, 1958 MSC History Project, box 16/18, MSC-USACMH. Gamma globulin: C. Henry Kempe, Berge, and Beatrice England, "Hyperimmune Vaccine Gamma Globulin: Source, Evaluation and Use in Prophylaxis and Therapy," Pediatrics 17 (1956): 184. Adenovirus: Berge et al., "Etiology of Acute Respiratory Diseases Among Service Personnel at Fort Ord, California," American Journal of Hygiene 62 (1955): 294. Fluorescent antibody: Ransom, Microbiology. Plague: Dan C. Cavanaugh, "Specific Effects of Temperature Upon Transmission of the Plague Bacillus by the Oriental Rat Flea, Xenopsylla Cheopis," American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 20 (March 1971): 264-73, hereafter cited as Cavanaugh, "Specific Effects of Temperature"; Cavanaugh et al., "Plague," chapter in Andre J. Ognibene and O'Neill Barrett, Jr., General Medicine and Infectious Diseases in the series Internal Medicine in Vietnam (Washington, D.C.: Office of the Surgeon General and Center of Military History, U.S. Army, 1982), pp. 167-97. Prosthetics: Col Maurice J. Fletcher, MSC, draft section, sub: Prosthetics, 1958 MSC History Project, MSC-USACMH.

105Nuclear Medicine: MSC Newsletter, April 1959; Rpt, OTSG, sub: Sanitary Engineering, Report of Conference Conducted at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), Washington, D.C., 30 November-5 December 1959, hereafter cited as 1959 Sanitary Engineering Rpt; Memo, Clegg, sub: Conference, Nuclear Medical Officer, 3304, and Nuclear Science Officer, 3308, Career Planning Program, 26 Jan 59; OTSG, MSC Career Planning Program, 1959; Rpt, Col Charles R. Angel, MSC, Ch, MAS, MSC, sub: Development of Nuclear Science Within the MSC, undated (1976), DASG-MS.

106Chiropody: MSC Newsletters, November 1958 and April 1959; THU, AEB for 1958 MSC History Project; SG Conferences, 19 Mar and 30 Jul 56 and 28 Mar 61; C.R. Brantingham, "Military Chiropody Today," Military Medicine 121 (July 1956): 33.

107First podiatrist: "Balm for Sore Feet," Army-Navy Register 78 (9 March 1957): 6; 1st Lt J.C. Charlton, Jr., MSC, draft section, sub: Podiatry, 1958 MSC History Project, MSC-USACMH.

108Audiology: Fact sheet, OTSG, sub: Audiologists and the United States Army, Jul 71, MSC­USACMH. Numbers: DASG-RMM, Fiscal Year Rpts, FY 1959-1967, DASG-MS.

109Entomology: THU, AEB for 1958 MSC History Project; Rpt, MSC, sub: Educational Status of Entomologists, 15 Jun 54; MSC Newsletter, June 1962; Col Ralph W. Bunn, MSC, and Col Joseph E. Webb, Jr., MSC, draft section, sub: Entomology, 1958 MSC History Project, DASG-MS.

110Psychology: MSC Newsletter, December 1961; SG Conference, 4 Mar 57; Unpublished paper, Harold D. Rosenheim, Ph.D., sub: A History of the Uniformed Clinical Psychologist in the U.S. Army, presented at the American Psychological Association meeting in Montreal, 2 Sep 80, hereafter cited as Rosenheim, History of the Uniformed Psychologist, and Rosenheim to Ginn, 18 Sep 84; Address, Col Charles A. Thomas, MSC, Ret., sub: Contributions of and Challenges Faced by AMEDD Psychology: 1950's-1970's, 1982 AMEDD Psychology Symposium, 14-19 November 1982, Dwight David Eisenhower Army Medical Center, hereafter cited as Thomas, Contributions by AMEDD Psychology, all in DASG-MS. Hatfield: SG Conference, 16 April 58. Graduate program: "Psychology Students Sought by the Army," Army-Navy Register 77 (28 July 1956): 4.

111Hedlund: Rosenheim, History of the Uniformed Psychologist; Thomas, Contribution, by AMEDD Psychology.

112Social work: Col Harry W. Adams, MSC, and Lt Col Ralph W. Morgan, MSC, draft chapter, sub: Social Work, 1958 MSC History Project, MSC-USACMH; MSC Newsletters, April 1959, October 1960, and July 1961. Quoted words: Lt Col William S. Rooney, MSC, Ret., to Ginn, 22 Feb 85, DASG-MS.


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113Sanitary engineers: Address, Lt Col Stanley J. Weidenkopf, MSC, Prev Med Div, OTSG, sub: Sanitary Engineers in the Army Medical Service, to the Subcommittee on Personnel and Training, Sanitary Engineering and Environment, NAS-NRC, Washington, D.C., 18 May 54, DASG-MS; MSC Manpower, 31 December 1961; MSC Newsletters, 16 October 1963 and January 1959, DASG-MS; OTSG, draft Administrative Letter 1-15, sub: Management Improvement, 17 Aug 62, RG 112, accession 66C-3260, Box 35, NARA-WNRC; SG Conference, 10 Jan 64. Founders: Cols. Ralph R. Cleland, Raymond J. Karpen, Fenner H. Whitely, and Stanley J. Weidenkopf; Lt. Cols. Floyd L. Berry, Robert G. McCall, and Marlo E. Smith; and Maj. John Redmond, MSC.

114Pakistan: Rpt, 1st Lt Alfred D. Kneessy, MSC, sub: East Pakistan Relief Action, 37th Med Co (Preventive Medicine) (Separate), EUSA, Korea, Aug-Sep 54; Kneessy to Col Earl J. Herndon, MSC, 16 Aug 83, DASG-MS; Robert Littell, "Air Lift Against Disaster," Readers Digest (January 1955): 7-10; THU, "A Challenge to the Army Medical Service, Medical Technicians Manual Supplement," U.S. Armed Forces Medical Journal 6 (July-August 1955): 139-42; Cable, Iskander Mirza to Sec State, 30 Sep 54, DASG-MS.

115Meeting: 1959 Sanitary Engineering Rpt, p. 176, quoted words, pp. 25, 30.

116Enlisted optometrists: Lt Col Robert T. Gmelin, MSC, Ret., to Ginn, 31 Jul 85, and phone conversation with Ginn, 23 Dec 85; Col John T. Leddy, MSC, Ch, Optometry Sec, to Ginn, 12 Feb 88; Speech, Lt Col John W. Sheridan, MSC, Ch, Optometry Sec, sub: Military Optometry, undated (late 1950s), all in DASG-MS.

117Commissioning: SG Conferences, 14 Feb 55 and 2 Jul 56; DA Cir 600-12; DF, Black to TSG, sub: Status of Optometrists, 14 Feb 55, hereafter cited as Black, Optometrists, 1955; Chronological rpt, OTSG, sub: Brief History of Optometrists as Commissioned Officers, undated (1971), folder 63, box 5/18, MSC-USACMH.

118Hays' views: SG Conference, 22 Jan 58.

119Optometry: Black, Optometrists, 1955; SG Conferences, 19 May 58 and 22 Aug 61; Rpt, Office of the Quartermaster General, sub: In Process Review on Eye Protection, 15 Nov 62, RG 112, accession 69A-0127, Box 10/32, NARA-WNRC; MSC Newsletters, September 1956 and October 1963; MSC Manpower, 31 December 1961; Speech, Capt George B. Coyle, MSC, sub: The History of Army Optometry, 8 Nov 65, folder 58, box 5/18, MSC-USACMH. Meeting: Rpt, WRAIR, sub: Current Trends in Military Optometry, June 63, folder 57, box 5/18, MSC­USACMH.

120Quoted words: Peyton to Col Gene Quinn, MSC, 26 May 59, MSC-USACMH.

121MSC success: Col Seth O. Croft, MSC, Ret., Battle Creek, Mich., to Hamrick, 6 Sep 60, MSC-USACMH.

122Quoted words: Peyton to Quinn, MSC, 26 May 59, MSC-USACMH.

123Generalization: Aabel, Today's MSC.

124Quoted words: Col Roy Maxwell, MSC, in MSC Newsletter, July 1961.

125Physicians: A point made by Paul Starr in The Social Transformation of American Medicine, p. 178.

126Administrators: James R. McGibony, "Medical Administration: Quo Vadis?" Military Surgeon 112 (May 1953): 325-27.