U.S. Army Medical Department, Office of Medical History
Skip Navigation, go to content

HISTORY OF THE OFFICE OF MEDICAL HISTORY

AMEDD BIOGRAPHIES

AMEDD CORPS HISTORY

BOOKS AND DOCUMENTS

HISTORICAL ART WORK & IMAGES

MEDICAL MEMOIRS

AMEDD MEDAL OF HONOR RECIPIENTS External Link, Opens in New Window

ORGANIZATIONAL HISTORIES

THE SURGEONS GENERAL

ANNUAL REPORTS OF THE SURGEON GENERAL

AMEDD UNIT PATCHES AND LINEAGE

THE AMEDD HISTORIAN NEWSLETTER

Military Personnel

Annual Report of the Surgeon General United States Army Fiscal Year 1961

MILITARY PERSONNEL

Officer Authorizations and Strengths

There were slight increases in the authorizations for active-duty Medical Corps (3,580 to 3,592), Dental Corps (1,834 to 1,849), and Army Medical Specialist Corps (410 to 425) officers in fiscal year 1961 as compared to fiscal year 1960. The 400 authorization for the Veterinary Corps and the 3,490 authorization for the Medical Service Corps remained unchanged from fiscal year 1960. The ANC authorization of 3,390 in fiscal year 1960 was decreased to 3,275 in fiscal year 1961. This decrease is not a reflection of a lessened requirement for ANC officers, but rather a conclusion that the authorization should mirror availability of the ANC officers. The projected picture of availability of nurses in the Army is a bleak one, but this problem of sufficient numbers of professional nurses is not confined to the military, since it is a problem confronting the country as a whole. Table 11 shows the authorized and actual strengths of the various AMEDS corps at the end of fiscal years 1960 and 1961. (It should be noted that the officer strengths, as cited in this section, are based on statistical data as maintained in the Office of The Surgeon General and do not necessarily


97

coincide with the figures published by The Adjutant General's Office for any particular reporting period.)

By Presidential action in March 1961, the interim ceiling of 39,600 on the authorized strength of the Regular Army officer corps (male and WAC) was removed. The authorized strength is flow 49,500 (male and WAC). This change in the authorized strength of the Regular Army has resulted in changes of the Regular Army AMEDS corps (table 12).

TABLE 11.—Authorized and actual strength of AMEDS officers, by corps, fiscal years 1960 and 1961

Corps

Authorized strength

Actual strength

30 June 1960

30 June 1961

30 June 1960

30 June 1961

Medical

3,580

3,592

3,644

3,623

Dental

1,834

1,849

1,747

1,781

Veterinary

400

400

404

400

Medical Service

3,490

3,490

3,478

3,430

Army Nurse

3,390

3,275

3,314

13,244

Army Medical Specialist

410

425

418

423

    

Total

13,104

13,031

13,005

12,901

1Excludes 49 officers participating in Registered Nurse and Army Student Nurse Program.

TABLE 12.—Regular Army authorizations and strength of the Army Medical Service, by corps, 30 June 1961

Corps

Authorized strength under interim ceiling1

Current authorization

Actual strength projected to 30 June 19511

Medical

2,206

2,250

1,780

Dental

692

875

548

Veterinary

170

250

163

Medical Service

1,612

2,000

1,496

Army Nurse

2,500

(2)

1,104

Army Medical Specialist

350

(2)

179

1Excludes general officers.

2No change.


98 

Accessions to the Regular Army are controlled gains which consider annual gains and losses, authorization, requirements for specialists, and other factors which are instrumental in providing for a balanced structure. There were moderate gains in the Medical Corps and the Medical Service Corps in fiscal year 1961, and little or no change in the Dental, Veterinary, and Army Medical Specialist Corps as compared to actual strengths at the end of fiscal year 1960. The Regular Army Nurse Corps experienced a net decrease of 90 during the year, and this decrease was part of the decline in ANC strength as mentioned previously.

Medical Corps.—Manpower requirements are determined annually and availability of specialists is projected for a 5-year period to provide guidance for procurement and training objectives. Requirements do not change significantly, as a general rule, from year to year. The projected availability is one of the basic considerations in determining inputs from the Berry plan and the Army residency program. The variances between current requirements and projected strengths as shown in table 13 are due to variable factors which can be adjusted to some degree from year to year. In some of those instances where strengths exceed requirements, heavy losses at the end of the fiscal year will bring these two elements into approximation. The resignation rate for fiscal year 1961 of the Regular Army Medical Corps increased to 3.4 percent from a 1.8-percent rate in fiscal year 1960.

Dental Corps.—The fact that the Regular Army Dental Corps did not manifest a net increase during the year was due, in part, to losses. The resignation of those former interns who were required to become Regular Army dental officers in order to participate in the internship program more than offset gains to the corps. The impact of the resignations of these former interns can be seen in the fact that the resignation rate of the Regular Army Dental Corps increased to 4.4 percent from a 1.8-percent rate in fiscal year 1960.

Medical Service Corps.—The net increase in the Regular Army MSC strength was due partly to the fact that mandatory and voluntary retirements were not yet an expressive portion of total losses annually. Resignations during the year were, for the most part, from among officers qualified in specialties other than those in the Pharmacy, Supply, and Administration Section. The serious shortage in such specialties as clinical psychology, clinical laboratory, nuclear medical science, and sanitary engineering which was evident in fiscal year 1960 was confined to nuclear medical science in fiscal year 1961. Some progress is being made in procuring and training nuclear medical


99

TABLE 13.—Actual and projected strengths of, and estimated requirements for, Army Medical Corps specialists (board certified and board eligible), fiscal years 1961 and 1962

science officers as reflected by an increase in strength from 12 in fiscal year 1959 to 19 in fiscal year 1961.

Army Nurse Corps.—The Army Student Nurse Program continued to be a vital procurement vehicle for the Army Nurse Corps. Army Student Nurse Program participants represented 0.8 percent of the total gains to the Army Nurse Corps in fiscal year 1957; 44.7 percent in fiscal year 1959; and 70.2 percent in fiscal year 1961. Although gains from the Army Student Nurse Program have increased annually since


100

inception of the program, these gains have not been in sufficient numbers to offset losses and the ANC numerical strength is declining in a steady pattern.

The strength of 250 male ANC officers on duty as of 30 June 1961 was slightly higher than the strength of 228 at the end of fiscal year 1960 and that of 219 at the end of fiscal year 1959. The 30 June 1961 numerical strength of the male ANC officers represented 7.6 percent of the total ANC numerical strength.

Army Medical Specialist Corps.—The Army Medical Specialist Corps continues almost wholly dependent on its procurement education programs to maintain its strength. The fiscal year 1961 AMSC (Army Medical Specialist Corps) procurement figure of 55 officers included 48 students and 7 qualified officers. Procurement reflects the national shortage of dietitians, physical therapists, and occupational therapists compounded by the increasing demand for their services; national organizations do not anticipate relief in the foreseeable future. The AMSC yearend strength of 423 included a 7-percent shortage of dietitians and a 6-percent shortage of occupational therapists. These shortages had an adverse effect on services to patients throughout the year. The male strength of the Corps on 30 June 1961 was 24-3 dietitians, 15 physical therapists, and 6 occupational therapists.

Warrant Officer Program.—In fiscal year 1960, MOS 3506 (field medical assistant) and MOS 4490 (medical supply officer) were discontinued. The impact of this action on the Medical Service Corps became more pronounced in fiscal year 1961. With the deletion of these two MOS’s from the warrant officer career field, procedures were initiated to change TD’s and TOE’s in order to reflect the actual need in these two fields.

Officer Procurement

A total of 173 medical interns from among 328 applicants were matched against 182 fiscal year 1961 Army intern training spaces. This shortage of nine interns in the matching process was not due to the lack of applicants ranking the Army within their top references, but rather to the reluctance of the selection committee to rank applicants who did not fully qualify under the criteria established for intern training and Regular Army appointment. The nine intern training spaces were subsequently filled from among qualified applicants who obtained releases from hospitals with whom they were matched, or from applicants who did not participate in the National Intern Matching Program. Of the 182 interns entering the program on 7 July 1960, 56


101

were participants in the Army Senior Medical Student Program. A total of 367 applications were received during fiscal year 1961 for the 182 spaces authorized for the fiscal year 1962 program. This represents an increase of 39 applications over the number received during the previous year’s program. Of those interns matched with the Army for the fiscal year 1962 program, 64 are Senior Medical Student Program participants, and 2 are USMA graduates, on excess leave to attend medical school, who had also participated in the fiscal year 1961 Senior Medical Student Program.

For the fiscal year 1961 Senior Medical Student Program, 199 applications were received, and 72 were selected to enter the program in September 1960 (2 of this number were USMA graduates on excess leave to attend medical school) During fiscal year 1961, 183 applications were received for the fiscal year 1962 program starting in September 1961; 73 were selected (3 of this number are USMA graduates). Participants in the Excess Leave Program may now apply during their junior year of medical school for participation in the Army Senior Medical Student Program and, if accepted, will be entitled to full pay and allowances during their senior year. Participation in the Senior Medical Student Program carries a 3-year active-duty obligation following internship.

A slight increase was noted in the number of applications received during fiscal year 1961 for participation in the Clinical Clerkship Training Program for fiscal year 1962. The number selected to participate,

however, was somewhat lower than the preceding year. This again is due to the reluctance of the selection committee to select unqualified applicants just for the sake of filling authorized spaces.

The Berry plan continued to be the prime source of procurement for the Medical Corps, Army Reserve. Approximately 90 percent of the fiscal year 1961 procurement authorization, in both specialists and general medical officers, was obtained from this source. A total of 50 board-eligible physicians available for active duty in the specialties of dermatology, pediatrics, ophthalmology, urology, and anesthesiology were surplus to active-duty requirements and were given the option either transferring to another military department, with requirements for their services on active duty, or serving actively in the Ready Reserve. The problem of overages will be a continuing one, since the services must compute, as accurately as possible, their requirements for specialists, approximately 3 or 4 years before these officers are to report for active duty. In the interim, some of the following factors variables are at work: (1) Revision of the strength of the Armed


102

Forces; (2) geographic redistribution of troops; (3) expansion or consolidation of the hospital system; (4) entry of specialists into a military career (that is, Regular Army Medical Corps); and (5) voluntary extension of tours of active duty by Reserve officers.

The Army anticipates an overage of approximately 104 physicians deferred under the Berry plan who are available for active duty during fiscal year 1962. These physicians have completed residency training in obstetrics and gynecology, urology, orthopedic surgery, dermatology, pediatrics, neurology, ophthalmology, and radiology. All of them were informed of this overage early in fiscal year 1961 and were given the option of either transferring to the Department of the Air Force or the U.S. Public Health Service, who have requirements for their services, or they could affiliate themselves with a TOE or TD Reserve unit, in order to fulfill their military obligation.

No problems were encountered in the procurement of dental officers for active duty, or for participation in the Dental Intern Program. A total of 100 applications were received to fill the 28 fiscal year 1961 dental intern training spaces. All active-duty spaces for dentists were filled from volunteers or from participants in the Dental Officer Commissioning Program.

A Medical and Dental Corps Distinguished Military Graduate Excess Leave Program was approved by the Department of the Army, and the provisions therefor were published in AR 601-112, dated 17 May 1961. This program is to be administered similarly to the Excess Leave Program authorized for USMA graduates, with the exception that 2 years’ active duty is not required prior to placement in an excess leave status. Distinguished military graduates of the ROTC (Reserve Officers’ Training Corps) may be appointed in the Medical Service Corps, Regular Army, upon graduation from premedical or predental school and granted excess leave without pay and allowances for the purpose of completing medical or dental school. Upon fulfillment of requirements of AR 601-124, these officers may be reappointed in the Medical or Dental Corps, Regular Army. This program is separate from the personnel procurement program for the Medical and Dental Corps announced in AR 601-107, which remains in effect. Distinguished military graduates may apply under either program.

During fiscal year 1961, the input into the Veterinary Corps, Army Reserve, was a total of 101 officers against a procurement quota of 105. The quota was an increase over the fiscal year 1960 procurement objective of 66 officers. Of the number of veterinarians brought to duty during fiscal year 1961, 20 were 1961 graduates of approved schools of veterinary medicine, who were brought to duty prior to 30 June 1961,


103

in an attempt to meet the yearend strength of the Veterinary Corps. During fiscal year 1961, Regular Army VC accessions were 12.

Direct procurement for officers of the Pharmacy, Supply, and Administration Section of the Medical Service Corps was restricted during fiscal year 1961 to a limited voluntary call to active duty for Reserve  component officers and to a limited program for direct appointment the Regular Army Medical Service Corps. Only 14 officers were obtained for the Section during this fiscal year. The balance of annual requirement for the Pharmacy, Supply, and Administration Section was filled from ROTC graduates. Direct procurement was primarily directed toward those non-ROTC graduates who possessed technical or professional background not available for participants in the ROTC program. Prior to the beginning of fiscal year 1961, it was anticipated that vacancies would exist in the specialties of podiatry, social work, and optometry. However, before the fiscal year 1961 program was announced in DA Circular 601-3, dated 15 September 1960, spaces for these three specialties were filled and were omitted from the circular prior to publication. Direct procurement quotas were essentially filled, except those of clinical psychology and some of the specialties included within the scope of medical laboratory officer.

The input of officers into the Regular Army Medical Service Corp was below that of the last few years. This was due to the restricted number of spaces in all but the current year groups (1960 and 1961). Fiscal year 1959 and earlier groups are being considered filled, and only an occasional outstanding officer in those year groups was approved during the past fiscal year.

During the fiscal year 1961, a USAR (Army Reserve) Warrant Officer Program was initiated, and 10 spaces were authorized for the appointment of qualified enlisted men as USAR warrant officers, with concurrent call to active duty as medical equipment maintenance officers (MOS 4890). Three of these spaces were filled. Approved applicants are required to serve a minimum of 3 years on active duty.

Total applications for the Army Student Nurse Program decreased during fiscal year 1961, and only 219 of the 250 vacancies were filled. Inability to interest an adequate number of qualified applicants this year means fewer nurses will be entering the AMEDS hospitals from this source during fiscal year 1962. This program provided 70.2 percent of the nurse personnel entering upon active duty in fiscal year 1961.

Changes No. 3, to AR 601-19, dated 16 December 1960, affected those student nurses, selected for participation in the program, who were in attendance at schools of nursing which grant degrees to 4-year


104

students. The program remains unchanged for student nurses enrolled in 3-year hospital schools. Revision of the program for baccalaureate participants provided payment of tuition, books, and incidental fees for up to 24 months; enlistment in grade E-1, with promotion to E-2 and E-3 after appropriate time in grade; and appointment and active duty as a second lieutenant, ANC-USAR, 6 months prior to graduation. Assignment to the 8-A-C20-C ANC Officer Basic Orientation Course and Army hospitals is made upon completion of State board of nursing examinations.

Of the ANC officers reporting to Brooke Army Medical Center for orientation in fiscal year 1961, 243 had participated in the Army Student Nurse Program; 70 were direct appointments with active duty; 9 were from the Registered Nurse Student Program; and 1 was a transfer from another military service. Of those assigned directly to the hospitals, 23 were ANC-USAR officers returning to active duty. While procurement results indicate a gain of 47 more nurses assigned to Army hospitals in fiscal year 1961 than in fiscal year 1960, a rise in the number of losses has offset gains by approximately 55. Forty-four ANC Regular Army applications were received during fiscal year 1961, or eight less than received during fiscal year 1960.

Procurement for the Army Medical Specialist Corps did not meet requirements. On 30 June 1961, there was a shortage of 12 dietitians and 5 occupational therapists with authorizations of 175 and 80, respectively. A higher than anticipated retention rate, the result of intensive internal procurement, was a partial solution to the problem.

Seven qualified AMSC officers came on duty during fiscal year 1961—one dietitian, three physical therapists, and three occupational therapists. Of the previously procured students, 43 entered the Army in August 1960-19 dietetic interns, 17 physical therapy students, and 7 occupational therapy clinical affiliates. In addition, 5 dietetic interns entered training in March 1961, bringing the AMSC gain to 55 officers. The gain was offset by a loss of 53 officers.

Student procurement did not produce the number of applicants necessary to insure the degree of selectivity desired or the desired numbers of physical and occupational therapy students. A total of 22 dietetic interns, 13 physical therapy students, and 3 occupational therapy clinical affiliates have been selected to enter training in August 1961; 22 dietitian, 16 physical therapy, and 8 occupational therapy students are programmed for the fall of 1961; and 6 dietitian and 4 occupational therapy students are programed for March 1962.

Army Medical Specialist Corps undergraduate student procurement programs were increasingly effective. The civilian student programs,


105

however, lost some of their effectiveness because of a DCSPER decision which required the utilization of a civilian-employee space for each civilian student taken into the program.

Nineteen qualified junior or senior college students were enlisted in the WAC (Women’s Army Corps) to participate in the Student Dietitian Program, bringing the number on duty to 23 on 30 June 1961. Of these, 12 will enter the dietetic internship in August 1961 and are included in the aforementioned August 1961 class. Of the 24 in the fiscal year 1961 class of dietetic interns, 10 had participated in this student program.

Officer Promotions

Promotion Policies remained unchanged during the year. All zones of consideration for the temporary promotion of AMEDS officers continued to be identical with those established for the APL (Army Promotion List) with two exceptions. Selections for promotion to the grade of captain could still be made 18 months earlier than provided by the APL in the Veterinary Corps and in the Medical Service Corps (in the case of those with a Ph. D. in a science allied to medicine).

Selections for temporary promotion to grades of major and lieutenant colonel in the Medical and Dental Corps were continued on a “fully qualified” basis. Selections for the grade of major in the Army Nurse and Army Medical Specialist Corps were made on a “best qualified” basis, and for the grade of captain in these corps on a “fully qualified” basis. Selections for all other grades were made on a “best qualified” basis, with the selection rates governed by those established for the APL.

The Surgeon General continued the policy of advancing medical and dental officers when they attain the professional experience required for promotion to higher grades. These officers were considered for temporary advancement to the grades of captain, major, and lieutenant colonel upon completion of 1, 10, and 17 years of experience, respectively, subsequent to graduation from medical or dental school.

An AMSC officer was promoted to the permanent grade of colonel for the first time. Two AMSC Reserve officers were selected for promotion to the grade of lieutenant colonel, another first as a result of Public Law 86-559.


106

AMEDS Corps Activities

Medical Corps

Career planning.—Increased emphasis has been placed on career planning in an effort to realize the full potential of each medical officer. Advanced assignment planning has permitted the scheduling of more officers for attendance at military schools and the selection for assignments appropriate to individual capabilities. Career patterns have been published depicting the following various specialty areas:

Research and development, clinical, command and staff, preventive medicine, and aviation medicine. These patterns have been reproduced and are included in each officer’s career planning folder for guidance in determining the type of assignment or training that an officer should have.

Papers published during this fiscal year in The Surgeon General’s technical bulletin brought pertinent information regarding career management to the attention of the officers in the field. Fact sheets pertaining to aviation, airborne, and preventive medicine were also prepared for inclusion in a brochure for officers coming on active duty.

Assignments are being carefully planned in order to obtain more Regular Army officers as general medical officers. Upon completion of a general practice residency, an officer is assigned to an installation where he will work closely with specialists in several clinical areas, thus providing utilization of the training received and effecting an economy of highly trained personnel. Should these officers desire additional training, consideration is given to training in preventive and aviation medicine, and duty with airborne units, since each of these programs is complementary to the general clinical background already attained. Assignment problems within the various specialties of the Medical Corps continued to be facilitated as an ever-increasing number of medical officers receive certification by American specialty boards. During this fiscal year, 57 such certifications were awarded, bringing to 531 the total number of Regular Army medical officers certified. The following lists the specialties in which these 57 officers are certified:

 

 Number of officers

Anesthesiology

1

Anatomic pathology

1

Anatomic and clinical pathology

6

Cardiovascular disease                            

1

Dermatology

1

Gastroenterology

2

Internal medicine

4

Neurosurgery

2

Neurology

1

Obstetrics and gynecology

5

Orthopedic surgery

5

Otolaryngology

2

Pediatrics

8

Pulmonary disease

1

Psychiatry

2

Radiology (nuclear medicine)

7

Surgery

7

Urology

1

The shortage of officers in the preventive medicine field has been alleviated somewhat by graduates of the Preventive Medicine Orientation Course (8-A-F11); 15 officers completed this training during the year. A shortage continues to exist, however, among career officers, and this will be alleviated when additional career reservists have received training in preventive medicine.

As a nonroutine function, the Medical Corps Branch, OTSG, was given responsibility in connection with Project Mercury, with the chief of that Branch becoming The Surgeon General’s representative for this project. Forty-five officers and enlisted men of the Army Medical Service have been selected for participation in support of the project; designated individuals are placed on temporary duty at the request of the DOD representative for each “shoot.”

As a means of continuing to support STRAC, the best available key designees for positions of the commanding officer, as well as surgical and medical chiefs of service, have been selected. A study was begun near the end of the year (not yet completed) to determine a better distribution of filler personnel to enable STRAC units to be activated without further shift of personnel to replace those accompanying STRAC units. Each situation which has entailed employment of STRAC forces in the past year has resulted in a variation of the published plan and/or movement of replacement personnel. Coordination among Directorate elements concerned was effected and a plan approved by the Director, Personnel and Training, for full-time staff­ing by medical officers of certain STRAF units as qualified personnel become available. The units to be staffed are all tactical and tactical support units and hospital units as follows:

5th Evacuation Hospital, Fort Bragg.

36th Evacuation Hospital, Fort Meade.

3d Field Hospital, Fort Benning.

7th Field Hospital, Fort Knox.

12th Field Hospital, Fort Leonard Wood.

15th Field Hospital, Fort Bragg.


108

47th Field Hospital, Fort Sam Houston.

51St Field Hospital, Fort Lewis.

2d Surgical Hospital (MA), Fort Bragg.

7th Surgical Hospital (MA), Fort Jackson.

Assignments.—During the year, an alltime high of 1,807 officers were on duty in the Regular Army Medical Corps; at the end of the year, 1,780 were on duty. Of the present number, 531 are board-certified and 515 are board-qualified officers. Thirty-six officers were awarded the “A” prefix to their MOS and a certificate of achievement in their specialty, making a total of 83 holding this award.

There continued to be a shortage of qualified officers in certain specialties. This was especially true in command and staff, otolaryngology, and preventive medicine.

Assignment problems were complicated by the nonavailability of officers to attend military schools, work required for the projection of assignments, and correspondence relating to the movement of individuals to insure proper staffing at all installations. Many problems are generated by the large number of Reserve officers (2-year obligated volunteer) in the corps, most of whom (85 percent) enter active duty during the first quarter of each fiscal year. A particularly heavy workload results during the first and fourth fiscal quarters.

Training.—With the increasing retention of Regular Army medical officers, some training spaces in the professional areas have been reduced, and more emphasis is now being placed on military training. Changes in the program of military career training in schools of the arms and services have eliminated the company and advance levels of training in favor of a single branch career course. During the year, the Medical Service Center Course was changed to 34 weeks. The first class under the revised program will begin in September 1961. Every attempt is being made to motivate the young medical officer to accept military education.

The AMEDS Orientation Course (8-A-C20A) is attended at the beginning of the officer’s military service. Officers are selected to attend the AMEDS Officer Career Course (8-A-C22) following specialty training and their initial professional assignment to qualify for board examination in a particular specialty. Attendance at the Military Medicine and Allied Sciences Course (8-A-F6) is recommended for those entering the research and development field, or those who possess aptitude in teaching. Preference is given to officers who have completed the career course and have demonstrated aptitude during their postresidency assignment. Those desiring advanced military training may be selected to attend the Regular or Associate Courses at the Command and General Staff College. Limited quotas are avail-


109

able for attendance at the senior service colleges. Table 15 contains a list of the schools and courses which medical officers attended during fiscal year 1961.

Policies.—The policy regarding the award of “A” prefix was altered by the present classification board, and this prefix is no longer authorized for Reserve component officers not on active duty.

A policy was established by the Department of the Army to include a movement designator code in all PCS (permanent change of station) orders.

Medical Service Corps

PCS restrictions.—The DA policy, governing PCS moves which prohibited intra-CONUS moves unless officers concerned had been at their CONUS stations for at least 2 years, and the restrictions imposed, owing to PCS fund limitations, caused a considerable number of moves to be postponed until the beginning of fiscal year 1962. The net result was a slight shortage at CONUS stations and some difficulty in providing the best qualified personnel to fill vacancies as they arose.

Oversea authorizations for MSC officers increased by approximately 130 over fiscal year 1960, thus contributing further to a reduction in the timespan between oversea tours. This timespan is approximately

24 months in the case of company grade officers, and from 36 to 48 months in the case of field grade.

MOS shortages.—The constant turnover of pharmacists and optometrists created problems of shortage which were largely met by the end of fiscal year 1961. Improvement continued to be made in procurement of sanitary engineers and clinical psychologists. New problems arose due to losses of experienced medical supply and personnel officers. Training of medical supply officers continued in a formal course, but on-the-job training was discontinued. Increased emphasis was placed upon selection of officers for personnel and registrar career fields.

Publication of career patterns.—During this past year, career patterns (graphic presentations of the progression pattern in specific functional areas) were published for the psychology, aviation, and nuclear medical science career fields. This completed the program of establishing definite progression patterns for each of the 17 MSC career fields. A consolidated pattern, covering all 17 fields, was also prepared for publication in a DA pamphlet on officer career management.

Career field identification.—A program was initiated to conduct a periodic review of the personnel records of all career officers to insure proper career field identification and career progression planning. Upon review of the records, MOS and career field classification is confirmed or changed, as indicated. A personal letter is then sent to


110

the officer which provides him with an explanation of the progression pattern in his particular field. During the year, all officers in the following career fields were covered: Registrar, personnel, hospital administrator, medical operations and training, supply, and entomology.

AMEDS Personnel Management Course.—During the period of 5-9 June, the Medical Service Corps and WO Branch, Military Personnel Division, OTSG, conducted a course of instruction for approximately 50 AMEDS personnel officers at WRAIR. The course was attended by the personnel directors of all AMEDS class II activities, CONUS Army and oversea surgeons’ offices, and selected class I activities.

Reclassification actions.—Of the MOS reclassification actions taken, 893 were on commissioned officers and 20 on AMEDS warrant officers. Proficiency prefix letters were awarded to 61 officers in the Medical Allied Sciences and Sanitary Engineering Sections as follows: A, 2; B, 19; C, 18; and D, 22. In order to distinguish between the medical physiologist and the psychophysiologist, the qualifications of all officers with MOS 3327, physiologist, were reviewed, and those who were actually psychologist/physiologists were reclassified to 4-2230, research psychologists.

Training of nuclear medical science officers.—In anticipation of a known fiscal year 1963 increase in the requirement for nuclear medical science officers (3308), steps were taken to train additional officers in the specialty. One officer was entered in the U.S. Navy Nuclear Engineer (Effects) Training Course at Monterey, Calif., and one was enrolled in the Radiation Biology Course at the University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y., in fiscal year 1961. Six other officers were selected and enrolled in courses to start in early fiscal year 1962—one for Ph. D. training in nuclear engineering at the University of North Carolina State College of Agriculture and Engineering, at Raleigh; two for M.S. training in radiation biology at the University of Rochester; and three for M.S. training in radiation biology at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

Army Nurse Corps

Authorization, changes, and related factors.—The authorization for ANC personnel through the third quarter was 3,390; this was reduced to 3,275 in the fourth quarter. The strength of the corps dropped from 3,314 on 1 July 1960 to 3,293 on 30 June 1961 (including 49 early appointments in the Army Student Nurse Program and participants in the Registered Nurse Student Program). Distribution of the reduction of 105 spaces, made during the fourth quarter, was as follows: A reduction of 40 spaces in class II installations, 7 in USAREUR, 4 in USARPAC, 1 in USARCARIB, 49 in CONUS Army area facilities, 2


111

at Sandia Base, and 2 at USMA. Inactivation of the U.S. Army Hospital, Camp Hanford, Wash., resulted in a reduction of 10 ANC spaces.

Retirements.—There were, during the year, 57 mandatory and 49 voluntary retirements of Regular Army personnel. There were 34 mandatory retirements of Reserve personnel.

Increased requirements.—Due to the withdrawal of all Navy Nurse Corps spaces from the command, Tripler General Hospital was authorized an increase of 20 spaces in the first quarter. The U.S. Army Hospital, White Sands, N. Mex., was authorized an increase of six spaces in the second quarter, and three additional procurement officer spaces were authorized—one each to First, Second, and Fifth U.S. Armies. Twenty additional spaces were authorized for medical specialists advanced courses. Faculties for courses at Walter Reed, Brooke, Fitzsimons, and Letterman General Hospitals were increased from four to six officers. Additional courses were authorized to be started (two pet year) at Madigan General and Womack Army Hospitals; each is authorized six ANC instructor spaces.

Personnel classification.—Changes No. 1, AR 611-101, dated 27 December 1960, authorized changes in classification of ANC officers; and DA Circular 611-30, dated 6 February 1961, authorized deletion of letter prefixes affixed to Army Nurse Corps MOS’s, pending the revision of AR 611-103. By the end of fiscal year 1961, a review and award of MOS’s under the new criteria had been conducted for approximately 20 percent of ANC officers on active duty, and the review will continue into fiscal year 1962.

The most severe shortage in clinical nursing specialties is in obstetrics and pediatrics. Formal training for young officers in the 2 specialties is conducted at William Beaumont General Hospital, but with a full complement of students, this will prepare only 16 officers per year. Changes to be made in classifications from MOS 3430, nurse administrator, and MOS 3449, nurse, general duty, to clinical nursing MOS’s will be beneficial. Approximately one-third of the nurses now on active duty are awarded MOS 3430 or MOS 3449. In the reclassifications to be made, MOS 3430 will be awarded to fewer than 100 officers, and MOS 3449 will be restricted to newly commissioned officers with little or no prior graduate nursing experience. It is anticipated that a complete review will show that many nurses now classified for administrative or general duty are actually qualified and performing as obstetric and pediatric nurses. The requirements for, and availability of, key ANC officers are shown in table 14.


112

TABLE 14.—Requirements for, and availability of, key ANC officers, worldwide, by title and MOS

Title and MOS

Requirement
(number)

Available
(number)

Army Health Nurse (3431)

75

80

Neuropsychiatric (3437)

172

174

Pediatric (3442)

194

87

Operating Room (3443)

309

310

Anesthesia (3445)

236

235

Obstetrics (3446)

326

192

Personnel Actions

AMEDS (less MSC) officers.—Public Law 86-559 amended certain provisions of ROPA (Reserve Officer Personnel Act) of 1954 as pertain to members of the Army Nurse Corps and the Army Medical Specialist Corps in the permanent Reserve grade of major or below. The act formerly required the release of officers in the grade of captain or lower at the end of the month of attainment of age 50, and the release of majors upon completion of 28 years’ service, which in most instances was age 53. This act now requires the release from active duty of all officers in the Reserve grade of major or below upon completion of 25 years’ service. Of 14 ANC officers qualifying for active-duty retirement during fiscal year 1961 who were eligible for retention on active duty until completion of 28 years’ service, only 8 were eligible for retention following passage of Public Law 86-559. The three officers selected for retention will be relieved from active duty 3 years earlier than the date they would have been released had Public Law 86-559 not been enacted.

MSC officers and warrant officers.—Of 225 MSC officers attaining active-duty retirement eligibility during fiscal year 1961, 16 were selected for retention in the outstanding and other categories; 2 declined retention, and 14 elected to remain on active duty until mandatory release is required under the maximum service provisions of ROPA.

Of 42 warrant officers (AMEDS) attaining active-duty retirement eligibility during fiscal year 1961, 7 were selected for retention; 2 declined retention, and 5 elected to remain on active duty until attaining 30 years and 60 days of active duty or age 62, whichever is earlier.

Early release of medical officers.—In June 1957, the Department of the Army approved an early release policy for Reserve medical officers desiring to accept resident and fellowship positions in civilian institutions.


113

Officers could be released up to 90 days prior to the expiration of their service commitment.

Because of the large numbers of officers requesting early release each year under this program to begin their training on 1 July, which resulted in a critical shortage of medical officers during the summer months, and because of increasing worldwide commitments of the Army Medical Service, it became necessary in November 1960 to discontinue this policy.

Legislation

Legislative actions during fiscal year 1961, which are of particular interest and significance to the various AMEDS corps, are discussed in the following paragraphs:

Authority to command outside AMEDS.—A legislative proposal was initiated in August 1960, as a part of the DOD legislative program for 1961, to amend Section 3579, Title 10, United States Code, to provide authority for officers of the Medical Service Corps to exercise command outside the Army Medical Service when directed by appropriate authority.

The Medical Service Corps was established by Public Law 337, 80th Congress (approved 4 August 1947). Since that time, MSC officer have been assigned in increasing numbers to branch immaterial duties These assignments cover such fields as research and development, supply, intelligence, military assistance advisory groups, military missions, and Army aviation, as well as the Army General Staff. In addition, since the establishment of the Logistics Officer Program by the DA, certain officers of the Medical Service Corps have been approved for participation as logistics officers, and it is anticipated that many others will continue to be nominated for this important career field.

The proposed legislation will permit the Secretary of the Army, when in his opinion such action is necessary, to direct or otherwise authorize an officer of the Medical Service Corps to exercise command

of troops which are not part of the Army Medical Service.

By the end of June 1961, after committee hearings had been held, the proposal was unanimously approved and referred to the floor of the House. Indications were that the amendment would be approved by Congress in early fiscal year 1962.

Organizational changes of the Medical Service Corps.—Based on the Surgeon General’s approval, action was initiated in April 1961 on proposed legislation for the 1962 program (amending Sections 3068, 3210, and 3282, Title 10, United States Code) to strengthen and improve the organization of the Medical Service Corps and to improve the career prospects of officers appointed therein. The proposed


114

legislation would abolish the statutory requirement for sections in the Medical Service Corps and the statutory positions of chief and assistant chiefs of the Medical Service Corps, and would include the Medical Service Corps among the corps of the Army Medical Service permitted to have officers in a regular grade above colonel.

Regular Army commissions for male officers (ANC and AMSC) and removal of other restrictions.—A legislative proposal for the 1962 program was initiated in June 1961 that will amend Sections 3069, 3070, and 3291, Title 10, United States Code, thereby providing for the appointment of males in the Regular Army of the Army Nurse and Army Medical Specialist Corps and, similarly, to remove the requirement that females only may be appointed chief of corps, and assistant chiefs of the Army Medical Specialist Corps.

Enlisted Personnel

Strength.—The authorized strength for enlisted personnel in the 23 medical military occupational specialties was 38,765, of which 1,813 were enlisted women, at the end of the fiscal year. The actual strength was 40,597, including 1,590 enlisted women, making an overstrength of 1,832, of which 1,690 were in a transient status and not chargeable to personnel authorization. The net overstrength, therefore, was only 142. There was a significant shortage of 1,046 medical corpsmen and 160 pharmacy specialists. However, the former was more than offset by an overage of 1,460 of other more highly trained medical specialists, leaving only pharmacy specialists in critically short supply.

Reenlistment program.—The Surgeon General continued to emphasize the importance of retaining qualified medical enlisted personnel in whom valuable training time and funds have been invested. Retention rates have continued to improve. The Surgeon General’s overall command (class II installations and activities) won the fiscal year 1961 award (AR 601-280) for the technical service effecting the greatest improvement in its retention rates. Of those personnel under The Surgeon General’s command, 44 percent reenlisted the day following their discharge, as opposed to only 34 percent in the previous year. Among the career Regular Army soldiers, 91 percent reenlisted; 31 percent of the first-term Regular Army soldiers, 39 percent of the Reserve component soldiers, and 5 percent of the inductees did likewise.

Training at military installations.—A total of 19,320 enlisted personnel participated in 31 training courses conducted at AMEDS facilities during the year. Of the total number trained, 11,791 were active-Army personnel representing new accessions in medical MOS’s to meet increased requirements and to replace losses. Since most


115

personnel attended more than one course the total number of enrollments was 37,578.

U. S. Army Medical Training Center.—A total of 17,452 personnel attended this facility for preservice school and for medical corpsman medical specialist training. This total included 10,582 active-Army personnel and 6,870 RFA personnel who enlisted for 6 months of active-duty training under the Reserve Forces Act of 1955. Of particular significance is the fact that the number of active-Army personnel tending both medical corpsman (MOS 910.0) and medical specialist (MOS 911.1) training increased from 2,387 in the prior year to 4,666 this year, and the number of RFA personnel attending both courses increased from 2,232 to 5,663.

Service school courses.—A total of 4,477 individuals participated in AMEDS school courses during the year, many of whom had just completed preliminary training at the U.S. Army Medical Training Center, Brooke Army Medical Center. Of this total 3,476 were given basic specialist training in an MOS, 824 attended advanced courses, and 177 attended functional-type courses to extend or refresh their knowledge in their present specialty. Of the total number trained, 4,210 students were active-Army personnel, 43 were from Allied nations, 133 were enlistees under the 6-month RFA program, 54 were from units of the Army Reserve and National Guard, and 37 were from other sources. Of the 4,210 active-Army students, 85 percent were Regular Army soldiers who will, in the long run, reduce total training requirements because of their 3-year-or-more active-duty commitment.

Attrition rates.—Attrition rates for most service school courses were significantly higher than they were during the previous year, indicating a need for better selection of students. For the basic specialist courses, it is believed that the higher rates are attributable to the new selection procedures established by AR 611-259. Previously, such students who were sent to the U.S. Army Medical Training Center for preliminary training were evaluated and interviewed by medical personnel during the preliminary training, and then scheduled for the course for which they were best qualified. Under the new procedure implemented in September 1960, personnel must be trained in those courses for which The Adjutant General has selected them, unless they do not meet the specified prerequisites for the course involved. Since sufficient applications were not received to fill requirements for advanced specialist training, it was necessary to accept those personnel who applied, even though some of them were not considered to be well qualified, and as a result, attrition rates rose. Further studies will be conducted relative other causes of attrition and appropriate corrective actions initiated.


116

Changes to service school courses.—The annual training capacity for the Medical Specialist Advanced Course (8-R-911.3)—which was increased from 150 to 350 last year—was further increased to 550 for fiscal year 1962, with the addition of Madigan General and Womack Army Hospitals to the facilities conducting the course. Additionally, the program of instruction for this course was revised, the prerequisites for attendance were changed, and it was shortened from 46 to 40 weeks in length. This course has been widely publicized through several media to encourage attendance by NCO’s (noncommissioned officers) and specialists in an attempt to meet shortages for personnel trained at this level. A need for aggressive recruiting for students will exist during the coming and future years in order to meet requirements for specialists and to qualify technically NCO’s now holding MOS 911.

Because of projected shortages of optical laboratory specialists (MOS 453), a 20-week course (8-R-453.1) was established at the U.S. Army Medical Optical and Maintenance Activity to train 30 personnel every 6 months. Since 45 percent of the first class failed, the prerequisites have been changed to require that all students have high school mathematics in order to attend.

Since the shortage of pharmacy specialists continued to increase, and since induction and training in the Navy’s course could not meet the Army’s needs, a 20-week Pharmacy Specialist Course (8-R-932.2) has been established at the Medical Field Service School to train 144 personnel during the coming year. This course will have an annual capacity of 192 for fiscal year 1963 and thereafter.

Training capacity in the Medical Laboratory Procedures (Advanced) Course (8-R-931.2) has been increased from 40 to 80 students per year for the coming year. The additional 40 personnel will be trained at Brooke, Letterman, and Walter Reed General Hospitals and at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology.

The prerequisites for attendance at the AMEDS NCO (8-R-F10) and Food Inspection Procedures (Basic) (8-R-934.1) courses were revised during the year. The programs of instruction for, and prerequisites for attendance at, the Operating Room Specialist (8-R-913.1), Neuropsychiatric Specialist (8-R-914.1), Clinical Psychology Specialist (8-R-915.1), and Physical Therapy Specialist (8-R-921.1) courses were revised during the year.

Specialized on-the-job training.—Several medical specialties do not lend themselves to formal service school courses, either because of the small number of personnel required in the specialty or because of the specialized personnel and facilities needed to conduct the training.


117

Accordingly, 27 personnel were trained at WRAIR and the Army Medical Research Laboratory to perform the duties of veterinary specialists (MOS 084.1) in medical laboratory facilities. Letterman and Valley Forge General Hospitals trained 11 physical reconditioning specialists (MOS 922.1) and trained 16 occupational therapy specialists (MOS 923.1). Also, one individual was trained as an orthopedic bracemaker (MOS 451.3), and two were trained to fabricate plastic eyes (MOS 002).

Training at civilian institutions.—The Surgeon General continued to sponsor the training of enlisted personnel at civilian educational institutions under the Army’s 2-year college program (AR 350-260). Twenty-five individuals continued training begun in previous years, of which 15 completed training and 1 was eliminated for academic deficiency. Eight new individuals were placed in training during the year, leaving 17 in training at the year’s end. Twenty additional personnel will be placed in training for medical laboratory technology, food technology, and nuclear engineering studies during the coming year. Thirteen enlisted men were trained at civilian institutions in such short courses as specialized crown and bridge work and fabrication of orthopedic appliances. Nineteen individuals attended courses conducted by the U.S. Public Health Service in venereal and other communicable disease control methods.

Classification and assignment.—Studies continued to be conducted as a preliminary to the revision of the veterinary (084), medical (911), pharmacy (932), and food inspection (934) occupational specialties. Final action, however, has not been completed.

Imbalance between noncommissioned officers and specialists.—The overage of NCO’s and shortage of specialists continued to exist in every one of the advance-level medical MOS’s. Consequently, it was necessary to utilize a significant number of NCO’s in specialist positions. Retirements of senior NCO’s during fiscal years 1962 and 1963 are expected to adjust these imbalances.

Status of AMEDS supergrade NCO’s.—There are now 145 sergeants major (E9) positions authorized throughout the Army in the medical specialist MOS (911), and 108 personnel hold this new grade. Additionally, there are 493 first and master sergeants (E8) positions authorized for AMEDS personnel in 9 different MOS’s, and 465 personnel hold this new grade.

Proficiency tests.—The system for testing personnel to determine and evaluate their proficiency in their various specialties continued during the year. The following MOS’s monitored by The Surgeon General were tested: Medical equipment repairman dental laboratory, medical


118

(second), neuropsychiatric, clinical psychology, social work, dental assistant, medical laboratory (third), pharmacy, preventive medicine, food inspection, and X-ray. The remaining medical MOS’s will be tested by 30 May 1962.

Beginning with tests administered during February 1961, all individuals tested who attain a modified Army standard score of 70 on a combination of the MOS test score and the commander’s evaluation score are officially considered to be qualified in their MOS and skill level. Experience with the six medical MOS’s tested since February indicates that most of the individuals failing to qualify on the MOS tests do qualify when the two scores are combined.

Proficiency pay.—Proficiency pay of $30 or $60 per month was authorized under the Military Pay Act of 1958 as an incentive to retain enlisted personnel in specialties requiring long-term technical training and in which the reenlistment rates for first-term Regular Army soldiers are low. Such pay was also authorized for a limited number of personnel who are outstandingly proficient in noncritical specialties. A total of 6,249 AMEDS enlisted personnel are receiving proficiency pay, of which 5,913 receive $30 per month and 336 receive $60 per month. The medical laboratory specialty—for which formal training required for award of the 931.2 level is 70 weeks and for which the first-term Regular Army reenlistment rate is extremely low—is the only medical MOS authorized $60 proficiency pay.